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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2009 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Organisms that are able to manufacture organic
  nutrients from substances in the abiotic environment
  are classified as
  (1) heterotrophs            (3) predators
  (2) fungi                   (4) autotrophs
Answer: 4

2.
2 Which factor would have the greatest effect on
  the flow of energy into an ecosystem?
  (1) a large decrease in the amount of sunlight
      available
  (2) a large increase in the number of carnivores
  (3) a small increase in the number of decomposers
  (4) a small decrease in the amount of minerals
      available
Answer: 1

3.
3 Which structures carry out life functions within
  cells?
  (1) tissues             (3) organelles
  (2) organ systems       (4) organs
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which process is most directly responsible for
  maintaining internal stability in an organism
  when its environment is constantly changing?
  (1) digestion            (3) reproduction
  (2) feedback             (4) evolution
Answer: 2

5.
5 The function of a cell depends primarily on its
  (1) life span             (3) structure
  (2) color                 (4) movement
Answer: 3

6.
6 In some cases, humans have chosen to mate
  certain individual farm animals within a species.
  For example, by allowing only the largest cattle
  to reproduce over many generations, strains of
  very large cattle have been produced. This
  process is known as
  (1) natural selection
  (2) direct harvesting
  (3) selective breeding
  (4) dynamic equilibrium
Answer: 3

7.
7 A boy inherits genes for tallness, but his growth
  is limited as a result of poor nutrition. This is an
  example of
  (1) an inherited disorder
  (2) environmental influence on gene expression
  (3) expression of a hidden trait
  (4) a characteristic controlled by more than one
       pair of genes
Answer: 2

8.
8 The sickle-cell trait is an inherited condition
  resulting from the presence of abnormal
  molecules of the protein hemoglobin in red
  blood cells. A person with the sickle-cell trait
  may have a child with the same condition
  because the child receives from the parent
  (1) abnormal red blood cells
  (2) abnormal hemoglobin molecules
  (3) a code for the production of abnormal hemoglobin
  (4) a code for the production of abnormal amino
      acids
Answer: 3

9.
9 The sorting and recombining of genes during
  meiosis and fertilization usually leads to the
  production of
  (1) gametes with many copies of the same
      chromosome
  (2) embryos with traits identical to those of all
      other members of the species
  (3) zygotes with the genetic information to
      produce only females
  (4) offspring with some traits that did not appear
      in their parents
Answer: 4

10.
10 Which situation would most likely produce a
   gene mutation in a squirrel?
   (1) The squirrel stops using its claws for digging.
   (2) The squirrel is exposed to radiation for
       several days.
   (3) Oak trees gradually become less common.
   (4) The weather becomes wetter for a short
       period of time.
Answer: 2

11.
11 Which row in the chart below best describes what happens when some DNA bases are deleted from a
   gene?

Answer: 4

12.
12 The diagram below represents a technique currently used by scientists in the field of biotechnology.
Which statement describes a possible outcome of this technique?
(1) The bacterium is able to produce a human hormone.
(2) It allows the bacterium to grow in humans, since it contains a human gene.
(3) It allows humans to become immune to an infection from this type of bacteria.
(4) The bacterium can now produce human cells identical to cells of the DNA donor.
Answer: 1

13.
13 When antibiotics were first developed, most
   infectious diseases could be controlled by them.
   Today, certain bacteria are resistant to many
   antibiotics. One possible explanation for this
   change is that
   (1) the antibiotics killed most of the bacteria that
       did not have a genetic variation for resistance
   (2) the bacteria needed to change in order to
       produce more antibiotics
   (3) some of the bacteria learned how to resist
       the antibiotics
   (4) antibiotics have become weaker over the
       years
Answer: 1

14.
14 Thousands of genetically identical trees have
   been discovered growing in a remote, undisturbed mountain area in Colorado. These trees
   are most likely the result of
   (1) genetic engineering
   (2) asexual reproduction
   (3) meiotic cell division
   (4) biotechnology
Answer: 2

15.
15 The ability of the human body to keep bloodsugar levels within a fairly narrow range, despite
   the intake of meals high in carbohydrates, is an
   example of
   (1) active transport
   (2) genetic recombination
   (3) homeostasis
   (4) digestion
Answer: 3


