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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2006 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The levels of organization for structure and function in the human body from least complex to most complex are
(1) systems → organs → tissues → cells
(2) cells → organs → tissues systems
(3) tissues → systems → cells → organs
(4) cells → tissues → organs → system
4

2. Genes are inherited, but their expressions can be modified by the environment. This statement explains why
(1) some animals have dark fur only when the temperature is within a certain range
(2) offspring produced by means of sexual reproduction look exactly like their parents
(3) identical twins who grow up in different homes have the same characteristics
(4) animals can be cloned, but plants cannot
1

3. Meat tenderizer contains an enzyme that interacts with meat. If meat is coated with tenderizer and then placed in a refrigerator for a short time, how would the enzyme be affected?
(1) It would be broken down.
(2) Its activity would slow down.
(3) Its shape would change.
(4) It would no longer act as an enzyme.
2


4. Which row in the chart below contains correct information concerning synthesis?

3

5. Molecule X moves across a cell membrane by diffusion. Which row in the chart below best indicates the relationship between the relative concentrations of molecule X and the use of ATP for diffusion?

2

6. Which statement best compares a multicellular organism to a single-celled organism?
(1) A multicellular organism has organ systems that interact to carry out life functions, while a single-celled organism carries out life functions without using organ systems.
(2) A single-celled organism carries out fewer life functions than each cell of a multicellullar organism.
(3) A multicellular organism always obtains energy through a process that is different from that used by a single-celled organism.
(4) The cell of a single-celled organism is always much larger than an individual cell of a multi-cellular organism.
1

7. Which statement indicates that different parts of the genetic information are used in different kinds of cells, even in the same organism?
(1) The cells produced by a zygote usually have different genes.
(2) As an embryo develops, various tissues and organs are produced.
(3) Replicated chromosomes separate during gamete formation.
(4) Offspring have a combination of genes from both parents.
2

8. Three structures are represented in the diagram below.


What is the relationship between these three structures?
(1) DNA is made up of proteins that are synthesized in the cell.
(2) Protein is composed of DNA that is stored in the cell.
(3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell.
(4) The cell is composed only of DNA and protein.
3

9. In a group of mushrooms exposed to a poisonous chemical, only a few of the mushrooms survived. The best explanation for the resistance of the surviving mushrooms is that the resistance
(1) was transmitted to the mushrooms from the poisonous chemical
(2) resulted from the resence of mutations in the mushrooms
(3) was transferred through the food web to the mushrooms
(4) developed in response to the poisonous chemical
2

10. Which statement correctly describes the genetic makeup of the sperm cells produced by a human male?
(1) Each cell has pairs of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically identical.
(2) Each cell has pairs of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically different.
(3) Each cell has half the normal number of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically identical.
(4) Each cell has half the normal number of chromosomes and the cells are usually genetically different.
4

11. In an environment that undergoes frequent change, species that reproduce sexually may have an advantage over species that reproduce asexually because the sexually reproducing species produce
(1) more offspring in each generation
(2) identical offspring
(3) offspring with more variety
(4) new species of offspring in each generation
3

12. Mutations that occur in skin or lung cells have little effect on the evolution of a species because mutations in these cells
(1) usually lead to the death of the organism
(2) cannot be passed on to offspring
(3) are usually beneficial to the organism
(4) lead to more serious mutations in offspring
2

13. The teeth of carnivores are pointed and are good for puncturing and ripping flesh. The teeth of herbivores are flat and are good for grinding and chewing. Which statement best explains these observations?
(1) Herbivores have evolved from carnivores.
(2) Carnivores have evolved from herbivores.
(3) The two types of teeth most likely evolved as a result of natural selection.
(4) The two types of teeth most likely evolved as a result of the needs of an organism.
3

14. What would most likely happen if most of the bacteria and fungi were removed from an ecosystem?
(1) Nutrients resulting from decomposition would be reduced.
(2) Energy provided for autotrophic nutrition would be reduced.
(3) The rate of mutations in plants would increase.
(4) Soil fertility would increase.
1

15. A certain bacterial colony originated from the division of a single bacterial cell. Each cell in this colony will most likely
(1) express adaptations unlike those of the other cells
(2) replicate different numbers of genes
(3) have a resistance to different antibiotics
(4) synthesize the same proteins and enzymes
4

16. Removal of one ovary from a human female would most likely
(1) affect the production of eggs
(2) makefertilization impossible
(3) make carrying a fetus impossible
(4) decrease her ability to provide essential nutrients to an embryo
1

