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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2008 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Scientists studying ocean organisms are discovering new and unusual species. Which observation could be used to determine that an ocean organism carries out autotrophic nutrition?
(1) Chloroplasts are visible inside the cells.
(2) Digestive organs are visible upon dissection.
(3) The organism lives close to the surface.
(4) The organism synthesizes enzymes to digest food.
Answer: 1

2. Abiotic factors that characterize a forest ecosystem include
(1) light and biodiversity
(2) temperature and amount of available water
(3) types of producers and decomposers
(4) pH and number of heterotrophs
Answer: 2

3. One season, there was a shortage of producers in a food web. As a result, the number of deer and wolves decreased. The reason that both the deer and wolf populations declined is that
(1) producers are not as important as consumers in a food web
(2) more consumers than producers are needed to support the food web
(3) organisms in this food web are interdependent
(4) populations tend to stay constant in a food web
Answer: 3


4. Which statement best describes a population of organisms if cloning is the only method used to reproduce this population?
(1) The population would be more likely to adapt to a changing environment.
(2) There would be little chance for variation within the population.
(3) The population would evolve rapidly.
(4) The mutation rate in the population would be rapid.
Answer: 2

5. An organelle that releases energy for metabolic activity in a nerve cell is the
(1) chloroplast
(2) ribosome
(3) mitochondrion
(4) vacuole
Answer: 3

6. A student notices that fruit flies with the curly wing trait develop straight wings if kept at a temperature of 16°C, but develop curly wings it kept at 25°C. The best explanation for this observation is that
(1) wing shape is controlled by behavior
(2) wing shape is influenced by light intensity
(3) gene expression can be modified by interactions with the environment
(4) gene mutations for wing shape can occur at high temperatures
Answer: 3

7. In all organisms, the coded instructions for specifying the characteristics of the organism are directly determined by the arrangement of the
(1) twenty kinds of amino acids in each protein
(2) twenty-three pairs of genes on each chromosome
(3) strands of simple sugars in certain carbohydrate molecules
(4) four types of molecular bases in the genes
Answer: 4

8. Which sequence shows a decreasing level of complexity?
(1) organs → organism → cells → tissues
(2) organism → cells → organs → tissues
(3) cells → tissues→ organs → organism
(4) organism → organs → tissues → cells
Answer: 4

9. Which row in the chart below contains an event that is paired with an appropriate response in the human body?

(1) a virus enters the bloodstream increased production of antibodies
(2) fertilization of an egg increased levels of testosterone
(3) dehydration due to increased sweating increased urine output
(4) a drop in the rate of digestion increased respiration rate
Answer: 1

10. The diagram below represents a genetic procedure.

Which statement best describes the outcome of this procedure?
(1) Bacterial cells will destroy defective human genetic material.
(2) Bacterial cells may form a multicellular embryo.
(3) The inserted human DNA will change harmful bacteria to harmless ones.
(4) The inserted human DNA may direct the synthesis of human proteins.
Answer: 4

11. The diagram below represents the genetic contents of cells before and after a specific reproductive process.


This process is considered a mechanism of evolution because it
(1) decreases the chance for new combinations of inheritable traits in a species
(2) decreases the probability that genes can be passed on to other body cells
(3) increases the chance for variations in offspring
(4) increases the number of offspring an organism can produce
Answer: 3

12. One disadvantage of a genetic mutation in a human skin cell is that it
(1) may result in the production of a defective protein
(2) may alter the sequence of simple sugars in insulin molecules
(3) can lead to a lower mutation rate in the offspring of the human
(4) can alter the rate of all the metabolic processes in the human
Answer: 1

13. The DNA of a human cell can be cut and rearranged by using
(1) a scalpel
(2) electrophoresis

(3) hormones
(4) enzymes
Answer: 4

14. Much of the carbon dioxide produced by green plants is not excreted as a metabolic waste because it
(1) can be used for photosynthesis
(2) is too large to pass through cell membranes
(3) is needed for cellular respiration
(4) can be used for the synthesis of proteins
Answer: 1

15. In several species of birds, the males show off their bright colors and long feathers. The dull-colored females usually pick the brightest colored males for mates. Male offspring inherit their father’s bright colors and long feathers. Compared to earlier generations, future generations of these birds will be expected to have a greater proportion of
(1) bright-colored females
(2) dull-colored females
(3) dull-colored males
(4) bright-colored males
Answer: 4

16. To determine evolutionary relationships between organisms, a comparison would most likely be made between all of the characteristics below except
(1) methods of reproduction
(2) number of their ATP molecules
(3) sequences in their DNA molecules
(4) structure of protein molecules present
Answer: 2

