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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2012 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 The cell represented below produces oxygen.
Which structure allows the passage of this oxygen
to the environment?
(1) A                     (3) C
(2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 2

2.
2 The diagram below represents a cell and several
  molecules. The number of molecules shown
  represents the relative concentration of the
  molecules inside and outside of the cell.
Molecule B could enter the cell as a direct result
of
(1) digestion
(2) diffusion
(3) active transport
(4) enzyme production
Answer: 3

3.
3 Which two terms are considered to be opposite
  processes?
  (1) photosynthesis and autotrophic nutrition
  (2) cloning and mitosis
  (3) digestion and synthesis
  (4) dynamic equilibrium and homeostasis
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which statement concerning cell communication
  is correct?
  (1) DNA codes for certain molecules that
      become cell receptors involved in cell
      communication.
  (2) Cells produce ATP molecules, which
      become cell receptors for communication.
  (3) Cells build new cell parts, which function as
      communication genes.
  (4) Certain proteins use cell communication to
      build new cell parts made of DNA.
Answer: 1

5.
5 A towel placed on a lawn for a length of time can
  cause the grass beneath it to lose its green color.
  The most probable explanation for this is that
  darkness
  (1) affects the expression of certain genes in the
      grass
  (2) causes a mutation in the plants
  (3) affects the structure of cell membranes in
      the grass
  (4) causes plants to switch to heterotrophic
      nutrition
Answer: 1

6.
6 Which sequence correctly represents the
  arrangement of structures containing genetic
  material, from the largest to the smallest size?
  (1) chromosome → gene → nucleus
  (2) nucleus → chromosome → gene
  (3) gene → chromosome → nucleus
  (4) gene → nucleus → chromosome
Answer: 2

7.
7 The DNA of a fly and the DNA of a gorilla are
  made up of subunits that are
  (1) arranged in the same order in both species
  (2) arranged in chains of the same length in both
      species
  (3) different bases in each of the two species
  (4) in different sequences in each of the two
      species
Answer: 4

8.
8 The diagram below represents one process that
  might occur in cells.
Which process is represented in the diagram?
(1) cell reproduction    (3) mutation
(2) meiosis              (4) gene replication
Answer: 3

9.
9 The way a protein molecule is folded determines
  the shape of the molecule, which determines the
  (1) function of that protein
  (2) structure of ATP containing that protein
  (3) type of simple sugars in that protein
  (4) amino acids in that protein
Answer: 1

10.
10 In order for a species to evolve, it must be able to
   (1) consume a large quantity of food
   (2) reproduce successfully
   (3) maintain a constant body temperature
   (4) be domesticated
Answer: 2

11.
11 Domestic horses have a greater diversity of coat
   colors than that of wild horses. The process that
   led to a greater diversity of coat colors in domestic horses is
   (1) selective breeding      (3) gene alteration
   (2) random mutation         (4) natural selection
Answer: 1

12.
12 A population of white moths lives in a forest near
   a factory. This factory burns coal and pollutes the
   air with black dust. Over time, this dust has
   settled on the trees in the area, making them
   darker in color. This could result in
   (1) an increase in the white moth population
   (2) a decrease in the white moth population
   (3) an increase in the number of trees in the
       area
   (4) a decrease in the air pollution affecting the
       area
Answer: 2

13.
13 The crucian carp, a Scandinavian fish, thrives in
   shallow ponds that freeze over during winter.
   While other creatures in the pond die from lack
   of oxygen, these carp are able to obtain energy
   through a biochemical pathway that does not
   require oxygen. This characteristic is an example
   of a
   (1) feedback mechanism common to carnivores
        that inhabit shallow pond ecosystems
   (2) favorable adaptive trait that has led to
        increased survival
   (3) stage of succession that leads to a new
        community
   (4) gene mutation that occurred because carp
        need to survive to maintain ecological stability
Answer: 2