17. Which substance usually passes in the greatest amount through the placenta from the blood of the fetus to the blood of the mother?
(1) oxygen
(2) carbon dioxide
(3) amino acids
(4) glucose
2

18. An enzyme known as rubisco enables plants to use large amounts of carbon dioxide. This enzyme is most likely active in the
(1) nucleus
(2) vacuoles
(3) mitochondria
(4) chloroplasts
4

19. Starch molecules present in a maple tree are made from materials that originally entered the tree from the external environment as
(1) enzymes
(2) simple sugars
(3) amino acids
(4) inorganic compounds
4

20. Which change in a sample of pond water could indicate that heterotrophic microbes were active?
(1) increase in ozone level
(2) increase in glucose level
(3) decrease in oxygen level
(4) decrease in carbon dioxide level
3

21. Some human white blood cells help destroy pathogenic bacteria by
(1) causing mutations in the bacteria
(2) engulfing and digesting the bacteria
(3) producing toxins that compete with bacterial toxins
(4) inserting part of their DNA into the bacterial cells
2

22. Four students each drew an illustration to show the flow of energy in a field ecosystem. Which illustration is most accurate?

1

23. As succession proceeds from a shrub community to a forest community, the shrub community modifies its environment, eventually making it
(1) more favorable for itself and less favorable for the forest community
(2) more favorable for itself and more favorable for the forest community
(3) less favorable for itself and more favorable for the forest community
(4) less favorable for itself and less favorable for the forest community
3

24. The diagram below represents a series of events in the development of a bird.

Which series of terms best represents the sequence of processes shown?
(1) meiosis → growth → differentiation
(2) meiosis → differentiation → growth
(3) mitosis → meiosis → differentiation
(4) mitosis → differentiation → growth
4

25. Bacteria that are removed from the human intestine are genetically engineered to feed on organic pollutants in the environment and convert them into harmless inorganic compounds. Which row in the table below best represents the most likely negative and positive effects of this technology on the ecosystem?

2

26. An energy pyramid is represented below.

How much energy would be available to the organisms in level C ?
(1) all of the energy in level A, plus the energy in level B
(2) all of the energy in level A, minus the energy in level B
(3) a percentage of the energy contained in level B
(4) a percentage of the energy synthesized in level B and level D
3

27. Which graph illustrates changes that indicate a state of dynamic equilibrium in a mosquito population?
2

28. Which condition is necessary for enzymes and hormones to function properly in the human body?
(1) These chemicals must have a specific shape.
(2) These chemicals must be able to replicate.
(3) Body temperature must be above 40°C.
(4) Body pH must be above 10.
1

29. Four environmental factors are listed below.
A. energy
B. water
C. oxygen
D. minerals
Which factors limit environmental carrying capacity in a land ecosystem?
(1) A, only
(2) B, C, and D, only
(3) A, C, and D, only
(4) A, B, C, and D
4

30. Which human activity would have the least negative impact on the quality of the environment?
(1) adding animal wastes to rivers
(2) cutting down tropical rain forests for plywood
(3) using species-specific sex attractants to trap and kill insect pests
(4) releasing chemicals into the groundwater
3



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part. [10]
Base your answers to questions 31 through 34 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents a single-celled organisms, such as an ameba, umdergoing the changes shown.


31. As a result of these processes, the single-celled organism accomplishes
(1) gamete production
(2) energy production
(3) sexual reproduction
(4) asexual reproduction
4

32. Process 1 is known as
(1) replication
(2) mieiosis
(3) differentiation
(4) digestion
1

33. Process 1 and process 2 are directly involved in
(1) meiotic cell division
(2) mitotic cell division
(3) fertilization
(4) recombination
2

34. The genetic content of C is usually identical to the genetic content of
(1) B but not D
(2) both B and D
(3) D but not A
(4) both A and D
4


Base your answers to questions 35 through 37 on the diagram below that shows some evolutionary pathways. Each letter represents a different species.


35. Which two organisms are most closely related?
(1) F and I
(2) F and H
(3) A and G
(4) G and J
1

36. The most recent ancestor of organisms D and F is
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) I
2

37. If A represents a simple multicellular heterotrophic organism, B would most likely represent
(1) a single-celled photosynthetic organism
(2) an autotrophic mammal
(3) a complex multicellular virus
(4) another type of simple multicellular heterotroph
4


38. A scientist studied iguanas inhabiting a chain of small ocean islands. He discovered two species that live in different habitats and display different behaviors. His observations are listed in the table below.

