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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2013 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 The organisms in a pond and the physical factors
  influencing them best describe
  (1) a population         (3) a biosphere
  (2) an ecosystem         (4) a food chain
Answer: 2

2.
2 Which row in the chart below best describes
  decomposers?
   Row     Method of Nutrition   Recycles
    (1)    autotrophic           nutrients
    (2)    heterotrophic         nutrients
    (3)    autotrophic           energy
    (4)    heterotrophic         energy
Answer: 2

3.
3 Some processes that occur in a cell are listed
  below.
       A. utilize energy
       B. detect changes in the environment
       C. rearrange and synthesize chemical
          compounds
  Which processes will all living organisms use to
  maintain homeostasis?
  (1) A and B, only         (3) C and A, only
  (2) B and C, only         (4) A, B, and C
Answer: 4


4.
4 Which cell structures are correctly paired with
  their functions?
  (1) The mitochondria produce enzymes, and
      ribosomes transport them.
  (2) The ribosomes make proteins, and the
      nucleus stores genetic information.
  (3) The cell membrane makes enzymes, and
      cytoplasm transports them.
  (4) The vacuole stores genetic information, and
      chloroplasts make proteins.
Answer: 2

5.
5 The diagram below represents the region
  between two nerve cells. Cell A releases a
  chemical that travels to and binds with structure
  X on cell B.
Structure X most likely represents
(1) a receptor molecule
(2) an inorganic substance
(3) a ribosome
(4) an antibody
Answer: 1

6.
6 Over the past few thousand years, humans have
  helped to bring about changes in many plant and
  animal species in order to make them more
  useful. Examples include strong workhorses,
  hunting dogs, large-eared corn, and beautiful
  flower varieties. These changes were primarily
  brought about by humans, using the process of
  (1) mitosis              (3) cloning
  (2) selective breeding   (4) natural selection
Answer: 2

7.
7 Certain antibacterial soaps kill 99% of the
  bacteria present on hands. Constant use of these
  soaps could be harmful over time because
  (1) more pathogens may be resistant to the soap
  (2) microbes prevent viral diseases
  (3) large populations of pathogens are beneficial
      to the hands
  (4) the soap stimulates skin cell division
Answer: 1

8.
8 Which factor would cause two specialized tissues
  that contain identical chromosomes to function
  differently?
  (1) Specific sections of DNA molecules in the
      chromosomes are activated.
  (2) All of the sections of DNA molecules in the
      chromosomes are activated.
  (3) Specific sections of the amino acid molecules
      in the cytoplasm are activated.
  (4) All of the amino acid molecules in the
      cytoplasm are activated.
Answer: 1

9.
9 Some variation must be present in a population
  in order for natural selection to take place.
  These variations arise from mutations in the
  DNA and
  (1) sorting of chromosomes during sexual
      reproduction
  (2) combining of chromosomes during organ
      development
  (3) changing of chromosomes during cloning
  (4) removal of chromosomes during selective
      breeding
Answer: 1

10.
10 The diagram below represents a segment of a
   gene on two chromosomes.
    Normal gene    A    T    A   C    C    T
    Mutated gene   A    T    G   C    C    T
   The change in the gene sequence is an example
   of
   (1) an insertion        (3) a substitution
   (2) a deletion          (4) a replication
Answer: 3

11.
11 In a certain species of insect, some individuals
   have flattened white disks on their bodies that
   protrude and interlock, resembling an orchid
   flower. This adaptation provides the insect with a
   better opportunity to capture its prey. If
   environmental conditions remain unchanged, it
   is most likely that, in future generations, the proportion of the population with this adaptation will
   (1) increase, only
   (2) decrease, only
   (3) increase, then decrease
   (4) decrease, then increase
Answer: 1

12.
12 Which structure is correctly paired with its
   function?
   (1) ovary — provides milk for newborns
   (2) testis — development of sperm
   (3) placenta — storage of released eggs
   (4) uterus — produces estrogen
Answer: 2