16.
16 A large number of sperm cells are produced by
   males every day. This large number of sperm
   cells increases the chance that
   (1) at least one sperm cell will be reached when
       the eggs swim toward the sperm cells in the
       ovary
   (2) several sperm cells will unite with an egg so
       the fertilized egg will develop properly
   (3) some of the sperm cells will survive to reach
       the egg
   (4) enough sperm cells will be present to transport the egg from where it is produced to
       where it develops into a fetus
Answer: 3

17.
17 Which statement best describes the relationship
   between the blood of a human fetus and the
   blood of the mother?
   (1) Their blood systems are separate only at
       certain times in development and connected
       at other times.
   (2) The blood flows directly from the mother
       into the fetus.
   (3) Their blood systems are separate and no
       materials are exchanged.
   (4) Their blood systems are separate, but certain
       materials pass from one to the other.
Answer: 4

18.
18 To replace burned skin, doctors can successfully
   transplant replacement skin taken from another
   part of the body of the burn victim. Which statement best explains why the transplanted skin is
   not rejected?
   (1) The transplanted skin is damaged, making
       the immune system nonfunctional.
   (2) The antigens of the replacement skin are the
       same as those of the damaged skin.
   (3) Burn victims lose so much blood that white
       blood cells cannot cause an immune
       response.
   (4) There is no blood supply to the skin, so
       mixing of antigens does not occur.
Answer: 2

19.
19 The soil on a farm can very quickly become
   depleted of the minerals essential to plants
   because harvesting of crops can interfere with
   the
   (1) reproductive cycles of animals
   (2) recycling of inorganic compounds
   (3) flow of energy
   (4) transport of groundwater
Answer: 2

20.
20 A vaccine used against an infectious disease may
   contain
   (1) specialized blood cells
   (2) toxic enzymes
   (3) a variety of antibiotics
   (4) weakened pathogens
Answer: 4

21.
21 What will most likely occur if two different plant
   species compete for the same requirements in
   an ecosystem?
   (1) They will usually develop different requirements.
   (2) One species may adapt to a different environment.
   (3) One species may be eliminated from that
       ecosystem.
   (4) They will alter the environment so that they
       can both survive in that ecosystem.
Answer: 3

22.
22 Some of the energy taken in by an organism is
   not available to other organisms in a food web.
   Energy that is not available to other organisms in
   a food web is energy that is
   (1) stored in the remains of a dead animal
   (2) lost to the environment as heat
   (3) stored in eggs produced during sexual reproduction
   (4) produced in muscle tissue during the growth
       of an organism
Answer: 2

23.
23 The relationship that exists when athlete’s foot
   fungus grows on a human is an example of
   (1) predator/prey
   (2) producer/consumer
   (3) parasite/host
   (4) decomposer/autotroph
Answer: 3

24.
24 If an ecosystem is changed through a natural
   disaster, organisms will have the best chance of
   survival if
   (1) their environment has few abiotic factors
   (2) the organisms are large
   (3) the population size is small
   (4) their species exhibits genetic variation
Answer: 4

25.
25 In state forests and parks containing varieties of
   flowering trees and shrubs, there are signs that
   say “Take nothing but pictures, leave nothing but
   footprints.” These signs are necessary because
   (1) humans can destroy habitats by removing
       flowering trees and shrubs
   (2) all animals feed directly on flowering shrubs
       that may be removed by people
   (3) removal of flowering trees and shrubs will
       increase biodiversity
   (4) flowering shrubs grow best in state forests
       and parks
Answer: 1

26.
26 Which human activity creates the least threat to
   global stability?
   (1) overuse of resources
   (2) pollution of water with heavy metals
   (3) pollution of air with sulfur gases
   (4) reuse of plastic bags
Answer: 4

27.
27 Which change is a cause of the other three?
   (1) increased fossil fuel consumption
   (2) destruction of the ozone shield
   (3) increased industrialization
   (4) destruction of natural habitats
Answer: 3

28.
28 In an attempt to improve environmental quality,
   local officials in a county in New York State want
   to build a garbage-to-steam plant. At the plant,
   garbage would be burned to produce energy, but
   air pollution would also be produced. In order to
   decide whether or not to build this plant, the
   community must consider
   (1) the trade-offs involved
   (2) new genetic technology
   (3) the natural process of succession
   (4) energy flow between organisms
Answer: 1

29.
29 An evolutionary pathway is represented below.
Which statement about evolutionary pathways is most accurate?
(1) All evolutionary pathways show that life began with autotrophic organisms that soon evolved into
    heterotrophic organisms.
(2) Two organisms on the same branch of an evolutionary pathway are more closely related to each other
    than to those on distant branches.
(3) All the organisms shown at the ends of evolutionary pathway branch tips are alive today.
(4) Evolutionary pathways show that evolution is a short-term process.
Answer: 2

30.
30 Which graph represents a population that grew and is maintained at the carrying capacity of its ecosystem?