17. The females of certain species of turtles will sneak into a nest of alligator eggs to lay their own eggs and then leave, never to return. When the baby turtles hatch, they automatically hide from the mother alligator guarding the nest and go to the nearest body of water when it is safe to do so. Which statement best explains the behavior of these baby turtles?
(1) More of the turtles’ ancestors who acted in this way survived to reproduce, passing this behavioral trait to their offspring.
(2) The baby turtles are genetically identical, so they behave the same way.
(3) Turtles are not capable of evolving, so they repeat the same behaviors generation after generation.
(4) The baby turtles’ ancestors who learned to behave this way taught the behaviors to their offspring
Answer: 1

18. A pattern of reproduction and growth in a one- celled organism is shown below.

Which statement best describes this pattern of reproduction?
(1) All genetic material comes from one parent.
(2) Only some of the genetic material comes from one parent.
(3) The size of the parent determines the amount of genetic material.
(4) The size of the parent determines the source of the genetic material.
Answer: 1

19. A technique used to reproduce plants is shown in the diagram below.

This technique is a form of
(1) sexual reproduction
(2) asexual reproduction

(3) gamete production
(4) gene manipulation
Answer: 2

20. The diagram below represents a biochemical process.

Which molecule is represented by X?
(1) DNA
(2) starch
(3) protein
(4) ATP
Answer: 4

21. The diagram below represents early stages of embryo development.

The greatest amount of differentiation for organ formation most likely occurs at arrow
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
Answer: 4

22. The diagram below shows a cell in the human body engulfing a bacterial cell.

The cell labeled X is most likely a
(1) red blood cell
(2) white blood cell
(3) liver cell
(4) nerve cell
Answer: 2

23. The graph below shows the levels of glucose and insulin in the blood of a human over a period of time.

This graph represents
(1) an allergic reaction
(2) an antigen-antibody reaction
(3) maintenance of homeostasis
(4) autotrophic nutrition
Answer: 3

24. Which concept is best represented in the diagram shown below?

(1) Human actions are a threat to equilibrium in ecosystems.
(2) Equilibrium in ecosystems requires that humans modify ecosystems.
(3) Equilibrium in ecosystems directly affects how humans modify ecosystems.
(4) Human population growth is the primary reason for equilibrium in ecosystems.
Answer: 1

25. One possible reason for the rise in the average air temperature at Earth’s surface is that
(1) decomposers are being destroyed
(2) deforestation has increased the levels of oxygen in the atmosphere
(3) industrialization has increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the air
(4) growing crops is depleting the ozone shield
Answer: 3

26. The size of a frog population in a pond remains fairly constant over a period of several years because of
(1) decreasing competition
(2) environmental carrying capacity
(3) excessive dissolved oxygen
(4) the depth of water
Answer: 2

27. Plants such as the Venus flytrap produce chemical compounds that break down insects into substances that are usable by the plant. The chemical compounds that break down the insects are most likely
(1) fats
(2) minerals
(3) biological catalysts
(4) complex carbohydrates
Answer: 3

28. In December 2004, a tsunami (giant wave) destroyed many of the marine organisms along the coast of the Indian Ocean. What can be expected to happen to the ecosystem that was most severely hit by the tsunami?
(1) The ecosystem will change until a new stable community is established.
(2) Succession will continue in the ecosystem until one species of marine organism is established.
(3) Ecological succession will no longer occur in this marine ecosystem.
(4) The organisms in the ecosystem will become extinct.
Answer: 1

29. Many homeowners who used to collect, bag, and discard grass clippings are now using mulching lawnmowers, which cut up the clippings into very fine pieces and deposit them on the soil. The use of mulching lawnmowers contributes most directly to
(1) increasing the diversity of life
(2) recycling of nutrients
(3) the control of pathogens
(4) the production of new species
Answer: 2

30. Deforestation of areas considered to be rich sources of genetic material could limit future agricultural and medical advances due to (1) the improved quality of the atmosphere
(2) the maintenance of dynamic equilibrium
(3) an increase in the rate of evolutionary change
(4) the loss of biodiversity
Answer: 4



Part B - 1
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
Directions (31-42): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement of answers the question.
31. In 1883, Thomas Engelmann, a German botanist, exposed a strand of algae to different wavelengths of light. Engelmann used bacteria that concentrate near an oxygen source to determine which sections of the algae were releasing the most O2. The results are shown below.