13.
13 The fruit fly represented in the diagram below
   has unusual, curled wings that formed after
   exposure to radiation.
In order for the fly to pass this trait on to its
offspring, a change had to occur in
(1) the blood cells of the fly
(2) the gametes of the fly
(3) all the body cells of the fly
(4) the muscles of the fly
Answer: 2

14.
14 In a population of birds, the percentage of
   individuals having a certain gene changes from
   20% to 60% over the span of several hundred
   years. This situation will most likely affect the
   rate of
   (1) biological evolution
   (2) asexual reproduction
   (3) gene mutation
   (4) ecological succession
Answer: 1

15.
15 The finite resources of Earth are often affected
   by increasing human consumption. These finite
   resources are
   (1) not renewable over a short period of time
   (2) the products of rapid human population growth
   (3) the result of deforestation
   (4) needed to degrade ecosystems
Answer: 1


16.
16 A student made the drawing shown below of a
   single-celled organism as he observed it with
   a compound light microscope under the
   high-power objective.
Several minutes later, he drew the diagram
shown below of the same organism, using the
same magnification.
These drawings show that the organism is
carrying out the process of
(1) asexual reproduction
(2) sexual reproduction
(3) embryo formation
(4) genetic alteration
Answer: 1

17.
17 Which statement best describes why pathogens
   are harmful?
   (1) All of the cells of an organism infected by
       pathogens become pathogens.
   (2) Pathogens cannot be controlled once they
       enter the cells of an organism.
   (3) Pathogens produce antibodies that will kill
       the host organism.
   (4) Pathogens can interfere with normal life
       functions.
Answer: 4

18.
18 In 1996, scientists cloned the first mammal, a
   sheep. This technique involved the removal of
   the nucleus from an egg cell. The nucleus from
   a cell of another adult sheep was then inserted
   into this egg cell. Once this cell began to develop
   into an embryo, it was implanted into a third
   female sheep that later gave birth to a healthy
   lamb, Dolly. Which statement concerning Dolly
   is correct?
   (1) Her offspring would be genetically identical.
   (2) Dolly and her DNA donor are genetically
       identical.
   (3) Two different gametes were manipulated to
       produce Dolly.
   (4) Dolly was produced by the recombination of
       genetic material.
Answer: 2

19.
19 Which activity would most likely increase the
   mutation rate in a culture of bacteria being
   grown in a laboratory experiment?
   (1) adding more distilled water to the culture
   (2) adding excess nutrients to the culture
   (3) exposing the culture to a higher concentration
       of CO2
   (4) exposing the culture to ultraviolet radiation
Answer: 4

20.
20 Which two processes are responsible for keeping
   the percentage of atmospheric oxygen at
   relatively constant levels?
   (1) circulation and coordination
   (2) respiration and coordination
   (3) respiration and photosynthesis
   (4) photosynthesis and circulation
Answer: 3

21.
21 Chemicals that help chemical reactions occur at
   faster rates in living organisms are known as
   (1) biotic resources
   (2) simple sugars
   (3) oxygen molecules
   (4) organic catalysts
Answer: 4

22.
22 The action of insulin on sugar levels in the blood
   helps to
   (1) interfere with homeostasis
   (2) maintain dynamic equilibrium
   (3) coordinate enzyme production
   (4) regulate digestion of protein
Answer: 2

23.
23 An individual recovers from the common cold,
   which is caused by rhinovirus A. The person
   then becomes infected with the avian influenza
   virus, which causes the bird flu. Which
   statement best describes what will most likely
   happen to this person?
   (1) He will have the symptoms of the bird flu
       because he is not immune to the avian
       influenza virus.
   (2) He will have the symptoms of the common
       cold because he is not immune to the avian
       influenza virus.
   (3) He will not have the symptoms of the bird
       flu because he is immune to rhinovirus A.
   (4) He will not have the symptoms of the
       common cold because the avian influenza
       virus causes it.
Answer: 1

24.
24 The wetland plant purple loosestrife was
   imported to North America from Europe. Since
   its introduction, the loosestrife has spread,
   which has resulted in a dramatic decline in the
   biological diversity of native wetland plants. A
   likely reason for the spread of the purple
   loosestrife is that it can
   (1) successfully compete with native herbivores
       for food
   (2) serve as an excellent food source for native
       herbivores
   (3) successfully compete with native plants for space
   (4) prevent the migration of native plants
Answer: 3

