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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2005 Exam

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Part A
Answer all 30 questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Which substances are found on cell surfaces and respond to nerve and hormone signals?
(1) starches and simple sugars
(2) subunits of DNA
(3) vitamins and minerals
(4) receptor molecules
4

2. Which sequence illustrates the increasing complexity of levels of organization in multicellular organisms?
(1) organelle → cell tissue → organ → organ system → organism
(2) cell → organelle → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
(3) organelle → tissue → cell → organ → organ system → organism
(4) cell → organism → organ system → organ → tissue → organelle
1

3. Which statement best describes a scientific theory?
(1) It is a collection of data designed to provide support for a prediction.
(2) It is an educated guess that can be tested by experimentation.
(3) It is a scientific fact that no longer requires any evidence to support it.
(4) It is a general statement that is supported by many scientific observations.
4


4. In one variety of corn, the kernels turn red when exposed to sunlight. In the absence of sunlight, the kernels remain yellow. Based on this information, it can be concluded that the color of these corn kernels is due to the
(1) process of selective breeding
(2) rate of photosynthesis
(3) effect of environment on gene expression
(4) composition of the soil
3

5. Which row in the chart below best describes asexual reproduction?

1

6. The diagram below represents a portion of an organic molecule.

This molecule controls cellular activity by directing the synthesis of
(1) carbohydrates
(2) minerals
(3) fats
(4) proteins
4

7. In the body of a human, the types of chemical activities occurring within cells are most dependent on the
(1) biological catalysts present
(2) size of the cell
(3) number of chromosomes in the cell
(4) kind of sugar found on each chromosome
1

8. The enzyme pepsin is produced in the cells of the stomach but not in the cells of the small intestine. The small intestine produces a different enzyme, trypsin. The reason that the stomach and small intestine produce different enzymes is that the gene that codes for pepsin is
(1) in the cells of the stomach, but not in the cells of the small intestine
(2) expressed in the stomach but not expressed in the small intestine
(3) mutated in the small intestine
(4) digested by the trypsin in the small intestine
2

9. The presence of some similar structures in all vertebrates suggests that these vertebrates
(1) all develop at the same rate
(2) evolved from different animals that appeared on Earth at the same time
(3) all develop internally and rely on nutrients supplied by the mother
(4) may have an evolutionary relationship
4

10. A mutation occurs in the liver cells of a certain field mouse. Which statement concerning the spread of this mutation through the mouse population is correct?
(1) It will spread because it is beneficial.
(2) It will spread because it is a dominant gene.
(3) It will not spread because it is not in a gamete.
(4) It will not spread because it is a recessive gene.
3

11. Which cell process occurs only in organisms that reproduce sexually?
(1) mutation
(2) replication
(3) meiosis
(4) mitosis
3

12. Which factor is least likely to contribute to an increase in the rate of evolution?
(1) presence of genetic variations in a population
(2) environmental selection of organisms best adapted to survive
(3) chromosomal recombinations
(4) a long period of environmental stability
4

13. Researchers Cohn and Boyer transferred a gene from an African clawed frog into a bacterium. To accomplish this, these scientists had to use
(1) enzymes to cut out and insert the gene
(2) hereditary information located in amino acids
(3) radiation to increase the gene mutation rate of the bacterial cells
(4) cancer cells to promote rapid cell division
1

14. The evolutionary pathways of seven living species are shown in the diagram below.


Which two species are likely to have the most similar DNA base sequences?
(1) B and G
(2) E and G
(3) B and C
(4) C and D
4

15. The human brain, kidney, and liver all develop from the same zygote. This fact indicates that cells formed by divisions of the zygote are able to
(1) differentiate
(2) mutate
(3) undergo cloning
(4) be fertilized
1

16. The reproductive cycle of a human is usually regulated by
(1) gametes
(2) hormones
(3) natural selection
(4) immune responses
2

17. Which reproductive structure is correctly paired with its function'?
(1) uterus—usual site of fertilization
(2) testis—usual location for egg development
(3) ovary—delivers nutrients to the embryo
(4) sperm—transports genetic material
4