14.
14 Examination of ancient rock layers at a certain
   location reveals many different fossils. Which
   conclusion can be drawn concerning the species
   that formed these fossils?
   (1) Only the predators are still present.
   (2) Many of them are now extinct.
   (3) They produced offspring that were all
       genetically identical.
   (4) They had no variations due to mutations.
Answer: 2

15.
15 Breathing rate is constantly being monitored and
   adjusted in the human body, which results in
   (1) the differentiation of mature body cells
   (2) feedback mechanisms removing damaged cells
   (3) modification of gene activity in cells
   (4) the internal environment being kept within
       certain limits
Answer: 4


16.
16 Modern technology could be used to clone pet
   dogs and cats. The cloned animals would resemble
   the original pets because
   (1) the genes of the new animals are different
       from those of the original pets
   (2) half of the genetic information of the new
       animals is the same as that of the original
       pets
   (3) the new animals have mutations not found in
       the original pets
   (4) the new animals have the same genetic
       information as the original pets
Answer: 4

17.
17 The colors and scents of plants attract helpful
   insects and repel insects that feed on them. The
   production of the proteins that provide these
   colors and scents is the direct result of the
   (1) behavior learned from parent plants
   (2) presence of specific genes
   (3) the genetic makeup of the surrounding
       vegetation
   (4) inability of plants to move as animals do
Answer: 2

18.
18 Which situation would be part of the normal
   reproductive cycle of a human?
   (1) the presence of testosterone regulating
       gamete production in a male
   (2) estrogen in concentrations that would produce
       sperm in a female
   (3) a high progesterone level in a male
   (4) a low insulin level in either a male or a
       female
Answer: 1

19.
19 What is the primary source of energy for all the
   organisms in the ecosystem represented below?
(1)   photosynthesis in the producers
(2)   respiration in the heterotrophs
(3)   light energy from the Sun
(4)   minerals from the rocks
Answer: 3

20.
20 Which statement best describes enzymes?
   (1) Every enzyme controls many different
       reactions.
   (2) The rate of activity of an enzyme might
       change as pH changes.
   (3) Temperature changes do not affect enzymes.
   (4) Enzymes are produced from the building
       blocks of carbohydrates.
Answer: 2

21.
21 More energy can be released from a fat molecule
   than from a glucose molecule because the fat
   molecule contains more
   (1) genes                (3) chemical bonds
   (2) organic compounds (4) mitochondria
Answer: 3

22.
22 People who have AIDS are more likely than
   others to become ill with multiple infections
   because the pathogen that causes AIDS
   (1) targets many body systems
   (2) mutates, releasing toxins directly into the
       bloodstream
   (3) increases the rate of enzyme activity in
       different types of body cells
   (4) damages the immune system
Answer: 4

23.
23 Which organism would most likely have new
   gene combinations?
   (1) a frog that was produced from a skin cell of a
       frog
   (2) a hamster resulting from sexual reproduction
   (3) a bacterium resulting from asexual reproduction
   (4) a starfish that grew from part of a starfish
Answer: 2

24.
24 A certain fungus can be harmful when it infects
   the outermost layers of the human foot, while
   another type of fungus can be beneficial when it
   recycles nutrients by breaking down dead
   organisms. Which terms identify these two roles
   of fungi?
   (1) producer, prey
   (2) host, autotroph
   (3) parasite, decomposer
   (4) herbivore, predator
Answer: 3

25.
25 Shawangunk Grasslands National Wildlife
   Refuge has been developed from an abandoned
   airport to restore habitat for six species of birds
   that require an area rich in tall grasses. Workers
   must continually remove trees that are beginning
   to invade the area as a result of
   (1) direct harvesting
   (2) genetic engineering
   (3) evolutionary change
   (4) ecological succession
Answer: 4

26.
26 In order for an ecosystem to remain stable there
   must be
   (1) drastic modifications to the environment
   (2) interrelationships and interdependencies
       among organisms
   (3) limited biodiversity
   (4) gradual changes in the climate
Answer: 2