25.
25 Deer ticks are responsible for spreading Lyme
   disease. This organism, which feeds on the blood
   of warm-blooded organisms like mice, deer, and
   humans, is best described as a
   (1) predator             (3) parasite
   (2) scavenger            (4) host
Answer: 3

26.
26 Years ago, an article was written titled “Medicine
   Chest in the Jungle.” This article most likely
   described the
   (1) potential for ecosystems to be a source for
       new drugs
   (2) dangers of poisonous jungle plants and animals
   (3) deforestation of jungles for the development
       of large pharmacies
   (4) use of antibiotics to treat certain disorders in
       trees
Answer: 1

27.
27 After a building was torn down and the area was
   cleared, grasses began to grow in the area.
   Several years later, small bushes replaced the
   grasses. This pattern of plant growth is known as
   ecological
   (1) stability              (3) succession
   (2) cultivation            (4) coordination
Answer: 3

28.
28 A human activity that could significantly decrease
   the amount of carbon dioxide in the air is
   (1) increasing the use of fossil fuel
   (2) controlling insect pests that eat stored grain
   (3) burning garbage and trash to generate
       electricity
   (4) preserving and expanding forest habitats that
       shelter wildlife
Answer: 4

29.
29 Ethanol-fueled vehicles have increased in popularity as people try to be more environmentally
   responsible. Ethanol can be made from corn.
   Some farmers are clearing forests and planting
   large expanses of corn to meet the rising
   demand. Which statement describes a likely
   result of this increased corn production?
   (1) There will be a reduction in the biodiversity
        of areas that are converted to grow corn.
   (2) The corn will produce more carbon dioxide
        than it uses, contributing to global warming.
   (3) Insect biodiversity in the area will increase.
   (4) Growing more corn will increase the
        nutrient content of the soil.
Answer: 1

30.
30 Windmills that generate electricity are being
   built in coastal areas. The main benefit of these
   windmills is that they
   (1) produce finite resources
   (2) reduce dependency on fuels that cause air
       pollution
   (3) absorb the noise of passing boats
   (4) maintain the salt concentration in the ocean
Answer: 2


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 The dichotomous key below provides a way to
   classify some animals into groups according to
   their physical characteristics.
                 Dichotomous
                     Key
         I wings………………. go to II
           no wings…………… group A
        II feathers……………. group B
           no feathers………… go to III
       III two legs……………. group C
           six legs…………….. group D
   The key can be used to classify each of the four
   animals represented below.
Which row in the chart shows the correct
classification group for each animal?
 Row    Wasp     Ant     Tiger   Bird
  (1)   group D group D group A group B
  (2)   group B group A group D group C
  (3)   group B group D group A group C
  (4)   group D group A group A group B
Answer: 4

32.
32 Part of a process necessary for reproduction in
   complex organisms is represented below.
Step C results in the production of
(1) four zygotes that will develop into embryos
(2) embryonic cells that could unite and develop
    into an organism
(3) four cells that will recombine to form two
    offspring
(4) gametes that could be involved in the
    formation of a zygote
Answer: 4

33.
33 The diagram below represents an evolutionary
   tree.
Which statement best describes species E?
(1) Species D is an ancestor of species E.
(2) Through natural selection, species E
    produced increased survival mechanisms.
(3) Species E had greater success due to
    patterns of behavior.
(4) Species E had insufficient adaptive
    characteristics for survival in a changing
    environment.
Answer: 4

34.
34 The diagram below represents one type of white
   blood cell. This type of white blood cell ingests
   microbes.
A function of another type of white blood cell is
to
(1) prevent the loss of blood from a wound
(2) produce specialized molecules that mark
    invaders
(3) increase the number of red blood cells in the
    blood
(4) cause gene mutations that will increase
    immune responses
Answer: 2