18. Toxins can harm a developing fetus. They usually enter the fetus by the process of
(1) blood flow from the mother to the fetus
(2) active transport from the ovary
(3) diffusion across placental membranes
(4) recombination of genes from the fetus and mother
3

19. Which statement best describes cellular respiration?
(1) It occurs in animal cells but not in plant cells.
(2) It converts energy in food into a more usable form.
(3) It uses carbon dioxide and produces oxygen.
(4) It stores energy in food molecules.
2

20. Antibody molecules and receptor molecules are similar in that they both
(1) control transport through the cell membrane
(2) have a specific shape related to their specific function
(3) remove wastes from the body
(4) speed up chemical reactions in cells
2

21. The diagram below illustrates the movement of materials involved in a process that is vital for the energy needs of organisms.

The process illustrated occurs within
(1) chloroplasts
(2) mitochondria
(3) ribosomes
(4) vacuoles
1

22. Feedback interactions in the human body are important because they
(1) determine the diversity necessary for evolution to occur
(2) direct the synthesis of altered genes that are passed on to every cell in the body
(3) regulate the shape of molecules involved in cellular communication
(4) keep the internal body environment within its normal range
4

23. The diagram below represents an energy pyramid.

At each successive level from A to D, the amount of available energy
(1) increases, only
(2) decreases, only
(3) increases, then decreases
(4) remains the same
2

24. The purpose of introducing weakened microbes into the body of an organism is to stimulate the
(1) production of living microbes that will protect the organism from future attacks
(2) production of antigens that will prevent infections from occurring
(3) immune system to react and prepare the organism to fight future invasions by these microbes
(4) replication of genes that direct the synthesis of hormones that regulate the number of microbes
3

25.

The feeding niches of three bird species are shown in the diagram below.
What is the advantage of these different feeding niches for the birds?
(1) less competition for food
(2) fewer abiotic resources for each bird species
(3) fewer biotic resources for each bird species
(4) less energy available as the birds feed higher in the tree
1

26. Cutting down a rain forest and planting agricultural crops, such as coffee plants, would most likely result in
(1) a decrease in biodiversity
(2) an increase in the amount of energy recycled
(3) a decrease in erosion
(4) an increase in the amount of photosynthesis
1

27. Which long-term change could directly cause the other three?
(1) pollution of air and water
(2) increasing human population
(3) scarcity of suitable animal habitats
(4) depletion of resources
2

28. Which statement describes all stable ecosystems?
(1) Herbivores provide energy for the autotrophs.
(2) The populations of predators are dependent on the populations of their prey.
(3) The number of autotrophs equals the number of heterotrophs.
(4) Consumers synthesize ATP from light energy
2

29. The graph below shows the number of birds in a population.


Which statement best explains section X of the graph?
(1) Interbreeding between members of this population increased the mutation rate.
(2) An increase in the bird population caused an increase in the producer population.
(3) The population reached a state of dynamic equilibrium due to limiting factors.
(4) Another species came to the area and provided food for the birds.
3

30. Humans have altered ecosystems in many ways. The most positive impact on an ecosystem would result from
(1) planting a single economically valuable crop in a 25-acre area
(2) seeding an area with valuable plants that are from another ecosystem
(3) planting many different plants that are native to the area in a vacant lot
(4) filling in a swamp and planting grass and trees for a community park
3



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part. [10]

Directions (31-40): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31. Some data concerning bird species are shown in the chart below.


Which statement is a valid inference based on information in the chart?
(1) The different species in northern Alaska can interbreed.
(2) There are conditions in Costa Rica that account for greater biodiversity there.
(3) The different species in southwest Texas evolved from those in northern Alaska.
(4) The greater number of species in Costa Rica is due to a greater number of predators there.
2

32. In the diagram below, which structure performs a function similar to a function of the human lungs?

(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
4

33. Which source would provide the most reliable information for use in a research project investigating the effects of antibiotics on disease- causing bacteria?
(1) the local news section of a newspaper from 1993
(2) a news program on national television about antigens produced by various plants
(3) a current professional science journal article on the control of pathogens
(4) an article in a weekly news magazine about reproduction in pathogens
3

34. The Y-chromosome carries the SRY gene that codes for the production of testosterone in humans. Occasionally a mutation occurs resulting in the SRY gene being lost from the Y-chromosome and added to the X-chromosome, as shown in the diagram below.

