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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2010 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 An ecosystem that has almost the same number
  and type of organisms for many years is exhibiting
  (1) feedback
  (2) global instability
  (3) environmental change
  (4) equilibrium
Answer: 4

2.
2 Which system is correctly paired with its function?
  (1) immune system—intake and distribution of
      oxygen to cells of the body
  (2) excretory system—remove potentially
      dangerous materials from the body
  (3) digestive system—transport energy-rich
      molecules to cells
  (4) circulatory system—produce building blocks
      of complex compounds
Answer: 2

3.
3 Which statement concerning the reproductive
  cells in the diagram below is correct?
(1) The cells are produced by mitosis and
    contain all the genetic information of the
    father.
(2) If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the
    offspring will be identical to the father.
(3) Each of these cells contains only half the
    genetic information necessary for the formation
    of an offspring.
(4) An egg fertilized by one of these cells will
    develop into a female with the same characteristics as the mother.
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which set of functions is directly controlled by
  the cell membrane?
  (1) protein synthesis, respiration, digestion of
      food molecules
  (2) active transport, recognition of chemical
      messages, protection
  (3) enzyme production, elimination of large
      molecules, duplication of DNA codes
  (4) release of ATP molecules, regulation of cell
      reproduction, food production
Answer: 2

5.
5 When a new viral infection appears in a population,
  scientists usually try to develop a vaccine against
  the virus. Which substances would most likely be
  contained in the new vaccine?
  (1) live bacteria that ingest viruses
  (2) white blood cells from an infected individual
  (3) weakened viruses associated with the infection
  (4) a variety of microbes that will attack the virus
Answer: 3

6.
6 The human heart and lungs contain cells that
  (1) produce a hormone involved in respiration
  (2) have the same genetic information but
      perform different specialized functions
  (3) use one part of the genetic code to synthesize
      all enzymes needed by the cell
  (4) contain different numbers of DNA molecules
Answer: 2

7.
7 The diversity of organisms present on Earth is
  the result of
  (1) ecosystem stability (3) natural selection
  (2) homeostasis          (4) direct harvesting
Answer: 3

8.
8 Some stages in the development of an organism are represented in the diagram below.
Which levels of biological organization do stages 2 and 7 have in common?
(1) cells and organs                                       (3) tissues and organelles
(2) cells and tissues                                      (4) organelles and cells
Answer: 4

9.
9 Plants in species A cannot fight most fungal infections. Plants in species B make a protein that kills many
  fungi. One possible way for humans to produce species A plants with the ability to synthesize this protein
  would be to
  (1) mutate fungal DNA and introduce the mutated DNA into species B using a virus
  (2) add DNA from species B into the soil around species A
  (3) insert the gene for the protein from species B into a chromosome in species A
  (4) cross species A and a fungus to stimulate the synthesis of this protein
Answer: 3

10.
10 The diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis.
This process can be used to explain
(1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their parents
(2) the process of differentiation in offspring
(3) why some offspring physically resemble their parents
(4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring
Answer: 4

11.
11 Which phrase, if placed in box X, would correctly complete the flowchart shown below?
(1)   Increased use of starch in root cells
(2)   Increased concentration of glucose in leaf cells
(3)   Decreased ATP in root cells
(4)   Decreased concentration of oxygen in leaf cells
Answer: 2

12.
12 The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism.
The level represented by X is composed of
(1) four types of base subunits
(2) folded chains of glucose molecules
(3) twenty different kinds of amino acids
(4) complex, energy-rich inorganic molecules
Answer: 1

13.
13 Scientists have discovered that the Oklahoma
   salamander, Eurycea tynerensis, develops into
   its adult form in streams where the streambeds
   are made of fine, tightly packed gravel.
   Salamanders living in streams with streambeds
   made of large, loosely packed gravel remain
   immature. This situation is an example of
   (1) the production of gametes
   (2) faulty genes found in aquatic organisms
   (3) development influenced by the environment
   (4) the production of new organisms by environmental engineering
Answer: 3

14.
14 Which statement is best supported by the theory
   of evolution?
   (1) Genetic alterations occur every time cell
       reproduction occurs.
   (2) The fossil record provides samples of every
       organism that ever lived.
   (3) Populations that have advantageous characteristics will increase in number.
   (4) Few organisms survive when the environment remains the same.
Answer: 3