Which statement best describes these two species of iguanas?
(1) Both species evolved through the process of ecological succession.
(2) Each species occupies a different niche.
(3) The two species can interbreed.
(4) Species A is a scavenger and species B is a carnivore.
2


Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

A population of paramecia (single-celled aquatic organisms) was grown in a 200-mL beaker of water containing some smaller single-celled organisms. Population growth of the organisms for 28 hours is shown in the graph below.

39. Which factor most likely accounts for the change in the paramecium population from 8 to 20 hours?
(1) an increase in the nitrogen content of water
(2) an increase in wastes produced
(3) an increase in available food
(4) an increase in water pH
3

40. One likely explanation for the change in the paramecium population from 26 hours to 28 hours is that the
(1) carrying capacity of the beaker was exceeded
(2) rate of reproduction increased
(3) time allowed for growth was not sufficient
(4) oxygen level was too high
1



Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [15]
Directions(41-55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all the other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question.
Base your answers to questions 41 through 45 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

Better Rice

The production of new types of food crops will help raise the quantity of food grown by farmers. Research papers released by the National Academy of Sciences announced the development of two new superior varieties of rice—one produced by selective breeding and the other by biotechnology. One variety of rice, called Nerica (New Rice for Africa), is already helping farmers in Africa. Nerica combines the hardiness and weed resistance of rare African rice varieties with the productivity and faster maturity of common Asian varieties. Another variety, called Stress-Tolerant Rice, was produced by inserting a pair of bacterial genes into rice plants for the production of trehalose (a sugar). Trehalose helps plants maintain healthy cell membranes, proteins, and enzymes during environmental stress. The resulting plants survive drought, low temperatures, salty soils, and other stresses better than standard rice varieties.
41. Why is the production of new varieties of food crops necessary?
(1) Essential food crops are rapidly becoming extinct.
(2) Technology for producing fresh water for agriculture has improved.
(3) Burning fossil fuels has decreased agricultural areas.
(4) World population continues to increase.
4

42. Which substance from bacteria was most likely inserted into rice plants in the development of the trehalose-producing rice?
(1) sugar
(2) enzymes
(3) DNA
(4) trehalose
3

43. Nerica was most likely produced by
(1) crossing a variety of African rice with a variety of Asian rice
(2) cloning genes for hardiness and weed resistance from Asian rice
(3) using Asian rice to compete with rare African varieties
(4) inserting genes for productivity and faster maturity into Asian rice
1

44. Which strain of rice was produced as a result of genetic engineering? Support your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating which strain of rice was produced as a result of genetic engineering and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Stress-Tolerant Rice: because it was made by inserting genes
Trehalose-Producing rice: because it contains genes from bacteria — Stress-Tolerant Rice: because bacterial genes for trehalose production were inserted into rice plants


45. State one reason that further testing must be done before rice plants that produce trehalose are approved for human consumption. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason that further testing must be done before rice plants that produce trehalose are approved for human consumption. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— to see it it is safe
— to see it it has nutritional value



Base your answers to questions 46 through 49 on the information and the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Directions (46-48): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next page, following the directions below.

A number of bean seeds planted at the same time produced plants that were later divided into two groups, A and B. Each plant in group A was treated with the same concentration of gibberellic acid (a plant hormone). The plants in group B were not treated with gibberellic acid. All other growth conditions were kept constant. The height of each plant was measured on 5 consecutive days, and the average height of each group was recorded in the data table below.

46. Mark an apprepriate scale on the axis labeled “Average Plant Height (cm)". [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Average Plant Height (cm)."


47.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for the average height of the plants in group A, surrounding each point with a srnall circle, and connecting the points.


48.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for the average height of the plants in group B, surrounding each point with a small triangle, and connecting the points.


49. State a valid conclusion that can be drawn concerning the effect of gibberellic acid on bean plant growth. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one valid conclusion that can be drawn concerning the effect of gibberellic acid on bean plant growth. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Bean plants given gibberellic acid grew taller or faster than those that were not.



Base your answers to questions 50 through 55 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology. The table contains information about glucose production in a species of plant that lives in the water of a salt marsh.


50. Which terms describe temperature in this investigation?
(1) abiotic factor and independent variable
(2) abiotic factor and dependent variable
(3) biotic factor and independent variable (4) biotic factor and dependent variable
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1


51. What evidence from the data table shows that a salt-marsh plant is sensitive to its environment? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for providing evidence from the data table showing that a salt marsh plant is sensitive to its environment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The amount of glucose produced varies as the environmental temperature changes.