Answer: 4


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 A laboratory procedure calls for heating 50 milliliters of a sugar solution to 60°C. Which piece of
   laboratory equipment will not be needed?
   (1) protective eyewear
   (2) ruler
   (3) thermometer
   (4) graduated cylinder
Answer: 2

32.
32 Which statement best describes a hypothesis?
   (1) A hypothesis is the process of making careful
       observations.
   (2) The conclusion drawn from the results of an
       experiment is part of a hypothesis.
   (3) A hypothesis serves as a basis for determining what data to collect when designing an
       experiment.
   (4) The facts collected from an experiment are
       written in the form of a hypothesis.
Answer: 3

33.
33 The diagram below represents a species of bee
   that helps one type of orchid plant reproduce by
   carrying pollen on structure X from one orchid
   flower to another. Pollination by this species of
   bee is the only way the orchid can reproduce.
If this bee species dies out, this orchid species
would most likely
(1) cease to exist
(2) find another animal to carry the pollen
(3) flower at a different time of year
(4) develop another way to reproduce
Answer: 1

34.
34 Which model best represents the relationship
   between a cell, a nucleus, a gene, and a chromosome?

Answer: 3

35.
35 A researcher recently discovered a new species
   of bacteria in the body of a tubeworm living near
   a hydrothermal vent. He compared the DNA of
   this new bacterial species to the DNA of four
   other species of bacteria. The DNA sequences
   came from the same part of the bacterial
   chromosome of all four species.
According to these data, the unknown bacterial
species is most closely related to
(1) species I              (3) species III
(2) species II             (4) species IV
Answer: 4

36.
  Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Alaska: Anchorage — Birders noted a sharp increase in European starlings in the 2005
        Anchorage Christmas Bird Count. The sometimes aggressive species is relatively new to
        Alaska. Only three starlings were spotted during the 1995 Christmas bird count. Last year,
        there were 35. This year, birders counted 156.
                                                                         Source: USA Today, 12/28/05
36 Which graph best represents the change in the number of starlings seen in the Anchorage area?

Answer: 1

37.
37 The change in the starling population in Anchorage from 1995 to 2005 could have been due to the
   presence of
   (1) a large population of competing species           (3) an abundant food supply
   (2) a wide variety of predators                       (4) very few flowering plants
Answer: 3

38.
38 The diagram below represents the bones of the
   forelimbs of two animals alive today that most
   likely evolved from a common ancestor.
   Members of the original ancestral population
   were isolated into two groups by natural events.
If these two animals did have a common ancestor,
which statement would best explain why there
are differences in the bones?
(1) Changes occurred to help the animals return
     to their original environment.
(2) Changes contributed to the survival of the
     organisms in their new environment.
(3) Changes helped reduce competition within
     each group.
(4) Changes indicate the species are evolving to
     be more like the ancestral species.
Answer: 2

39.
39 Within which structure shown in the diagram
   below are energy-rich organic compounds used
   to produce ATP?
(1) 1   (3) 3
(2) 2   (4) 4
Answer: 1

40.
40 The graph below shows the relative concentrations of certain hormones in the blood during the
   human female reproductive cycle.
Which hormone has the lowest concentration on
which day?
(1) hormone A on day 4
(2) hormone B on day 2
(3) hormone C on day 12
(4) hormone D on day 20
Answer: 2

41.
41 Which statement best describes the starch
   content of two leaves taken from the same plant
   shown in the chart below?
(1) Neither leaf contains starch.
(2) Both leaves contain the same amount of
    starch.
(3) Leaf A contains more starch than leaf B.
(4) Leaf B contains more starch than leaf A.
Answer: 4

42.
   Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below, which represents a chemical reaction that
occurs in the human body, and on your knowledge of biology.
42 Substances X and Y are examples of which kind of molecule?
   (1) simple sugar                                       (3) fat
   (2) amino acid                                         (4) hormone
Answer: 1

43.
43 Which statement describes a characteristic of molecule Z?
   (1) Molecule Z will function at any temperature above 20°C.
   (2) Molecule Z is composed of a string of molecular bases represented by A, T, G, and C.
   (3) Molecule Z will function best at a specific pH.
   (4) Molecule Z is not specific, so this reaction can be controlled by any other chemical in the body.
Answer: 3