15.
15 A chemical known as 5-bromouracil causes a
   mutation that results in the mismatching of
   molecular bases in DNA. The offspring of organisms
   exposed to 5-bromouracil can have mismatched
   DNA if the mutation occurs in
   (1) the skin cells of the mother
   (2) the gametes of either parent
   (3) all the body cells of both parents
   (4) only the nerve cells of the father
Answer: 2


16.
16 A species that lacks the variation necessary to
   adapt to a changing environment is more likely to
   (1) develop many mutated cells
   (2) become extinct over time
   (3) begin to reproduce sexually
   (4) develop resistance to diseases
Answer: 2

17.
17 A particular species of shark normally reproduces
   sexually. In captivity, it was found that a female
   could also reproduce asexually. One
   negative result from asexual reproduction is
   (1) increased gene recombinations
   (2) increased number of males produced
   (3) decreased number of eggs used
   (4) decreased biodiversity within the species
Answer: 4

18.
18 Which situation involves a risk to a fetus due to
   the mother smoking during pregnancy?
   (1) decreased digestive activity in the stomach of
       the fetus
   (2) a decrease in the amount of oxygen in the
       ovary of the mother
   (3) inhalation of secondhand smoke by the fetus
   (4) toxins in the bloodstream of the mother
Answer: 4

19.
19 Drugs to reduce the risk of rejection are given to
   organ transplant patients because the donated
   organ contains
   (1) foreign antigens
   (2) foreign antibodies
   (3) DNA molecules
   (4) pathogenic microbes
Answer: 1

20.
20 A reproductive system is represented in the
   diagram below.
If an injury occurred to the structure labeled A,
the most likely result would be a problem with
(1) delivery of sperm
(2) production of gametes
(3) production of hormones
(4) excretion of urine
Answer: 1

21.
21 The leaves of a plant are dotted with openings
   known as stomata. When open, stomata allow
   the plant to exchange gases and allow moisture
   to evaporate, helping to draw water from the
   roots up into the plant. These activities help the
   plant to
   (1) produce light energy
   (2) maintain homeostasis
   (3) decompose organic matter
   (4) synthesize minerals
Answer: 2

22.
22 A stable ecosystem is characterized by having
   (1) predators that outnumber their prey
   (2) a continual input of energy
   (3) limited autotrophic nutrition
   (4) no competition between species
Answer: 2

23.
23 The pedigree of Seattle Slew, a racehorse considered by some to be one of the fastest horses
   that ever lived, includes very fast horses on both
   his mother’s side and his father’s side. Seattle
   Slew most likely was a result of
   (1) environmental selection
   (2) alteration of DNA molecules
   (3) selective breeding
   (4) a sudden mutation
Answer: 3

24.
24 Changes in an ecosystem over a long period of
   time are shown in the diagram below.
These changes will most likely lead to a
(1) stable ecosystem that can last for many years
(2) loss of heterotrophs that cannot be recovered
(3) long-term rise in environmental temperatures
(4) forest consisting of only producers and
    decomposers
Answer: 1

25.
25 Which situation indicates a serious organ system
   malfunction?
   (1) The ovary releases estrogen, which quickly
       binds to cell receptors.
   (2) Blood flow throughout the entire body is
       suddenly reduced.
   (3) White blood cells release enzymes in
       response to the proteins on inhaled pollen.
   (4) Mitochondria stop functioning in a unicellular
       organism exposed to pollutants.
Answer: 2

26.
26 Which pair of organisms would most likely compete
   for the same ecological niche?
   (1) bacteria and fungi
   (2) deer and wolf
   (3) tree and fungi
   (4) deer and bacteria
Answer: 1

27.
27 Rabbits introduced into Australia over one
   hundred years ago have become a serious pest.
   Rabbit populations have increased so much that
   they have displaced many native species of herbivores. Which statement best explains the reason
   for their increased numbers?
   (1) Rabbits have a high metabolic rate.
   (2) There are few native predators of rabbits.
   (3) Additional rabbit species have been introduced.
   (4) There is an increase in rabbit competitors.
Answer: 2

28.
28 Which human activity would preserve finite
   resources?
   (1) deforestation
   (2) removing carnivores from a forest
   (3) recycling aluminum
   (4) heating homes with fossil fuels
Answer: 3

29.
29 Abandoned railroad tracks are overgrown with
   weeds. Ten years later there are small aspen trees
   growing in the middle of the tracks. This change
   is an example of
   (1) ecological succession
   (2) biological evolution
   (3) genetic variation
   (4) heterotrophic nutrition
Answer: 1