Based on the diagram, which statement is correct?
(1) The production of testosterone influences the development of male characteristics.
(2) Reproductive technology has had an important influence on human development.
(3) Normal female characteristics develop from a single X-chromosome.
(4) Male characteristics only develop in the absence of X-chromosomes.
1


Base your answers to questions 35 and 37 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology.


35. The greatest difference between the incidence of measles and the incidence of bacterial pneumonia occurred in
(1) 1940
(2) 1950
(3) 1960
(4) 1970
3

36. Which statement best explains a change in the incidence of disease in 1970?
(1) Children were vaccinated against measles.
(2) New drugs cured diabetes.
(3) The bacteria that cause pneumonia developed a resistance to drugs.
(4) New technology helped to reduce the incidence of all three diseases.
1

37. Which statement provides the best possible reason for the decrease in number of cases of bacterial pneumonia from 1940 to 1970?
(1) As a result of genetic engineering, humans became immune to the bacteria.
(2) Antibiotics were made available for the treatment of bacterial infections.
(3) The bacteria did not respond to medical treatments.
(4) As a result of sexual reproduction, the bacteria evolved into a harmless form.
2


Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below of a cell associated with coordination and on your knowledge of biology.


38. Structure X would be involved in the
(1) storage of digestive enzymes
(2) absorption of energy from the Sun
(3) development of pathogens
(4) synthesis of proteins
4

39. Which statement best describes a function of the entire structure shown in the diagram?
(1) It unites with an egg cell during fertilization.
(2) It synthesizes a hormone involved in the control of blood sugar level.
(3) It releases chemicals involved in cellular communication.
(4) It controls the replication of genetic material.
3


40. A food web is shown below.

Which organisms feed on both producers and decomposers?
(1) amphipods
(2) catfish
(3) crayfish
(4) protozoa
4



Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [15]

Directions (41-54): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answer in the spaces provided.

Base your answer to questions 41 through 43 on the graphs below, which show changes in the number of aspen trees the beaver population in an area over a 50-year period.


41. State the relationship that exists between the number of aspen trees and the beaver populations in this region during the first 15 years. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that as the beaver population increases, the number of aspen trees decreases.


42. State one possible reason for the relationship between the aspen tree and the beaver populations. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one possible reason for the relationship. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The beavers use the trees for food.
— This occurs because the beavers use the trees for shelter.
— Beavers use the trees to build dams.


43. Predict how the number of aspen trees would change if a parasite that targets the beaver population were introduced into the area during year 5. Explain your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for predicting how the number of aspen trees would change if a parasite that targets the beaver population were introduced into the area during year 5 and for explaining the prediction. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:

— The parasite might cause a decrease in the beaver population and there would be more aspen trees.

— The number of aspen trees would increase because the parasites would weaken the beavers.

— The parasite might not affect the beaver population and the number of trees would not change.




Base your answers to questions 44 and 47 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
Directions (44-46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on below, following the directions below.

Insecticides are used by farmers to destroy crop-eating insects. Recently, scientists tested several insecticides to see if they caused damage to chromosomes. Six groups of about 200 cells each were examined to determine the extent of chromosome damage after each group was exposed to a different concentration of one of two insecticides. The results are shown in the data table below.

44. Mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled, ‘“Number of Cells with Damaged Chromosomes.” [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Number of Cells with Damaged Chromosomes.”


45.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for methyl parathion correctly, surrounding each point with a small circle and connecting the points.
Note: Points must he circled to receive credit.


46.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for malathion correctly, surrounding each point with a small triangle and connecting the points.
Note: Points must be within the triangles to receive credit.


47. Which insecticide has a more damaging effect on chromosomes? Support your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating that methyl parathion has a more damaging effect on chromosomes and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Methyl parathion; the line on the graph is higher than for malathion.
— At .2 ppm methyl parathion damaged chromosomes in 30 cells and malathion damaged chromosomes in only 11.
— The data table shows more chromosome damage from methyl parathion at every concentration.