27.
27 Some data suggest that the average global
   temperature will increase by 1°C–2°C by the
   year 2050. If this occurs, a major concern for
   humans would most likely be that
   (1) sea levels might rise enough to flood some
       coastal areas
   (2) long-term stability of the climate will benefit
       ecosystems
   (3) the availability of salt water for agricultural
       use will increase
   (4) the threat of extinction of land organisms will
       decrease
Answer: 1

28.
28 A wetland provides a variety of services for an
   ecosystem, such as filtering pollutants from the
   water, allowing animals to lay eggs and reproduce,
   and producing fertile soils for plants. When
   humans build houses on wetland areas, they
   always
   (1) change this area so these processes can still
       take place
   (2) create new habitats for the wetland species
   (3) transport the wetland species to a new area
   (4) make changes that might not be reversible
Answer: 4

29.
29 Which occurrence most likely led to the other
   three?
   (1) Human population growth reached 6.8 billion
       in 2010 and it continues to increase.
   (2) The number of African elephants has
       declined from 1.2 million in 1979 to about
       20,000 today.
   (3) Approximately 6,500 gallons of oil were
       spilled into a river in Illinois after a pipeline
       broke.
   (4) At one time, rain forests covered 14 percent
       of Earth and today they cover only 6 percent.
Answer: 1

30.
30 A community is trying to decide on the location
   for a new shopping center. Two possible locations
   have been proposed, with each location having
   some benefits and some problems. The proper
   approach to deciding the best location would be
   to
   (1) select the site that could hold the most stores
   (2) select the site that would be the least expensive
       to develop
   (3) compare the problems, but not the benefits
   (4) compare the trade-offs of building at either
       location
Answer: 4


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 A diagram of the actual size of a peppered moth
   wingspan is shown below.
An estimated length of the wingspan could be
(1) 3 centimeters        (3) 3 milliliters
(2) 3 grams              (4) 3 kilometers
Answer: 1

32.
32 An investigation was carried out to determine
   which of three antibacterial soaps is most
   effective. Four petri dishes labeled A, B, C, and
   D were set up. The same amount and type of
   bacteria was added to each dish. Next, 2 mL of a
   different brand of soap were added to dishes B,
   C, and D. Then, 2 mL of water were added to
   dish A, instead of soap. The dishes were
   incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. At the end of the
   investigation, the amount of bacteria in each
   dish was determined. Dish D had the least
   bacteria. It was concluded that the soap in dish
   D was the most effective soap to use against
   bacteria.
   Which statement best describes the validity of
   this conclusion?
   (1) The conclusion is not valid since the same
       amount of bacteria was used in each dish.
   (2) The conclusion is valid since too small
       a sample of bacteria was used in this
       investigation.
   (3) The conclusion is valid since the amounts of
       bacteria were measured at the end of the
       investigation.
   (4) The conclusion might not be valid since the
       investigation was carried out only once.
Answer: 4

33.
33 Which statement is a valid inference concerning
   structure X represented in the diagram below?
(1) Structure X contains guard cells that
    regulate glucose intake.
(2) Structure X carries out heterotrophic
    nutrition.
(3) Structure X produces gametes for asexual
    reproduction.
(4) Structure X transports materials for metabolic
    activities.
Answer: 4

34.
34 The diagram below represents a food web
   composed of producers, consumers, and
   decomposers.
Which group would represent the decomposer
organisms?
(1) A                 (3) C
(2) B                 (4) D
Answer: 1

35.
35 The chart below shows three ecological terms used to describe levels of organization on Earth.
Which diagram best represents the relationship of these ecological terms?