30.
30 Which action would be least likely to harm
   endangered species?
   (1) releasing more carbon dioxide into the
       atmosphere
   (2) reducing the human population
   (3) decreasing the amount of dissolved oxygen in
       the oceans
   (4) reducing the thickness of the ozone layer
Answer: 2


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 The graph below represents the growth of bacteria cultured at three different temperatures over a period
   of 24 hours.
Which statement concerning the rate of cell division in the bacteria culture is correct?
(1) Cell division is most rapid at 37°C between 6 and 8 hours after it began.
(2) Cell division is most rapid at 25°C between 20 and 24 hours after it began.
(3) Cell division is most rapid at 18°C between 4 and 8 hours after it began.
(4) Cell division occurs at the same rate no matter what the temperature.
Answer: 1

32.
32 A wet-mount slide preparation of a specimen is
   stained in order to
   (1) eliminate some organelles
   (2) make cell structures more visible
   (3) use the high-power lens
   (4) remove water from the slide
Answer: 2

33.
33 Which set of terms correctly identifies the
   procedure shown in the diagram below and a
   substance produced by this procedure?
(1)   selective breeding—growth hormone
(2)   cloning—antibiotics
(3)   genetic engineering—insulin
(4)   replicating—glucose
Answer: 3

34.
34 The diagram below represents structures found
   in a human female.
Which process results in the formation of
structure X?
(1) mitosis           (3) recombination
(2) meiosis           (4) cloning
Answer: 2

35.
35 The graph below shows changes in the stability
   of an ecosystem over a period of time.
Which statement best describes the change in
ecosystem stability shown in the graph?
(1) A stable ecosystem can be altered, then it
    can recover to a point of stability.
(2) An ecosystem remains unchanged as its
    stability decreases.
(3) The stability of an ecosystem remains
    unchanged but its biodiversity decreases.
(4) A stable ecosystem cannot recover after it is
    altered.
Answer: 1

36.
36 Two interactions between organisms are shown
   in the table below. X and Y do not represent the
   same organisms in the two interactions.
Which statement best describes the relationship
between organism X and organism Y in each
interaction?
(1) Organism X is positively affected by the
    relationship and organism Y is negatively
    affected.
(2) Organism X is negatively affected by the
    relationship and organism Y is positively
    affected.
(3) Both organisms are positively affected by the
    relationship.
(4) Both organisms are negatively affected by
    the relationship.
Answer: 1

37.
37 The diagrams below illustrate types of asexual reproduction.
Which statement correctly describes the offspring?
(1) They vary genetically from the parent.           (3) They obtain nourishment from a placenta.
(2) They are produced by the union of gametes.       (4) They result without the union of gametes.
Answer: 4

38.
Base your answer to question 38 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
        A reporter conducted a number of “on-the-street” interviews with people selected at
      random. The reporter found that many people gave responses similar to those of the
      person quoted below.
38 Which statement is best supported by these interviews?
   (1) Many people are very aware of the possible effects of global warming.
   (2) Many people care more about their personal comforts than about the possible effects of global warming.
   (3) Many people are willing to sacrifice to reduce the possible effects of global warming.
   (4) Many people are now taking action to reduce the possible effects of global warming.
Answer: 2

39.
   Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the diagram below, which represents a pond food web, and on
your knowledge of biology.
39 Which energy pyramid most accurately shows the energy relationships between three organisms in this
   food web?

Answer: 2

40.
40 Which statement best describes what will most likely happen if the amphipod population is removed from
   this food web?
   (1) Population sizes of species at feeding levels both before and after amphipods will decrease.
   (2) Population sizes of species at feeding levels both before and after amphipods will increase.
   (3) Population sizes of species at feeding levels after amphipods will increase and before amphipods will
       decrease.
   (4) Population sizes of species at feeding levels after amphipods will decrease and before amphipods will
       increase.
Answer: 4

41.
41 A biological process that occurs in both plants and animals is shown below.
Which row in the chart below identifies the lettered substances in this process?

Answer: 2

42.
42 The graph below shows data on human population growth.
The trend shown on the graph would most likely result in
(1) a decreased demand for deforestation
(2) an increase in available freshwater
(3) a decrease in air pollution
(4) an increased demand for land use
Answer: 4

43.
43 The diagram below represents the varying biodiversity in three ecosystems.
The level of biodiversity in ecosystem A is high because it has the
(1) least variety of energy levels                          (3) greatest number of decomposers
(2) greatest variety of genetic material                    (4) least number of ecological niches
Answer: 2


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding the
choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

44.
44 The graph below shows the growth of a field mouse population in an ecosystem over
   time.
The dashed line indicating the carrying capacity for the mouse population is correctly
shown on which graph?