48. State one specific way white blood cells help to protect the human body from pathogens. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one specific way white blood cells help to protect the human body from pathogens. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— by engulfing invaders
— by producing antibodies
— by marking invaders for killing
Note: Do not allow credit for simply indicating that white blood cells fight disease.


49. Identity two body systems that help maintain glucose levels in the blood and describe how each system is involved. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each system identified with a correct description of how it is involved in maintaining glucose levels in the blood. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— circulatory-carries insulin from pancreas throughout body
— digestive-absorbs sugar from digested food
— endocrine-make hormones that regulate sugar level



Base your answers to questions 50 and 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.



The three great lakes in Africa (Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) contain a greater number of fish species than any other lakes in the world. Lake Malawi alone has 200 species of cichlid fish. The diversity of cichlid species in these African lakes could have been caused by changes in water level over thousands of years.
According to one hypothesis, at one time the three lakes were connected as one large lake and all the cichlids could interbreed. When the water level fell, groups of cichlids were isolated in smaller lakes as shown in the diagram. Over time, the groups of cichlids developed genetic differences. When the water levels rose again, the isolated populations were brought back into contact. Due to significant genetic differences, these populations were unable to interbreed. Variations in water level over thousands of years resulted in today’s diversity of cichlid species.
50. Which discovery would support this explanation of cichlid diversity?
(1) The water level changed little over time.
(2) The local conditions in each of the small lakes were very different.
(3) Differences between cichlid species are small and interbreeding is possible.
(4) Once formed, the lakes remained isolated from each other.
2

51. As the water level of the lakes changed, many species of cichlids survived while others became extinct. State why some species survived while others became extinct. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating why many species of cichlids survived while others became extinct. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Some species are better adapted to the environment.
— Some species have a greater ability to compete for food or escape predators or breed.
— natural selection


52. Each cichlid population is genetically different from the other cichlid populations. State one reason for these genetic differences. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason for the genetic differences. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— evolution
— meiosis
— sexual reproduction
— recombination during fertilization
— crossing-over
— mutations
— natural selection/ isolation



Base your answers to questions 53 and 54 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

The ice fields off Canada’s Hudson Bay are melting an average of three weeks earlier than 25 years ago. The polar bears are therefore unable to feed on the seals on these ice fields during the last three weeks in spring. Polar bears have lost an average of 10% of their weight and have 10% fewer cubs when compared to a similar population studied just 20 years ago. Scientists have associated the early melting of the ice fields with the fact that the average world temperature is about 0.6°C higher than it was a century ago and this trend is expected to continue.
53. What ecological problem most likely caused the earlier melting of the ice fields in the Hudson Bay area of Canada? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what ecological problem most likely caused the earlier melting of the ice fields in the Hudson Bay area of Canada. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Global warming is most likely responsible.
— greenhouse effect
— too much carbon dioxide in the atmosphere


54. State one specific long-term action that humans could take that might slow down or reduce the melting of the ice fields. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one specific long-term action that humans could take that might slow down or reduce the melting of the ice fields. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— burn less fossil fuel
— replant trees as existing ones are cut down
— limit the number of trees cut down




Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [17]
55. The drugs usually used to treat high blood pressure do not affect blood vessels in the lungs. Bosentan is a new drug being studied as a treatment for high blood pressure in the lungs. In an experiment, patients treated with bosentan showed an improvement in the distance they could walk without fatigue within 12 weeks. Design an experiment to test the effectiveness of bosentan as a drug to treat high blood pressure in the lungs. In your answer be sure to:
• state the hypothesis your experiment will test [1]
• state how the control group will be treated differently from the experimental group [1]
• state two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control groups [1]
• state the type of data that should be collected to determine if the hypothesis is sup- ported [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for designing an experiment to test the effectiveness of bosentan as a drug to treat high blood pressure in the lungs, allocated as follows:
•Allow 1 credit for stating the hypothesis the experiment will test. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Bosentan treatment improves the lung function of people with high blood pressure in the lungs.
— Treatment with bosentan will decrease a patient’s blood pressure in the lungs.
— Treatment with bosentan will increase a patient’s ability to walk without fatigue.
— Bosentan can be used to treat high blood pressure in the lungs.
•Allow 1 credit for stating how the control group will be treated differently from the experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The control group will not receive bosentan.
— The control group will be given a placebo (or sugar pill).
•Allow 1 credit for stating two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— same number of males and females
— similar activities for the 12 weeks
— initial high pulmonary blood pressure
— same size pill, given at the same time
— similar food, sleep time, etc.
— same range of ages
•Allow 1 credit for stating the type of data that should be collected to determine if the hypothesis is supported. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Record the initial pulmonary blood pressure in each group. Once a week record the pulmonary blood pressure of each group.
— See which individuals can walk the longest without fatigue after treatment begins and compare this to how long they could walk without fatigue prior to treatment.


56. Describe one example of diffusion in the human body. In your description be sure to:
• identify the place where diffusion takes place [1]
• identify a substance that diffuses there [1]
• identify where that substance diffuses from and where it diffuses to, at that place [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits allocated as follows:
•Allow 1 credit for identifying a place in the human body where diffusion takes place (eg., small intestine or digestive system).
•Allow 1 credit for identifying a substance that diffuses there (eg., simple sugar or amino acid or digested food).
•Allow 1 credit for identifying where that substance diffuses from and where it diffuses to, at that place (eg., simple sugar diffuses from the inside of the small intestine into the blood).


57.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what this information suggests to a person who is concerned about health and is deciding on whether to have a plant-rich or animal-rich diet, and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A plant-rich diet would contain less pesticide than an animal-rich diet because producers contain less pesticide than consumers.
— A plant-rich diet is better because plants have lower concentrations of pesticides than animals.



Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Our national parks are areas of spectacular beauty. Current laws usually prohibit activities such as hunting, fishing, logging, mining, and drilling for oil and natural gas in these areas. Congress is being asked to change these laws to permit such activities.
58.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way one of the activities could harm the ecosystem.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Mining (logging) could destroy habitats.
— Overhunting (overfishing) could disrupt food chains.
— Oil drilling could pollute the ecosystem.


59. State one way allowing the activity you chose could benefit society. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way allowing the activity chosen could benefit society. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Logging could help prevent forest fires.
— Mining (oil drilling) would give our society more of the minerals (energy sources) it needs to function.
— Hunting could reduce car-deer accidents.



60. One variety of wheat is resistant to disease. Another variety contains more nutrients of benefit to humans. Explain how a new variety of wheat with disease resistance and high nutrient value could be developed. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify one technique that could be used to combine disease resistance and high nutrient value in a new variety of wheat [1]
• describe how this technique would be carried out to produce a wheat plant with the desired characteristics [1]
• describe one specific difficulty (other than stating that it does not always work) in developing a new variety using this technique [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits for explaining how a new variety of wheat with disease resistance and high nutrient value could be developed, allocated as follows:
•Allow 1 credit for identifying one technique that could be used to combine disease resistance and high nutrient value in a new variety of wheat. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— genetic engineering
— selective breeding (cross-pollinating)
•Allow 1 credit for describing how this technique would be carried out to produce a wheat plant with the desired characteristics. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Genetic engineering involves moving the genes for one of the desired traits into a plant with the other desired trait.
Note: The student must specifically state that a gene (DNA) for a desired trait is moved.
— Selective breeding (cross-pollinating) involves mating plants with one desired characteristic with plants with the other desired characteristic.
•Allow 1 credit for describing one specific difficulty (other than stating that it does not always work) in developing a new variety using this technique. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The moved gene may not be expressed.
— It is difficult to isolate the gene.
— The trait may be recessive.
— There may be unintended adverse qualities.


61.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
•Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two organelles named and correctly paired with a specific process involving chemical reactions that occur there.
•Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for correctly describing one specific way each process identified is important to the functioning of the organism. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:




Part D
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
Directions (62-73): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question.
Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the information and diagram below.