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding the
choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

44.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 46 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
            To most people, using maggots (fly larvae) for a medical treatment is
         not a great idea. However, to many doctors, fly larvae do have a place in
         medicine, and that place is inside open wounds.
            In maggot debridement therapy, live fly larvae are mixed into a dressing
         for a wound and the area is covered with gauze. Maggots, which will only
         eat dead tissue, feed on damaged flesh and leave the healthy tissue
         behind. In the process, the maggots excrete an antimicrobial chemical
         that helps cleanse the wound of pathogens. When the dressing is cut
         away two or three days later, the maggots, now up to 10 times their
         original size, are easily removed.
            People with diabetes often have impaired wound healing. This could
         lead to infection. Maggot therapy has been used to clean these types of
         wounds.
 44 What is the meaning of the term debridement?
    (1) excretions of pathogens
    (2) impaired wound healing
    (3) removal of dead tissue
    (4) destruction of antimicrobial chemicals
Answer:
3


45.
45 Which group of terms best describes a maggot?
   (1) decomposer, prey, host
   (2) scavenger, heterotroph, consumer
   (3) producer, predator, parasite
   (4) pathogen, carnivore, autotroph
Answer:
2


46.
46 State one possible reason why slow healing of wounds can lead to infection. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — There would be more time for pathogens to cause infection.
           — Slow healing increases exposure time to pathogens.
           — An open wound will provide a suitable environment for pathogens.


47.
   Base your answers to questions 47 through 50 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
               Hydrogen peroxide is a toxic substance produced in an organism as
         a result of certain metabolic processes. Catalase, a biological catalyst
         produced by cells, speeds the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into less
         harmful substances.
               In an investigation, 2-gram pieces of liver (which contains catalase)
         were added to separate dishes. Each dish contained the same amount of
         a 3% solution of hydrogen peroxide, but at different temperatures. The
         relative activity of the catalase was determined. The results were recorded
         and are shown in the data table below.
Directions (47–48): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the
grid on the next page, following the directions below.
47 Mark an appropriate scale on each axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each labeled axis.


48.
48 Plot the data, surround each point with a small circle, and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1]   Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit if points are plotted correctly but not circled.
      Make no assumption about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0).


49.
49 At which temperature does catalase work most effectively? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit for 35°C and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
         limited to:
           — The greatest amount of activity occurs there.
           — It is the highest point on the graph.
           — The rate is highest at this temperature.
         Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s graph for questions 47 and 48.


50.
50 What type of organic substance is catalase? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — an enzyme
           — a catalyst
           — protein


51.
    Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the diagram of nerve cells below and
on your knowledge of biology.
51 In the space below, sketch a chemical molecule that might be released from nerve
   cell A and be recognized and bind to area I of nerve cell B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit.
Note: Accept any shape with a corresponding section that will fit into the receptor on nerve
      cell B.


52.
52 Describe what would happen if a drug molecule shaped like
were introduced into this nerve pathway. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Nothing; the shape would not be accepted by receptors on B.
           — It would not bind with the receptors in area I.


53.
53 Identify one substance, other than the secretions from nerve cells, used in cell
   communication. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — hormones
           — antigens
           — receptor molecules


54.
   Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            If farm fields in the Piedmont region of North Carolina are abandoned, there is a regular sequence of plant species that will inhabit the
         field. The data table below shows a typical sequence of dominant plant
         species.
54 This regular sequence of plant species over the 150-year period is known as
   (1) degrading of the ecosystem
   (2) loss of biodiversity
   (3) ecological succession
   (4) biological evolution
Answer:
3


55.
55 If the oak forest is destroyed by fire and no other disturbances occur, which dominant
   plant species would most likely be found in the region 70 years after the fire? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1]   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — oak trees
        — oak



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
   Base your answers to questions 56 through 58 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
             A park with a small lake is home to a population of ducks. The building
          of a housing complex eliminates a nearby pond. Soon other ducks and
          waterbirds like geese and egrets come to live at this small lake.
 56 State one specific way the new populations of birds may affect the original population of
    ducks. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — New populations of waterbirds will compete with the original population of ducks for
             space/food.
           — New individuals of the same species as the original duck population may compete for
             mates.
           — may bring disease with them
           — original population may decline


57.
57 State one specific way the new populations of birds may change the abiotic factors of the
   environment in and around the lake. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Bird waste will pollute the water and make it cloudy.
           — Additional waste might change the pH of the lake.
           — New birds will decrease the amount of space available to other birds.
         Note: Do not accept just “pollution.” The student’s answer must address a specific abiotic
               factor.