Answer:
2


45.
   Base your answers to questions 45 through 48 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                       Sudden Death from a Marine Predator
           Members of the Conidae family (cone snails) have been collected for
         centuries for their beautiful and elaborately detailed shells. Cone snails
         are marine mollusks found in reef environments throughout the world.
           Cone snails feed on organisms such as fish, worms, and other
         mollusks. They are very slow moving but capture their prey by paralyzing
         them using venom. The venom contains some of the most deadly
         neurotoxins known. The neurotoxins work by attaching to receptor
         molecules on nerves, blocking the transmission of nerve impulses. The
         neurotoxins are injected into the prey by way of a hollow, spearlike
         tooth and the effects are usually immediate. One species, a fish-eating
         cone snail, can paralyze the prey in about two seconds.
           The venom produced by each species is prey specific. It may contain
         two or more different types of neurotoxins, each composed of long
         chains of amino acids.
 45 Explain how a neurotoxin present in the venom can paralyze one type of prey but not
    another. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The prey must contain the receptor for that particular neurotoxin to produce its effect.
             — The neurotoxin usually binds to a specific receptor.
             — The neurotoxins are prey specific.


46.
46 State one way the neurotoxin protein in the venom of cone snails can be different. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The amino acid sequence can be different.
             — The number of amino acids can be different.


47.
47 Explain why paralyzing its prey in only two seconds is an advantage to fish-eating cone
   snails. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Since the snail moves very slowly, its prey does not have a chance to swim away.
             — so prey don’t get away


48.
48 Cone snails of the same species often exhibit variations in the patterns of their shells.
   State one possible cause for these variations appearing in the shell pattern within the
   population of the cone snails. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — DNA differences
             — mutations
             — gene recombination
             — environmental conditions


49.
   Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Due to the negative effects on the environment of burning coal and
         oil, society is looking for alternate energy resources that are renewable.
 49 Identify one renewable resource that can be used to generate energy. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — wind
             — running water
             — the Sun/solar energy
             — geothermal


50.
50 State one benefit, other than the fact that it is renewable, of using this resource. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — may pollute less
             — no greenhouse gases
         Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 49.


51.
51 A student, using a metric ruler, measured a larva as represented in the diagram below.
What is the length of the larva, in millimeters? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 15 mm ± 2 mm.


52.
   Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the information and data table below
and on your knowledge of biology.
            An investigation was carried out over a five-year period to measure
         the effect of color on the survival of trout in a stream. The stream
         contained many brightly colored stones and food was plentiful. At the
         start of the investigation (year 0), 100 bright-colored trout and 100
         drab-colored trout were placed into a section of the stream that had
         been blocked with netting. Investigators monitored the trout populations
         for five years and recorded the water condition each time a count was
         done. The data collected are shown in the table below.
Directions (52–54): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on
the grid on the following page, following the directions below.
52 Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each labeled axis.


53.
53 Plot the data for the bright-colored trout on the grid. Surround each point with a small
   circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for the bright-colored trout, surrounding each point
       with a small circle, and connecting the points.


54.
54 Plot the data for the drab-colored trout on the grid. Surround each point with a small
   triangle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for the drab-colored trout, surrounding each point
with a small triangle, and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit only if circles and triangles are used.
      Make no assumptions about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.
      Do not deduct more than 1 credit for plotting points that are not in the data table or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


55.
55 Explain how trout survival is related to the color of trout and the environmental
   condition of the stream. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Drab-colored trout survive better in cloudy water because they blend in with water.
   — Brightly colored trout survive better in clear water because they blend in with the
     brightly colored stones.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–62): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
Base your answer to question 56 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
         In a cell, a variety of structures perform specific functions and interact
      to maintain homeostasis. The diagram below represents a typical cell
      with three cell structures labeled 1, 2, and 3.
56 Select one cell structure labeled in the diagram and write its number in the space
   below. Explain how the cell structure you selected helps maintain homeostasis in a cell.
   In your answer, be sure to:
   • identify the cell structure you selected [1]
   • state one function of this cell structure [1]
   • identify one substance that is often associated with the cell structure you selected
     and state how that substance is associated with the cell structure [1]
   • identify one other cell structure and explain how it interacts with the cell structure
     you selected to maintain homeostasis in the cell [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the cell structure selected.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one function of the cell structure.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying one substance that is often associated with the cell structure
  selected and for stating how that substance is associated with the cell structure.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying one other cell structure and explaining how it interacts with the
  cell structure selected to maintain homeostasis in the cell.
Note: Allow credit for each bulleted response that correctly describes the structure identified
      by the student in bullet one (i.e., allow 3 credits if the student incorrectly identifies
      structure 1 as a mitochondrion but correctly describes a mitochondrion in bullets 2
      through 4).
Examples of 4-credit responses:
Structure 1
    • ribosome
    • site of protein synthesis
    • amino acid — used to make proteins
    • nucleus — the ribosome gets instructions from the nucleus determining which proteins are
      produced by the cell
Structure 2
    • nucleus
    • control of cell processes
    • DNA — makes up the chromosomes in the nucleus
    • ribosome — nucleus sends instructions to ribosomes for protein synthesis
Structure 3
    • mitochondrion
    • site of energy release/cell respiration
    • ATP — produced in the mitochondrion
    • cell membrane — allows glucose to enter cell and be used by the mitochondrion for
      energy release