Which statement is a valid inference based on this information?
(1) Oxygen production decreases as the wavelength of light increases from 550 to 650 nm.
(2) Respiration rate in the bacteria is greatest at 550 nm.
(3) Photosynthetic rate in the algae is greatest in blue light.
(4) The algae absorb the greatest amount of oxygen in red light.
Answer: 3

32. The graph below represents a predator-prey relationship.

What is the most probable reason for the increasing predator population from day 5 to day 7?
(1) an increasing food supply from day 5 to day 6
(2) a predator population equal in size to the prey population from day 5 to day 6
(3) the decreasing prey population from day 1 to day 2
(4) the extinction of the yeast on day 3
Answer: 1

33. A single cell and a multicellular organism are represented below.

Which structures are correctly paired with their primary function?
(1) A and G —transmission of nerve impulses
(2) B and E —photosynthesis
(3) C and H —digestion of food
(4) D and F —gas exchange
Answer: 4

34. The graph below indicates the size of a fish population over a period of time.

The section of the graph labeled A represents
(1) biodiversity within the species
(2) nutritional relationships of the species
(3) a population becoming extinct
(4) a population at equilibrium
Answer: 4

35. The data table below shows the presence or absence of DNA in four different cell organelles.

The data table below shows the presence or absence of DNA in four different cell organelles. Information in the table suggests that DNA functions
(1) within cytoplasm and outside of the cell membrane
(2) both inside and outside of the nucleus
(3) only within energy-releasing structures
(4) within cell vacuoles
Answer: 2


Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the diagram below, which represents stages in the digestion of a starch, and on your knowledge of biology.


36. The products would most likely contain
(1) simple sugars
(2) fats
(3) amino acids
(4) minerals
Answer: 1

37. The structure labeled X most likely represents
(1) an antibody
(3) an enzyme
(2) a receptor molecule
(4) a hormone
Answer: 3


Base your answers to questions 38 through 40 on the diagram  below  and  on your  knowledge of biology. Each arrow in the diagram represents a different hormone released by the pituitary gland that stimulates the gland indicated in the diagram. All structures are present in the same organism.


38. The pituitary gland may release hormone 2 when blood pressure drops. Hormone 2 causes gland B to release a different hormone that raises blood pressure which, in turn, stops the secretion of hormone 2. The interaction of these hormones is an example of
(1) DNA base substitution
(2) manipulation of genetic instructions
(3) a feedback mechanism
(4) an antigen-antibody reaction
Answer: 3

39. What would most likely occur if the interaction is blocked between the pituitary and gland C , the site of meiosis in males?
(1) The level of progesterone would start to increase.
(2) The pituitary would produce another hormone to replace hormone 3.
(3) Gland A would begin to interact with hormone 3 to maintain homeostasis.
(4) The level of testosterone may start to decrease.
Answer: 4

40. Why does hormone 1 influence the action of gland A but not gland B or C?
(1) Every activity in gland A is different from the activities in glands B and C.
(2) The cells of glands B and C contain different receptors than the cells of gland A.
(3) Each gland contains cells that have different base sequences in their DNA.
(4) The distance a chemical can travel is influenced by both pH and temperature.
Answer: 2


Base your answer to questions 41 and 42 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of  biology.

A small Water plant (elodea) was placed in bright sunlight for five hours as indicated below. Bubbles of oxygen gas were observed being released from the plant.

41. Since oxygen gas is being released, it can be inferred that the plant is
(1) producing glucose
(2) making protein
(3) releasing energy from water
(4) carrying on active transport
Answer: 1

42. What substance did the plant most likely absorb from the water for the process that produces the oxygen gas?
(1) dissolved nitrogen
(2) carbon dioxide
(3) an enzyme
(4) a hormone
Answer: 2



Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [13]

Directions (43-55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number  preceding the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

Human reproduction is influenced by many different factors.
43. Identity one reproductive hormone and state the role it plays in reproduction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Testosterone influences the formation of sperm cells.
— Testosterone influences the formation of gametes.
— estrogen - regulates female reproductive cycles
— Estrogen builds up the uterine lining for implantation and development of the embryo.
— progesterone - maintains uterine lining during pregnancy


44. Identity the structure in the uterus where the exchange of material between the mother and the developing fetus takes place. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for placenta.


45. Identify one harmful substance that can pass through this structure and describe the negative effect it can have on the fetus. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— drugs- fetal addiction
— alcohol- low birth weight or premature birth or brain damage or fetal alcohol syndrome
— nicotine - brain damage or low birth weight
— Viruses, such as HIV, can cross the placenta putting the fetus at risk of disease or defects.