52. At which temperature would the plants most likely use the greatest amount of carbon dioxide?
(1) 10°C
(2) 20°C
(3) 30°C
(4) 40°C
3

53. How much oxygen will plants that live in water at 10°C most likely produce?
(1) twice the amount of oxygen produced at 20°C
(2) the same amount of oxygen produced at 40°C
(3) the most oxygen produced at any temperature
(4) more oxygen than is produced at 30°C
2

54. State one possible reason for the change in glucose production when the temperature was increased from 30°C to 40°C. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one possible reason for the change in glucose production when the temperature was increased from 30°C to 40°C. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The enzymes responsible for the process are less effective above 30°C.
— Chemical reactions are affected by temperature. — The enzymes are altered (or destroyed) by heat.


55. Which level of the energy pyramid below would contain the plant species of this salt marsh?



(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
4



Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [17]
56. A scientist wants to determine the best conditions for hatching brine shrimp eggs. In a laboratory, brine shrimp hatch at room temperature in glass containers of salt water. The concentration of salt in the water is known to affect how many brine shrimp eggs will hatch. Design an experiment to determine which of three saltwater concentrations (2%, 4%, or 6%) is best for hatching brine shrimp eggs. In your experimental design, be sure to:
• state how many containers to use in the experiment, and describe what would be added to each container in addition to the eggs [1]
• state two factors that must be kept constant in all the containers [1]
• state what data must be collected during this experiment [1]
• state one way to organize the data so that they will be easy to analyze [1] • describe a result that would indicate the best salt solution for hatching brine shrimp eggs [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 5 credits for designing an experiment to determine which of three saltwater concentrations (2%, 4%, or 6%) is best for hatching brine shrimp eggs, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating how many containers to use in the experiment, and describing what would be added to each container in addition to the eggs. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to
— Three containers, each with a different salt concentration (2%, 4%, and 6%), should be used.
— four containers, one with water, the other three with different salt concentrations (2%, 4%, and 6%)
— four containers, a control and the others with 2%, 4%, and 6% salt solution
• Allow 1 credit for stating two factors that must be kept constant in all the containers. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— temperature of the water
— number of eggs per container
— salt-water level or volume
— size of container
— amount of time
• Allow 1 credit for stating what data must be collected during this experiment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— how many eggs hatch in each salt concentration
• Allow 1 credit for stating one way to organize the data so that they will be easy to analyze. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— arrange the data in a data table or a spreadsheet
— graph the data
• Allow 1 credit for describing a result that would indicate the best salt solution for hatching brine shrimp eggs. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The solution that has the most eggs hatch is the best one to use.


57. Not all diseases are caused by pathogenic organisms. Other factors, such as inheritance, poor nutrition, and toxic substances, may also cause disease. Describe a disease or disorder that can occur as a result of one of these other factors. Your answer must include at least:
• the name of the disease [1]
one specific factor that causes this disease [1]
one major effect of this disease on the body, other than death [1] • one way this disease can be prevented, treated, or cured [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for describing a disease or disorder that can occur as a result of a factor other than a pathogenic organism, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for the name of the disease or disorder.
• Allow 1 credit for one specific factor that causes this disease or disorder.
• Allow 1 credit for one major effect of this disease or disorder on the body, other than death.
• Allow 1 credit for one way this disease or disorder can be prevented, treated, or cured.
Examples of 4-credit responses:
PKU is a disorder that can result in damage to the brain. It is caused by inheritance of a mutation. Children with PKU will be developmentally delayed. If a specific amino acid is removed from the child’s diet, the symptoms will not occur.

or


Diabetes is a disease that can result from an inability to produce enough insulin. The level of glucose in the blood and urine will be high. This may lead to blindness or kidney problems. Frequent urination and thirst are major symptoms. Insulin injections can be used to regulate blood sugar levels.
Note: If a disease caused by a pathogenic organism is chosen, a maximum of 3 credits 1nay be allowed if the other three bullets are addressed correctly for the disease chosen.


58. Describe how two of the cell structures listed below interact to help maintain a balanced internal environment in a cell.
mitochondrion
ribosome
cell membrane
nucleus vacuole
In your answer be sure to:
• select two of these structures, write their names, and state one function of each [2]
• describe how each structure you selected contributes to the functioning of the other [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for describing how two cell structures interact to help maintain a balanced internal environment in a cell, allocated as follows:
• Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each correct function of the two structures selected. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
mitochondrion-release of energy from nutrients
ribosome-protein synthesis
— cell membrane-regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell
— nucleus-regulates cell functions or carries the genetic code
— vacuole-storage
• Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for describing how each of the two structures selected contributes to the functioning of the other. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: — The nucleus contains the code for the enzymes that function in the mitochondrion. The mitochondrion provides energy that is needed by the nucleus.