57.
57 The table below lists enzymes that function in different locations in the human body,
   and the temperature and pH ranges of these locations.
Different enzymes are secreted in each of the three locations. Ptyalin digests carbohydrates. 
Pepsin and trypsin both digest proteins. Discuss the activity of these
enzymes. In your answer, be sure to:
• state how the activity of pepsin will most likely change after it moves with the food
  from the stomach to the small intestine [1]
• support your answer using data from the table [1]
• state how a fever of 40°C would most likely affect the activity of these enzymes and
  support your answer [1]
• identify the characteristic of enzymes that prevents ptyalin and trypsin from
  digesting the same type of food [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating how the activity of pepsin will most likely change after it moves with
  the food from the stomach to the small intestine. Acceptable responses include, but are not
  limited to:
   — Pepsin will either stop functioning or slow down.
• Allow 1 credit for supporting the answer using data from the table. Acceptable responses
  include, but are not limited to:
   — This is because the pH range in the small intestine is 7.5 to 9.0 and pepsin normally
     functions at 1.0 to 3.0.
• Allow 1 credit for stating how a fever of 40°C would most likely affect the activity of these
  enzymes and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — A fever of 40°C could slow/stop enzyme functioning, since these enzymes work best at
     around 37°C.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the characteristic of enzymes that prevents ptyalin and trypsin
  from digesting the same type of food. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Ptyalin and trypsin cannot both digest the same type of food because enzymes are
     specific.
   — They have different shapes.


58.
58 Consuming large volumes of soft drinks containing sugar during the day can disrupt
   homeostasis. Describe how the human body responds to restore sugar balance. In your
   answer, be sure to:
   • identify the hormone responsible for restoring homeostasis [1]
   • identify the organ that releases this hormone [1]
   • state one possible reason why sugar levels may remain high even though this
     hormone has been released [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the hormone responsible for restoring homeostasis as insulin.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the organ that releases this hormone as the pancreas.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one possible reason why sugar levels may remain high even though
  this hormone has been released. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Not enough insulin is released.
   — The person has diabetes.
   — There are not many insulin receptors.


59.
59 Each of the environmental problems listed below has had an impact on ecosystems.
                              increased ultraviolet radiation
                                     global warming
   Select one of these problems and write it in the space below. Explain how this problem
   has affected an ecosystem. In your answer, be sure to:
   • identify one specific cause of the environmental problem [1]
   • identify one organism that has been affected by the problem and state one way that
     organism has been affected [1]
   • state one action that can be taken to lessen the impact of this problem on the
     environment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying one specific cause of the environmental problem. Acceptable
           responses include, but are not limited to:
             — increased ultraviolet radiation: thinning of the protective ozone shield
             — global warming: deforestation or increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
         Note: Do not accept just pollution.
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying one organism that has been affected by the problem and stating
           one way that organism has been affected. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — increased ultraviolet radiation: Humans have developed skin cancers.
             — global warming: Polar bear habitat is being reduced in size.
         • Allow 1 credit for stating one action that can be taken to lessen the impact of this problem on
           the environment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — increased ultraviolet radiation: continue to ban the use of CFCs/don’t use CFCs
             — global warming: reforest/plant trees or use alternative energy sources


60.
   Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            In the abyssal zones (deepest zones) of oceans, organisms live in an
         ecosystem that lacks sunlight. Other environmental conditions include
         temperatures of 4°C and extremely high water pressure. Dead material
         from upper ocean zones sinks and settles in the abyssal zone.
 60 State one possible way that some organisms living permanently in the abyssal zone
    could obtain energy. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — They obtain energy from living or dead organisms that descend from the upper levels.
             — Wastes from above drop down.
             — feeding on organisms that live there