A student prepared a wet-mount slide of red onion skin and observed it under high power of a compound light microscope (view A). After adding a substance to the slide and waiting one minute, the student observed that there were changes in the cells (view B).

62. Identify one substance that could have been added to the cells on the slide in view A that would make them resemble the cells Observed in view B. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one substance that could have been added to the cells on the slide in viewA that would make them resemble the cells observed in View B. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— salt solution
— sugar solution


63. Identify the specific substance that diffused to cause the change in appearance from view A to view B. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for water.


64. In the box below, sketch how view B would appear when viewed under lower power of the same compound light microscope. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for showing more cells than in the original view, each smaller in size, with shrunken contents.



Base your answers to questions 65 and 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Paper chromatography can be used to investigate evolutionary relationships.
Leaves from a plant were ground and mixed with a solvent. The mixture of ground leaves and solvent was then filtered. Using a tooth- pick, twenty drops of the filtrate (material that passed through the filter) were placed at one spot on a strip of chromatography paper.
This procedure was repeated using leaves from three other species of plants. A separate strip of chromatography paper was prepared for each plant species. Each of the four strips of chromatography paper was placed in a different beaker containing the same solvent for the same amount of time. One of the laboratory setups is shown below.

65. State one reason for using a new toothpick for the filtrate from each plant. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason for using a new toothpick for the filtrate from each plant. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— prevents contamination of the different filtrates
— to keep the filtrates separate


66. State one way the four strips would most likely be different from each other after being removed from the beakers. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way the four strips would most likely be different from each other after being removed from the beakers. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— There would be different combinations of colors.
— There would be different amounts of the different colors.


67. State how a comparison of these resulting strips could indicate evolutionary relationships. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how a comparison of these resulting strips could indicate evolutionary relationships. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The more similar the patterns of colors, the closer the relationships.
— The more similar the number of colors (and relative amounts of color), the closer the relationships.



Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

In an investigation, 28 students in a class determined their pulse rates after performing each of three different activities. Each activity was performed three times during equal time intervals. The average results are shown in the graph below.

68. Before constructing the graph it would have been most helpful to organize the results of the investigation in
(1) a research plan
(2) an equation
(3) a data table
(4) a generalization
3

69. Some students concluded that males always have a higher pulse rate than females. Does the graph support this conclusion? Justify your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating that the graph does not support the conclusion, and for justifying the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— No, the results for females were higher than for males after walking.
— No, the results in the graph are averages of all the males and all the females. Some males could have much lower rates or some females could have much higher rates.
— No, the relative numbers of males and females were not graphed. It could have been 1 male and 27 females.
— No, the sample size is too small to support this conclusion.



70. The diagram below shows variations in beak sizes and shapes for several birds on the Galapagos Islands.

Using information provided in the chart, identity two birds that would most likely compete for food in times of food shortage and explain why they would compete. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for identifying two birds that would most likely compete for food in times of food shortage and 1 credit for explaining why they would compete. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Medium and large ground finches both have crushing bills and eat plants.
— Small tree finch and large tree finch would compete because both eat mainly animals.
— Large ground finch and sharp-billed ground finch have similar beaks and eat mainly plant food.


71. Even though the finches on the various Galapagos Islands require different biotic and abiotic factors for their survival, these finches would most likely be grouped in the same
(1) species, but found in different habitats
(2) kingdom, but found in different ecological niches
(3) species and found in the same biosphere
(4) population, but found in different ecosystems
2

72. Galapagos finches evolved partly due to
(1) cloning and recombination
(2) migration and selective breeding
(3) mutation and asexual reproduction
(4) variation and competition
4


Base your answer to question 73 on the portion of the mRNA codon chart and information below.


Series I represents three mRNA codons. Series II includes a mutation of series I.

Series I AGAUCGAGU

Series II ACAUCGAGU


73. How would the amino acid sequence produced by the mutant strand (series II) compare to the amino acid sequence produced by series I?
(1) The amino acid sequence would be shorter.
(2) One amino acid in the sequence would change.
(3) The amino acid sequence would remain unchanged.
(4) More than one amino acid in the sequence would change.
2


  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents August 2005 Exam


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