58.
58 Predict one way the new populations of birds may affect the populations of plants that
   live in and around the lake. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — More birds will eat the plants, so the plant populations will decrease in number.
           — Some birds will eat organisms that eat plants. Since there will be fewer primary
             consumers, the plant populations will increase in number.
           — Bird wastes will make the soil more fertile so more plants will grow.
           — The population of plants will decrease.
         Note: Do not accept extinction of the plants.


59.
59 Two life functions performed by all living organisms are nutrition and respiration.
   Identify two other life functions that are essential for the survival of all living organisms.
   Explain how each of the two life functions you identified maintains homeostasis. [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 2 credits if two life functions are identified and the student correctly explains how
           each function maintains homeostasis.
         • Allow 1 credit if one life function is identified and the student correctly explains how that
           function maintains homeostasis.
         Example of a 2-credit response:
               Circulation or transport moves essential materials through the cell or organism.
               Excretion gets rid of potentially harmful wastes.
         Note: Do not accept digestion (part of nutrition) or reproduction (not necessary to maintain
               homeostasis).


60.
60 A population of bats feeds on flying insects. Some of these bats have a gene that results
   in much stronger flight muscles than those of the other bats in the area. Explain how
   this variation could lead to evolutionary change within this species of bat. In your
   answer, be sure to include an explanation of:
   • competition within the bat population [1]
   • survival of various individuals within the bat population [1]
   • how the frequency of the trait for stronger flight muscles would be expected to
     change within the bat population over time [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for an explanation of competition within the bat population. Acceptable
           responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Bats with the variation for stronger flight muscles would most likely catch more flying
               insects than bats without the gene.
         • Allow 1 credit for an explanation of survival of various individuals within the bat population.
           Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — More bats possessing the gene for stronger flight muscles would survive than those
               without.
         • Allow 1 credit for an explanation of how the frequency of the trait for stronger flight muscles
           would be expected to change within the bat population over time. Acceptable responses
           include, but are not limited to:
             — Over time, more bats would possess the variation for stronger flight muscles.


61.
61 Identify one activity of a mother that can disrupt fetal development and explain how this
   activity might affect the development of her fetus. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Having x rays can result in defects in the genes of the fetus.
           — Smoking may cause low birth weight.


62.
   Base your answer to question 62 on the list below and on your knowledge of biology.
The list includes two processes involved in the development of a human fetus.
                                       Processes
                                        mitosis
                                    differentiation
 62 Select one process from the list and describe its role in the development of a human
    fetus. In your answer be sure to:
    • identify the process you selected
    • state the role of this process in fetal development [1]
    • identify the organ in the mother where this process occurs [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for stating the role of the student-selected process in fetal development.
           Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Mitosis produces more cells, causing the fetus to grow.
             — Differentiation causes individual cells to have specialized functions, resulting in the
               formation of tissues and organs.
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the organ in the mother where the student-selected process
           occurs. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          Mitosis
             — uterus
          Differentiation
             — uterus


63.
63 Describe the cycling of carbon in an ecosystem. In your answer be sure to:
   • identify the inorganic carbon compound that is obtained by plants from the
     environment [1]
   • identify the process plants use to form more complex organic molecules from this
     carbon compound [1]
   • describe how herbivores use these complex organic molecules [1]
   • identify the process herbivores use to return carbon to the environment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the inorganic carbon compound that is obtained by plants from
           the environment as carbon dioxide (CO2).
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the process plants use to form more complex organic molecules
           from this carbon compound as photosynthesis.
         • Allow 1 credit for describing how herbivores use these complex organic molecules.
           Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — as a source of energy
             — as a source of nutrients
             — as a source of materials to synthesize other molecules
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the process herbivores use to return carbon to the environment.
           Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — respiration
             — breathing
             — excretion


64.
   Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           Windmill farms are being developed as alternative energy sources in
         some areas of the United States. Windmill farms convert energy from
         the wind into electricity.
 64 State one reason why some residents might be concerned if windmill farms were
    planned for their part of the country. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — It might block their scenic view.
             — interrupt bird flight paths
             — They think they will be too noisy.
             — decrease the amount of open space