61.
61 Many of the animals in the abyssal zone possess light-producing cells in specific parts
   of their bodies. State one possible use for these lights. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — attract food organisms
             — attract a mate
             — find food


62.
62 Animals from the abyssal zone can not survive in upper ocean zones. State one
   possible reason for this. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — not enough pressure
             — too warm
             — not adapted to that environment
             — no food they normally eat



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (63–75): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

63.
   Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the information and diagram below
and on your knowledge of biology.
           DNA samples were collected from four children. The diagram below
         represents the results of a procedure that separated the DNA in each
         sample.
63 Identify the procedure used to obtain these results. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — electrophoresis
   — gel electrophoresis
   — DNA fingerprinting


64.
64 Band X represents the
  (1) largest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest
  (2) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the fastest
  (3) largest fragment of DNA that traveled the slowest
  (4) smallest fragment of DNA that traveled the slowest
Answer:
2


65.
65 The DNA is most similar in which two children? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for B and D and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — most similar because they have the most bands in common


66.
66 State one way information obtained from this procedure can be used. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — to determine paternity/maternity
   — to help solve a crime
   — to identify an accident victim
   — to diagnose disorders


67.
67 A technique used to analyze pigments in spinach leaves is shown in the diagram below.
This technique is known as
(1) paper chromatography
(2) gene manipulation
(3) dissection
(4) staining
Answer:
1


68.
68 A student conducted an experiment to determine if listening to different types of music
   would affect pulse rate. She thought that pulse rate would change with different types
   of music. Each person participating in her experiment listened to seven different selections
   of music for 30 seconds each. The pulse rates were taken after each 30-second interval
   of music. Based on her experiment, the student concluded that a person’s pulse rate
   changed when listening to different types of music.
   The component missing from this experiment is a
   (1) prediction
   (2) hypothesis
   (3) control group
   (4) research plan
Answer:
3


69.
69 An experiment was carried out to determine whether drinking caffeinated soda
   increases pulse rate. The pulse rates of two groups of people at rest were measured.
   Group A was then given caffeinated soda and group B was given caffeine-free soda.
   One hour after drinking the soda, the pulse rates were measured. The participants in
   the experiment were all the same age, and they were all given the same amount of soda.
   The dependent variable in this experiment is the
   (1) type of soda given to each group
   (2) amount of soda given to each group
   (3) pulse rate of each group
   (4) age of participants in each group
Answer:
3


70.
    Base your answer to question 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.
            A student states that exercise will affect the number of times a
         person can squeeze a clothespin in a certain amount of time. An experiment 
         is carried out to test this hypothesis. One group of ten students
         sits quietly before squeezing a clothespin as many times as possible
         during a one-minute interval. A second group of ten students does
         25 jumping jacks before squeezing a clothespin as many times as
         possible during a one-minute interval.
 70 State one way the experiment could be improved in order to increase the validity of the
    results. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — increase the number of students in each group
   — repeat the experiment several times


71.
    Base your answer to questions 71 and 72 on the information in the diagram below and
on your knowledge of biology.
71 Small ground finches and medium ground finches live on an island with abundant plant
   and animal food. Predict how the small ground finch and the medium ground finch
   would be affected if warbler finches migrated to the island where these finches live.
   Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There would be no effect because they eat different food.
   — The ground finch populations may increase if the warbler finch eats animals that
     consume the same plants eaten by the ground finches.
   — The ground finch populations may decrease if the warbler finch competes for nesting
     sites.


72.
72 The differences observed in the bird beaks are most likely due to
   (1) asexual reproduction of these finch species
   (2) the selection for different shaped beaks that best suit different niches
   (3) the genetic recombination associated with mitotic cell division
   (4) the genetic engineering of the DNA of each of these species
Answer:
2


73.
   Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the laboratory setup illustrated below
and on your knowledge of biology.
73 Identify the color of the contents of the artificial cell after two hours. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — blue black


74.
74 After two hours, the color of the liquid in the beaker did not change. This shows that
   (1) glucose moved from the artificial cell into the beaker
   (2) starch did not pass out of the artificial cell
   (3) starch was digested to glucose in the artificial cell
   (4) glucose molecules combined to produce starch in the artificial cell
Answer:
2


75.
75 This laboratory setup would most likely be used to demonstrate
   (1) carbohydrate synthesis
   (2) active transport
   (3) diffusion
   (4) dehydration
Answer:
3



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