Answer: 1

36.
36 The diagram below represents some changes that took place in a bacterial population recently exposed to
   an antibiotic.
Which statement would best explain the presence of bacteria on day 4?
(1) A bacterial population cannot survive exposure to antibiotics.
(2) This bacterial population cannot survive exposure to this antibiotic.
(3) Bacteria can change whenever it is necessary to survive antibiotic treatment.
(4) Some of the bacterial population was resistant to this antibiotic.
Answer: 4

37.
37 Two different species of single-celled organisms that eat the same food were placed in the same container.
   A constant food supply was provided starting on day 2, and the populations were monitored daily. The
   graph below represents the growth of the two populations.
The most likely reason for the observed changes in the populations over the 18-day period is
(1) P. caudatum outcompeted P. aurelia                   (3) the two species shared available resources
(2) P. aurelia outcompeted P. caudatum                   (4) P. caudatum became a predator for P. aurelia
Answer: 2

38.
    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents the reproductive systems of the human female and male.
38 In which structure would both mitosis and differentiation of an embryo occur?
   (1) G                                                     (3) E
   (2) B                                                     (4) D
Answer: 4

39.
39 In which structure do gametes usually unite to produce a zygote?
   (1) A                                                    (3) C
   (2) G                                                    (4) F
Answer: 1

40.
40 Which graph best shows the relationship between the amount of biodiversity and the number of different
   populations in an ecosystem?

Answer: 1

41.
41 The diagram below represents one possible evolutionary change that could have led lobe-finned fish to
   develop into the first amphibians. Amphibians are animals that live on land some of their life.
This change from fins on the lobe-finned fish to legs and feet on the early amphibian is most likely due to
(1) a sudden mutation that changed the gills of the lobe-finned fish to lungs
(2) increased competition between animals that had adapted to living on the land
(3) the need to move to land because of increased competition for food in the ocean
(4) variations among offspring, followed by natural selection
Answer: 4

42.
  Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                       Yes, This Big Lizard is Pink
            A new study from the University of Rome Tor Vergata shows that a rare strawberry-tinted
        land iguana [rosada iguana] in the Galapagos Islands is genetically distinct from other
        iguanas there, having diverged from them more than five million years ago as the
        archipelago [a group of islands] formed. The rosada iguana—which escaped Darwin’s
        notice—was discovered only recently, largely because it lives on the desolate slopes of an
        active volcano.
                                                                      Source: Smithsonian, March 2009
42 Which diagram best represents the evolutionary pathway of the strawberry-tinted iguana?

Answer: 3

43.
43 According to information in the article, it is most likely that
   (1) the ancestors of this iguana were separated from ancestors of other Galapagos iguanas millions of years
       ago and adapted to different environments
   (2) the ancestors of this iguana came from the mainland of South America millions of years ago and
       needed to adapt to the conditions of the Galapagos
   (3) gases released from an active volcano caused ancestral iguanas to mutate so they could adapt to the hot,
       dry environment near the volcano
   (4) it is a color variation of the same species of iguana that lives elsewhere on the island, and it was not
       discovered because it blended in with its environment near the volcano
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
  Base your answers to questions 44 and 45 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            A student grew ten tomato plants from seed. After three weeks, the heights of the ten
        plants were measured in centimeters (cm). The results are shown below.
                        Tomato   plant   A   =   5 cm    Tomato   plant   F   =   9 cm
                        Tomato   plant   B   =   3 cm    Tomato   plant   G   =   7 cm
                        Tomato   plant   C   =   3 cm    Tomato   plant   H   =   5 cm
                        Tomato   plant   D   =   3 cm    Tomato   plant   I   =   3 cm
                        Tomato   plant   E   =   5 cm    Tomato   plant   J   =   7 cm
44 Organize the data by completing both columns in the data table below, so that the height of the plants
   increases from the top to the bottom of the table. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for completing the data table.


45.
45 State one likely reason for differences in the heights of the plants. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW


46.
46 The chart below contains characteristics that can be used to classify organisms A, B, and C.
State one reason why organism A and organism C might be placed into two different classification groups,
even though they are both single celled. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They have different nutritional requirements.
   — A is an autotroph and C is a heterotroph.
   — They have at least one very different characteristic.