59. Currently, Americans rely heavily on the burning of fossil fuels as sources of energy. As a result of increased demand for energy sources, there is a continuing effort to find alternatives to burning fossil fuels. Discuss fossil fuels and alternative energy sources. In your answer be sure to: • state one disadvantage of burning fossil fuels for energy [1]
• identify one energy source that is an alternative to using fossil fuels [1]
• state one advantage of using this alternative energy source [1]
• state one disadvantage of using this alternative energy source [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for discussing fossil fuels and alternative energy sources, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating one disadvantage of burning fossil fuels for energy. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— They pollute the atmosphere.
— They lead to acid rain.
— They lead to global warming.
— Fossil fuels are a limited resource.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying one energy source that is an alternative to using fossil fuels. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— solar energy
— windmills
— water power
— nuclear fuels
• Allow 1 credit for stating one advantage of using the alternative energy source identified. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— does not pollute the environment (solar energy)
— is renewable (water power)
— Fossil fuels are not burned. (nuclear)
•Allow 1 credit for stating one disadvantage of using the alternative energy source identified. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Windmills are very noisy.
— Dams built for water power destroy habitats.
— Nuclear fuels produce dangerous wastes.
— high cost of changing technology
— Sufficient solar, wind, or water is not available worldwide.




Part D
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
Base your answers to questions 60 and 61 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram illustrates an investigation carried out in a laboratory activity on diffusion. The beaker and the artificial cell also contain water.


60. Predict what would happen over time by showing the location of molecules I, G, and S in diagram B below. [3]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for showing Is both inside and outside of the artificial cell.
• Allow 1 credit for showing Gs both inside and outside of the artificial cell. • Allow 1 credit for showing all the Ss inside of the artificial cell.



61. State what is observed when there is a positive test for starch using the starch indicator. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what is observed when there is a positive test for starch using the starch indicator. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— a color change
— The color changes from amber to blue black.



Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

The DNA of three different species of birds was analyzed to help determine if there is an evolutionary relationship between these species. The diagram shows the results of this analysis.

62. Identify the technique normally used to separate the DNA fragments to produce the patterns shown in the diagram. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the technique normally used to separate the DNA fragments to produce the patterns shown in the diagram. Acceptable responses include but are not limited to:
— electrophoresis — gel electrophoresis


63. The chart below contains amino acid sequences for part of a protein that is found in the feathers on each of these three species of birds.

State one way this data supports the inference that these three bird species may be closely related. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way the data supports the inference that the three bird species may be closely related.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Since they have similar amino acid sequences, they may be closely related.
— Since they have amino acid sequences that are very much alike, the species have similar DNA.


64. State one type of additional information that could be used to determine if these three species are closely related. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one type of additional information that could be used to determine if these three species are closely related. Acceptable responses include but are not limited to:
— comparing embryos
— cytology
— comparing fossils
— comparing bone structures — additional sequence studies



Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information and the graph below and on your knowledge of biology

Pulse-rate data were collected from some students during their lunch time for the lab activity, Making Connections. The data are represented in the histogram below.

65. The histogram includes data from a total of how many students?
(1) 6
(2) 7
(3) 10
(4) 27
4

66. Describe one way in which a pulse rate below 45 would disrupt homeostasis in an individual whose average resting pulse rate falls in the range of 71-80. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing one way in which a pulse rate below 45 would disrupt homeostasis in an individual whose average resting pulse rate falls in the range of 71-80. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Circulation of blood would be reduced.
— Oxygen (O2) delivery would be reduced.
— Cells could not release enough energy.
— unable to regulate body temperature


67. State one way the data would most likely be different if the pulse rates were collected immediately after exercising instead of during lunch. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way the data would most likely be different if the pulse rates were collected immediately after exercising instead of during lunch. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The average pulse rates would be higher. — Increased activity causes an increase in pulse rate.



Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the finch diversity chart below, which contains information concerning the finches found on the Galapagos Islands.


68. Identify one bird that would most likely compete for food with the large tree finch. Support your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one bird that would most likely compete for food with the large tree finch and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Woodpecker finch: they use the same food resources
— Small tree finch: both eat mainly animal food


69. Identify one trait, other than beak characteristics, that would contrihute to the survival of a finch species and state one way this trait contributes to the success of this species. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit tor identifying one trait, other than beak characteristics, that would contribute to the survival of a finch species and 1 credit tor stating one way this trait contributes to the success of this species.
Examples of 2-credit responses:
— Faster or more aggressive birds get to seeds faster.
— Larger or stronger birds co1npete successfully.
— Coordination helps an individual avoid predators.



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