65.
65 State one environmental reason why using windmills for energy might be preferred
   over using coal for energy. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Windmill farms reduce air pollution.
             — Wind power is a renewable energy source.
             — Energy doesn’t need to be imported.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (66–78): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice,
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

66.
66 The diagram below represents a laboratory apparatus.
This apparatus is used to
(1) identify the molecular bases in DNA
(2) detect chemical toxins in the air
(3) stain specimens before observing them with a microscope
(4) separate a mixture of plant pigments
Answer:
4


67.
   Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the information and diagram below and on
your knowledge of biology.
           Starch turns blue black in the presence of a starch indicator. Dialysis
         tubing tied at both ends and containing starch solution is placed in a
         beaker of water. Yellowish brown starch indicator is then added to the
         water.
67 What will the solutions in the beaker and the tubing look like after 20 minutes?
   (1) The indicator solution in the beaker will be blue black and the starch solution in the
       tubing will not change color.
   (2) The starch solution in the tubing will be blue black and the indicator solution in the
       beaker will not change color.
   (3) Neither the indicator solution nor the starch solution will be blue black.
   (4) Both the indicator solution and the starch solution will be blue black.
Answer:
2


68.
68 This laboratory setup would most likely be used to demonstrate the process of
   (1) diffusion
   (2) active transport
   (3) replication
   (4) cellular respiration
Answer:
1


69.
   Base your answers to questions 69 through 71 on the chart below showing mRNA base
sequences and the amino acids for which they code.
69 Which three codons would code for a different amino acid sequence from that coded
   for by the mRNA base sequence AGU-UCA-CCA?
   (1) AGC-UCU-CCU
   (2) AGU-UCC-CCG
   (3) AGC-UCA-CUU
   (4) AGU-UCG-CCC
Answer:
3


70.
70 Fill in an mRNA codon that would code for each amino acid shown. [1]
    Amino acid:     ASP           TRP           CYS

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit for:
           Amino acid:              ASP                  TRP                 CYS
           mRNA codon:            GAU or GAC             UGG               UGU or UGC


71.
71 Identify one of the mRNA codons that would stop the coding process. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit for UAA or UAG or UGA.


72.
   Base your answers to questions 72 through 74 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           A scientist conducted an experiment to test the hypothesis that
         maple seeds exposed to acid rain will take longer to germinate than
         seeds exposed to normal rain, which has a pH of 5.6. The scientist set
         up four groups, each containing 200 maple seeds. The water used for
         each group had a different pH value: 5.6, 4.0, 3.0, and 2.0. All other
         conditions were kept the same. After ten days, the number of seeds that
         had germinated in each group was counted.
 72 Identify the control group in this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — group with normal rainwater
             — group with water of pH 5.6


73.
73 Identify the dependent variable in this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — number of seeds that germinated at different pHs
             — how many seeds grew
             — germination of seeds


74.
74 State one example of experimental results that would indicate that acid rain, which has
   a pH between 4.5 and 4.0, could be responsible for a decrease in the number of young
   maple trees in some forest regions. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The control group had 190 seeds germinate, while the experimental group had only
               150 seeds germinate.
             — If fewer seeds germinate at a pH of 4.0, then this result would support the hypothesis
               that acid rain could be responsible for a decrease in the number of trees.


75.
75 A student squeezes a clothespin as rapidly as possible for one minute. Without
   stopping to rest, the student continues to squeeze the clothespin for a second minute.
   At the end of the second minute, the student’s fingers and hand feel very cramped and
   tired. The physical tiredness and cramping in the muscles in the student’s hand were
   most likely due to the increased production of
   (1) ATP
   (2) waste products
   (3) oxygen
   (4) glucose
Answer:
2


76.
76 A technique that can be used to compare the DNA of two or more plants is
   (1) cloning
   (2) chromatography
   (3) staining
   (4) gel electrophoresis
Answer:
4


77.
77 Three different species of finch inhabit one particular Galapagos Island. All three
   species of finch prefer plant food and have edge-crushing bills. Explain how all three
   species of finch can live successfully on the same island. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The finches may eat different-size seeds or plant parts.
             — They may not compete for the same food.
             — They may live on different parts of the island.
             — They may have different niches.


78.
78 Describe what will happen to red onion cells in a wet-mount slide when a saltwater
   solution is added to them. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Water will move out of the cell (diffuse).
             — The cell contents will shrink.



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