47.
Base your answers to questions 47 through 50 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                           Keystone Species
          A keystone species is one whose presence contributes to the diversity of life and whose
      extinction would lead to the extinction of other forms of life. A keystone species helps to
      support the ecosystem of which it is a part.
          An example of what can happen when a keystone species is removed occurred when fur
      hunters eliminated sea otters from some Pacific Ocean kelp beds. Otters eat sea urchins,
      which eat kelp. With its major predator gone, sea urchin populations exploded and
      consumed most of the kelp. Fish, snails, and other animals associated with the kelp beds
      disappeared.
          The grizzly bear is another example of a keystone species. Grizzlies transfer nutrients
      from the ocean ecosystem to the forest ecosystem. The first stage of this transfer is
      performed by salmon that swim up rivers, sometimes for hundreds of miles. Salmon are rich
      in nitrogen, sulfur, carbon, and phosphorus. The bears capture the salmon and carry them
      onto dry land, scattering nutrient-rich feces (wastes) and partially eaten salmon carcasses.
      It has been estimated that the bears leave up to half of the salmon they harvest on the
      forest floor.
47 One action humans can take that might ensure that these sea otters will continue their function as
   a keystone species in their environment is to
   (1) establish a sea otter wildlife refuge in the Atlantic Ocean
   (2) pass laws to regulate the hunting of sea otters
   (3) plant kelp in the Pacific Ocean
   (4) destroy sea urchins found living in the kelp beds
Answer: 2

48.
48 Some people feel the grizzly bear should be eliminated from parts of its natural range. Describe the impact
   of this proposed action on the forest ecosystems in these areas if the bears are eliminated. Support your
   answer with information from the passage. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing the impact of the proposed action on the forest ecosystems in these
areas if the bears are eliminated and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — The forest ecosystem would not get the nitrogen, sulfur, carbon, and phosphorus it needs,
     since grizzly bears leave these elements.
   — The plants and animals that require the nutrients from the salmon carcasses would not be
     able to survive.
   — The forest ecosystem would change without nutrients from decaying fish.


49.
49 Which organism is most likely not functioning as a keystone species in its ecosystem?
   (1) beaver — transforms its territory from a stream to a pond or swamp, maintaining the habitat for a
       variety of native species
   (2) elephant — destroys trees, making room for grass species and preventing the environment from becoming
       a woodland
   (3) black-tailed prairie dogs — burrows act as homes to other creatures, including burrowing owls, badgers,
       rabbits, snakes, salamanders, and insects
   (4) zebra mussels — compete with native species, reducing the biodiversity of the Great Lakes ecosystem
Answer: 4

50.
50 Which sequence best represents the feeding relationships in a kelp ecosystem that has not been disturbed
   by humans?
   (1) sea urchins → kelp → fish                           (3) kelp → sea otters → sea urchins
   (2) kelp → sea urchins → sea otters                     (4) sea urchins → snails → kelp
Answer: 2

51.
51 State one role of white blood cells at the site of a wound during the healing of the wound. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — White blood cells engulf bacteria that might have entered the wound.
   — White blood cells produce antibodies that attack pathogens that may have entered the cut.
   — They fight infection.


52.
52 Explain why changes in climate can result in the extinction of a species. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — These changes could result in an environment not suitable for some species.
   — Extinction can result when a species lacks sufficient variation to survive in a changing
     environment.
   — A change could result in less food for the species.


53.
    Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram compares cell functions with jobs in a factory.
53 Which two chemical waste products are most likely represented by the smoke above the mitochondrion? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for carbon dioxide and water.


54.
54 What chemical substance produced by the mitochondrion is represented by arrow A? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for ATP.