46. The flow of materials through ecosystems involves the interactions of many processes and organisms. State how decomposers aid in the flow of materials in an ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— recycle nutrients



Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Honeybees have a very cooperative way of living. Scout bees find food, return to the hive, and do the “waggle dance" to communicate the location of the food source to other bees in the hive. The waggle, represented by the wavy line in the diagram below, indicates the direction of the food source, while the speed of the dance indicates the distance to the food. Different species of honeybees use the same basic dance pattern in slightly different ways as shown in the table below.

47. State the relationship between the distance to the food source and the number of waggle runs in 15 seconds. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The closer the food source, the more waggle runs in 15 seconds.
— Fewer waggles means that food is farther away.
— As one variable increases, the other decreases.


48. Explain how waggle-dance behavior increases the reproductive success of the bees. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— If bees have better access to food, they can produce more offspring.
— Finding food is easier, thus more bees can exist.


49. The number of waggle runs in 15 seconds for each of these species is most likely due to
(1) behavioral adaptation as a result of natural selection
(2) replacement of one species by another as a result of succession
(3) alterations in gene structure as a result of diet
(4) learned behaviors inherited as a result of asexual reproduction
Answer: 1


Base your answers to question 50  through 54 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology. Directions (50-54): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid given below, following the directions below.

 
50. Label the axes. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly labeling the axes.


51. Mark an appropriate scale on the y-axis. The scale has been started for you. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the y-axis.


52.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.


53. Describe the trend in pH level in the lake over this 16-year period. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The pH level decreased over this time period.
— The acid level increased over this time period.


54. Identify one factor that should have been kept constant each time water samples were collected from the lake. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— water depth
— time of year
— The sample should be taken under similar weather conditions.
— The sample should be taken from the same site.


55. Two cultures, each containing a different species of bacteria, were exposed to the same antibiotic. Explain how, after exposure to this antibiotic, the population of one species of bacteria could increase while the population of the other species of bacteria decreased or was eliminated. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Organisms with antibiotic resistance would survive and reproduce. Others without resistance would decrease in number.
— Antibiotics target specific bacteria.
Note: Do not accept “the bacteria were immune.”




Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [17]
Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Throughout the world, in nearly every ecosystem, there are animal and plant species present that were introduced into the ecosystem by humans or transported to the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Some examples are listed in the chart below.

56. State one reason why an introduced species might be very successful in a new environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— no competition
— no predators
— large food supply
— bigger/stronger than other species


57. Identify one action the government could take to prevent the introduction of additional new species. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— pass laws
— inspections
— increase public knowledge about the problem


58. Identify one introduced organism and write its name in the space below. Describe one way in which this organism has altered an ecosystem in the new location. [1]
Organism:_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The purple loosestrife crowded out other plants.
— Zebra mussels outcompete native species.
— The brown tree snake ate birds’ eggs and reduced bird populations.
— Gypsy moths eat oak leaves and can kill oak trees.



Base your answers to question 59 and 60 on the information and food web below and on your knowledge of biology.

The organisms in the food web below live near large cattle ranches. Over many years, mountain lions occasionally killed a few cattle. One year, a few ranchers hunted and killed many mountain lions to prevent future loss of their cattle. Later, ranchers noticed that animals from this food web were eating large amounts of grain from their fields.

59. Identify two specific populations that most likely increased in number after the mountain lion population decreased. Support your answer. [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for rabbit and deer, and 1 credit for supporting the responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— rabbit and deer
— They have fewer predators.


60. Explain how killing many mountain lions affected other ranchers in the community. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Their grain crops decreased.
— Fewer cattle were killed.



Base your answers to questions 61 through 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology. The letters indicate paragraphs.


61. State the problem the team of doctors was trying to solve. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The problem was to determine how the yellow fever microbe was being transferred from person to person.
— How is yellow fever spread?


62. State one hypothesis from paragraph A that was tested by one of the experiments. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Yellow fever is spread by contact with the clothing of people who had yellow fever.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


63. Describe the control that should have been set up for the experiment described in paragraph C.  [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The control should have been a group of people sleeping in nightshirts or bedding that had not been used by yellow fever patients.


64. Explain why the use of native fish (described in paragraph E), rather than the use of pesticides, is less likely to have a negative impact on the environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Pesticides can harm other parts of the environment (other species) but native fish will not.
— Native species will target the larvae with less disruption of food chains.
— Pesticides may disrupt the food chains in the area but native fish will not.
— Pesticides may cause human illness.



Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Vaccines play an important role in the ability of the body to resist certain diseases.
65. Describe the contents of a vaccine. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A vaccine contains dead or weakened pathogens or their products.