55.
55 Which cell structure synthesized the “Protein being exported”? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for ribosome.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
  Base your answer to question 56–60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Poison ivy is a weed that grows in New York State. It synthesizes an oil, urushiol, that
        causes skin rashes. Researchers have found that if poison ivy grows in an environment that
        contains an increased concentration of carbon dioxide, the plants grow larger, faster, and
        produce more urushiol. Because carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere are rising, poison
        ivy might become a hazard to people who work or vacation outdoors.
56–60 In order to verify this research, experiments must be carried out. Design an experiment to test whether
      poison ivy is affected by air containing higher than normal concentrations of carbon dioxide. In your
      answer, be sure to:
      • state the hypothesis the experiment would test [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating the hypothesis the experiment would test. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — If poison ivy grows in a place with a higher than normal concentration of carbon dioxide,
              then it will grow taller.
            — In high concentrations of carbon dioxide, poison ivy will grow faster.
            — Large concentrations of carbon dioxide will cause poison ivy to produce more urushiol.
            — Different concentrations of carbon dioxide will affect the growth rate of poison ivy plants.
        Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


57.
• state one way the control group should be treated differently from the experimental group [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one way the control group should be treated differently from the
       experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The experimental group would be exposed to a higher than normal concentration of carbon
              dioxide. The control group would be exposed to the same level as before (normal level).
            — The control group would have plants growing at normal carbon dioxide level.
            — The experimental group would have plants growing at a higher carbon dioxide level.
        Note: Do not allow credit for the control receiving no carbon dioxide.


58.
• identify two conditions that should be kept the same in both the control and the experimental groups [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying two conditions that should be kept the same in both the control and
       the experimental groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The soil should be the same.
            — amount of water is the same
            — same species of plant used
            — The length of exposure to daylight should be the same.
            — the initial size of plants


59.
• describe the type of data to be collected [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing the type of data to be collected. Acceptable responses include, but
       are not limited to:
            — heights of plants
            — average number of plant leaves
            — total mass of plants
            — size of leaves on the plants
            — amount of urushiol produced


60.
• identify one safety precaution that should be taken during the experiment and explain why it is
  necessary [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one safety precaution that should be taken during the experiment and
       explaining why it is necessary. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Wear gloves to avoid exposure to the oil (urushiol).
            — Wear goggles to protect your eyes from the oil.
            — Avoid direct contact with poison ivy to avoid getting a rash.


61.
Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                    Invasion of the Giant Rodents
          Large, 20-pound rodents [nutria] that were originally from South America are spreading
      northward from the southern United States.
          The nutria were brought in and raised in the southern United States for their fur. Nutria
      escaped and started a wild population.
          They have since moved up the east coast, damaging plant life in Delaware and
      Maryland. Currently, they have reached New Jersey. These rodents are damaging New
      Jersey’s marshland ecosystems.
          A nutria can eat up to 5 pounds of marshland plants a day. This loss of plant life is
      harming the marshland ecosystems.
 61 A wildlife manager in New Jersey wants to use poisons to destroy the nutria. State one problem that
    might result from this action. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Other animals might be poisoned.
            — Beneficial organisms might be destroyed.
            — The poisons might be harmful to people.


62.
62 State one reason why the removal of plant life by the nutria can harm marshland ecosystems. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Plants provide food for native consumers.
            — Fish hide among plants to avoid predators.
            — The marshland food web might be altered.
            — decreased biodiversity


63.
Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Research has shown that plants might chemically change their environment. The roots
      of certain plants release many chemicals. Some chemicals made by plants can kill nearby
      plants or discourage herbivores from eating them. Other plant chemicals kill plant
      pathogens such as bacteria and fungi.
 63 State two ways that the release of these chemicals is beneficial to these plants. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It will keep them from getting a disease.
            — It will keep them from getting eaten.
            — It protects them from pathogens.
            — It will give them a competitive advantage.
            — It keeps other plants from growing nearby.


64.
64 Predict what would happen to the size of the population of these plants if other plants in the area began
   releasing similar chemicals. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for predicting what would happen to the size of the population of these plants if
       other plants in the area began releasing similar chemicals and supporting the answer. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The chemicals from other plants would harm this species, so its numbers will decline.
            — The plant population will decrease, since the chemicals might make the other species more
              competitive.
            — The population size might not change because the chemical may affect only bacteria or
              fungi.
            — The population would increase because they would all be releasing chemicals that kill
              pathogens.


65.
65 Predict what would happen to the herbivore population if many plants in the area made protective
   chemicals. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for predicting what would happen to the herbivore population if many plants in the
       area made protective chemicals and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
       not limited to:
            — Herbivores will increase if more plants are protected from pathogens.
            — The herbivore population might decline if they have no food.
            — The herbivores will have less food, so they will migrate to another area.


66.
66 Predict one way the carnivores in the area could be affected by the production of protective chemicals
   by plants. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for predicting one way the carnivores in the area could be affected by the production
       of protective chemicals by plants and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
       not limited to:
            — The carnivores will increase if there are more herbivores.
            — The carnivore population would probably decline because their food source would
              probably decline.
            — The carnivores might migrate to a different area where more food is available.


67.
  Base your answer to question 67–70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                           An Experimental SARS Vaccine Works in Animals
            Scientists reported that they had protected animals from the effects of the SARS virus
        by using an experimental vaccine. The SARS virus causes an acute respiratory illness in
        humans and other animals.
            This vaccine was sprayed once into the nostrils of each of four African green monkeys.
        Four weeks later, these monkeys were exposed to the virus that causes SARS. The monkeys
        showed no sign of the disease in their respiratory tracts. Blood tests confirmed the presence
        of proteins known as neutralizing antibodies that indicate protection against disease.
            The scientists also sprayed a placebo (a substance that did not contain the vaccine) into
        the nostrils of each of four other African green monkeys. After exposure to the virus that
        causes SARS, all of these monkeys developed symptoms of this condition.
67–70 Briefly explain the nature of a vaccine and some steps that should be taken before a vaccine is available
      for public use. In your answer, be sure to include:
      • a description of what a vaccine is [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for a description of what a vaccine is. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — a substance injected to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies
            — A vaccine contains a dead/weakened pathogen that stimulates an immune response.
            — a substance that is administered that contains antigens
            — It has a small piece of the virus/viral coat, which causes the formation of antibodies.
        Note: Do not accept a response that indicates that a vaccine contains “a little bit” of the disease
              or “a small amount” of the virus.


68.
• an explanation of why one group had a placebo sprayed into their nostrils before exposure to the virus [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining why one group had a placebo sprayed into their nostrils before
       exposure to the virus. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The group that received the placebo was the control group.
            — to see if the vaccine makes a difference


69.
• an explanation of why scientists used monkeys to test the SARS vaccine [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining why scientists used monkeys to test the SARS vaccine. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Scientists used monkeys to test the vaccine because of their biological similarity to humans.
            — Monkeys are affected by the SARS virus, also.
            — There are stricter regulations regarding testing on humans, that must be followed.


70.
• a statement of what could be done to verify the results [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating what could be done to verify the results. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — researcher could repeat the experiment
            — use a larger sample size
            — verify blood samples were not contaminated
            — check that equipment is working properly


71.
    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram identifies four groups that can have an effect on air quality in New York State.
71 Identify one specific air-quality problem caused by pollution that affects New York State. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — acid rain
            — global warming
            — smog
            — high particulate concentration
            — increased carbon dioxide
        Note: Do not allow credit for pollution.