66. Identify the system in the body that is most directly affected by a vaccination. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— immune system


67. Explain how a vaccination results in the long-term ability of the body to resist disease. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— White blood cells produce antibodies for a particular pathogen.
— White blood cells are prepared to recognize a particular pathogen in the future.
— causes the immune system to produce antibodies
— stimulates an immune response



Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

A factory in Florida had dumped toxic waste into the soil for 40 years. Since the company is no longer in business, government officials removed the toxic soil and piled it up into large mounds until they can finish evaluating how to treat the waste.
68. State one way these toxins could move from the soil into local ecosystems, such as nearby lakes and ponds. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Rain may wash the toxins into lakes.
— They may seep into groundwater.


69. State one way these toxins might affect local ecosystems. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— may move through the food web
— may change the pH of pond water
— may kill organisms



Base your answers to questions 70 and 71 on the diagram  below  and on your knowledge of biology .  The diagram shows some of the gases that, along with their sources,  contribute to major  problems  associated  with air pollution.


70. Select one of the four major problems from the diagram and record the number of the problem on the line below. Identify a gas that contributes to the problem you selected and state one way in which the amount of this gas can be reduced. [1]
Problem number:_______
Gas:_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW


71. Explain why damage to the ozone shield is considered a threat to many organisms. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— exposes organisms to UV rays
— increases chance of mutations in cells




Part D
Answer all questions in this part.[13]
Directions (72-84): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice, that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

72. A laboratory technique is illustrated in the diagram below.

This technique is used to
(1) determine volume
(2) separate molecules in a mixture
(3) measure length
(4) analyze data from an experiment
Answer: 2

73.
Answer: 3


Base  your  answers to questions  74 through 77 on the Universal Generic  Code  Chart  below  and  on your  knowledge  of biology. Some DNA, RNA, and amino acid  information from analysis of a gene present in five different species is shown in the chart on the next page.



74. Using the Universal Genetic Code Chart, fill in the missing amino acids in the amino acid sequence for species A in the chart given above. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Amino acid sequence: MET or START  ALA  GLY  SER


75. Using the information given, fill in the missing mRNA bases in the mRNA strand for species B in the chart given above. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for mRNA strand: AUG AAA CGU CCU


76. Using the information given, fill in the missing DNA bases in the DNA strand for species C in the chart given above. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for DNA strand: TAC AAA ACA GGG


77. According to the information, which two species are most closely related? Support your answer. [1]
Species: _______and_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for B and E and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Their amino acid sequences are the same.
Note: Allow credit for a response that is consistent with the student’s responses to questions 74 through 76.



Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram below represents the relationship between beak structure and food in several species of finches in the Galapagos Islands.


78. Which factor meet directly influenced the evolution of the diverse types of beaks of these finches?
(1) predation by humans
(2) available food sources
(3) oceanic storms
(4) lack of available niches
Answer: 2

79. State one reason why the large tree finch and the large ground finch are able to coexist on the same island. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The large tree finch eats mainly animal food, while the large ground finch eats mainly plant food.
— They occupy different environmental niches.
— They eat different kinds of food.


80. Phenolphthalein is a chemical that turns pink in the presence of a base. A student set up the demonstration shown in the diagram below.

The appearance of the pink color was due to the movement of
(1) phenolphthalein molecules from low concentration to high concentration
(2) base molecules from high concentration through the membrane to low concentration
(3) water molecules through the membrane from high concentration to low concentration
(4) phenolphthalein molecules in the water from high concentration to low concentration
Answer: 2


Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

A student cut three identical slices from a potato. She determined the mass of each slice. She then placed them in labeled beakers and added a different solution to each beaker. After 30 minutes, she removed each potato slice from its solution, removed the excess liquid with a paper towel, and determined the mass of each slice. The change in mass was calculated and the results are shown in the data table below.

81. Identify the process that is responsible for the change in mass of each of the three slices. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— diffusion
— osmosis
— passive transport


82. Explain why the potato slice in beaker 1 increased in mass. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Water diffused into the cells of the potato because there was a higher concentration of water outside than inside the slice.
— The potato slice increased in water content.


83. Which activity might lead to damage of a microscope and specimen?
(1) cleaning the ocular and objectives with lens paper
(2) focusing with low power first before moving the high power into position
(3) using the coarse adjustment to focus the specimen under high power
(4) adjusting the diaphragm to obtain more light under high power
Answer: 3

84. A solution containing both starch and glucose was placed inside the model cell represented below. The model cell was then placed in a beaker containing distilled water.

Identity one specific substance that should have been added to the distilled water so that observations regarding movement of starch could be made. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— starch indicator
— iodine solution
— Lugol’s solution
Note: Do not allow credit for just “indicator.”



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