72.
72 Select one of the four groups and record its name on the space below. Describe one way the group you
   selected could help to improve the air quality in New York State. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Group: Industry
            — could reduce the amount of carbon dioxide or other pollutants it puts into the air
            — could add scrubbers to their smokestacks
            Group: Environmental agencies
            — could enforce the laws that limit the kinds and amounts of specific pollutants
            — could fine companies and individuals that are not within the legal levels
            — could propose new legislation to further reduce air pollution
            Group: Health professionals
            — could point out the dangers associated with air pollution/smog
            — could motivate people to modify their activities that reduce air quality
            Group: Community groups
            — could lobby for legislation that regulates the release of specific pollutants
            — could encourage politicians to pass laws that regulate the amounts of specific air pollutants
              that can be released
            — could organize boycotts of companies that pollute the air
            — could run recycling programs



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
73 Which two finches could temporarily occupy the same niche?
   (1) large ground finch and warbler finch
   (2) vegetarian tree finch and medium ground finch
   (3) large insectivorous tree finch and woodpecker finch
   (4) small insectivorous tree finch and cactus ground finch
Answer: 3

74.
74 Several of the Galapagos Islands are inhabited by grasshoppers, beetles, flies, bees, and butterflies. Finches
   that feed on these consumers would have beaks adapted for
   (1) probing, only                                         (3) crushing or probing
   (2) probing or grasping                                   (4) parrotlike feeding or grasping
Answer: 2

75.
75 Farmers on a few of the Galapagos Islands have orchards of oranges, apples, grapes, and pears. Which
   species of finch would consume these foods?
   (1) woodpecker finch                                  (3) sharp-beaked ground finch
   (2) small ground finch                                (4) vegetarian tree finch
Answer: 4

76.
   Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram shows the evolutionary relationships of some organisms.
76 Which two organisms would most likely synthesize the most similar enzymes?
   (1) monkey and mouse                                   (3) chimp and rat
   (2) cow and horse                                      (4) horse and dog
Answer: 4

77.
77 Scientists want to compare the DNA of these organisms. Identify a technique that could be used to
   produce bands of DNA fragments for this comparison. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — electrophoresis
            — gel electrophoresis
            — DNA fingerprinting


78.
Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          DNA samples were taken from three different species and used to determine the amino
      acid sequence for a portion of a particular protein. The amino acids were then compared in
      order to determine which species were most closely related. Some of the information is
      shown on the table below.
78 Using the information given, fill in the missing mRNA base sequences in the table for species B and species C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for correctly filling in the missing mRNA base sequences for species B and C.
        Note: Allow 1 credit only if all four sequences are correct.


79.
79 Using the Universal Genetic Code Chart below, fill in the missing amino acid sequences in the table for
   species A and species B. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly filling in the missing amino acid base sequences for species A and B.
Note: Allow 1 credit only if all four sequences are correct.


80.
80 State one specific effect on the protein produced if an mRNA code is changed from AGU to AGA. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The amino acid ARG will be substituted for SER.
   — The shape of the protein might change.
   — The protein might not work.


81.
81 In an experiment to test the effect of exercise on the number of times a clothespin can be squeezed in
   1 minute, the dependent variable would be the
   (1) test subject                                         (3) number of squeezes
   (2) amount of exercise                                   (4) clothespin
Answer: 3

82.
   Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            In an experiment, students placed a dialysis bag containing 100 mL of a starch-water
        mixture in a beaker of water, as shown below. They left the setup until class the next day,
        when they removed the dialysis bag and measured the volume of the contents. They found
        that there were now 125 mL of the starch-water mixture.
82 To measure the volume of the starch-water mixture in the dialysis bag, the students should have used a
   (1) meterstick                                          (3) graduated cylinder
   (2) triple-beam balance                                 (4) test tube
Answer: 3

83.
83 Identify the process that caused the increase in volume. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — diffusion
            — water diffused
            — osmosis
            — passive transport


84.
84 Identify one organ in the human body where this process occurs and identify one substance that moves into
   the blood at that location. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Organ: lungs
            Substance: oxygen
            Organ: small intestine
            Substance: digested food
            Organ: large intestine
            Substance: water


85.
85 State one possible reason a certain substance can not pass across a cell membrane. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — molecules of substance too large
            — molecule is charged



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