35.
35 The table below indicates a reproductive pattern
   in some sea turtles when eggs develop in areas
   with differing temperatures.
        Sex Determination in Sea Turtles
     Temperature (°C)     Offspring Produced
         below 23              usually none
           23–27               mostly males
           28–30          50/50 males: females
           31–33              mostly females
         above 33              usually none
   The sex of turtle offspring is most probably
   (1) determined only by genes inherited from the
       parent turtles
   (2) controlled entirely by the location where the
       young are raised
   (3) a result of genetic information being
       influenced by environmental conditions
   (4) an identical pattern to the reproductive
       pattern found in humans
Answer: 3

36.
36 The diagram below represents a food web.
Which statement regarding organisms in this
food web is correct?
(1) There would be more snakes than pocket
    gophers.
(2) There would be more coyotes than rabbits.
(3) There would be more insects than insecteating birds.
(4) There would be more hawks than seedeating birds.
Answer: 3

37.
    Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             The pH of the internal environment of lysosomes (organelles that contain digestive
         enzymes) is approximately 4.5, while the pH of the surrounding cytoplasm is
         approximately 7. The average pH of the human stomach during digestion is approximately
         2.5, while the average pH of the small intestine during digestion is about 8.
             The graph below shows how pH affects the enzyme activity of four different enzymes,
         A, B, C, and D.
37 What will most likely happen to the action of an enzyme from the small intestine if it is placed in an
   environment similar to the environment in which enzyme C functions best?
   (1) It would no longer be able to function because the environment is too acidic.
   (2) It would adapt to the new environment and start carrying out the same function as enzyme C.
   (3) It would continue to function because it is able to modify the pH of the environment.
   (4) It would be able to function because the pH of the environment is similar to that of the intestine.

Answer: 4

38.
38 Lysosomes break open during the process of digestion, releasing enzymes into the cytoplasm. Which
   statement may explain why the entire cell may not be digested?
   (1) The acidic environment of the cytoplasm destroys the enzymes.
   (2) Antibodies in the cytoplasm break down foreign enzymes.
   (3) The pH of the cytoplasm causes the enzymes to function less effectively.
   (4) Enzymes can function only in the location where they are synthesized.
Answer: 3

39.
39 Which enzyme functions best in a pH environment most similar to that of human stomach enzymes?
   (1) A                                                 (3) C
   (2) B                                                 (4) D
Answer: 1

40.
40 The blood glucose range for a healthy adult is 65–104 mg/dL. Which graph best illustrates normal blood
   glucose levels in a healthy adult over the course of a day?

Answer: 2

41.
  Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            …Unless actions are taken to slow the decline of domesticated honeybees and augment
        [increase] their populations with wild bees, many fruits and vegetables may disappear from
        the food supply, said Claire Kremen, a conservation biologist at Princeton University in
        New Jersey.…
            The honeybee decline, which is affecting domesticated and wild bee populations
        around the world, is mostly the result of diseases spread as a result of mites and other
        parasites as well as the spraying of crops with pesticides, scientists say.…
                                          Source: “Bee Declines May Spell End of Some Fruits, Vegetables,”
                                                               National Geographic News, October 5, 2005
41 The decrease in the honeybee population is partly due to
   (1) the use of pesticides                                (3) the use of fertilizers
   (2) a decrease in prey                                   (4) a decrease in fruits and vegetables
Answer: 1

42.
42 A decrease in honeybee populations will
   (1) eliminate the need to spray crops      (3) reduce the occurrence of natural disasters
   (2) increase the number of bee parasites   (4) disrupt the stability of an ecosystem
Answer: 4

43.
43 Some honeybees have been able to survive the changes in their environment and reproduce. This is most
   likely due to
   (1) the aggressive behavior of wild bees               (3) genetic diversity in the bees
   (2) an abundance of food sources for the bees          (4) lack of mutations in the bees
Answer: 3


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
                                        Yellowstone Park Wolf Update
              For the first time in nearly 70 years, the howl of the wolf is being echoed throughout
          Yellowstone National Park. Canis lupus, the gray wolf, one of the largest and most complex
          of the canine species, has been successfully reintroduced into the Yellowstone ecosystem.
              In mid-January 1995, 14 wolves from many separate packs were captured in Canada and
          then transported into Yellowstone Park and placed into three one acre pens.…
                                                 Source: http://www.yellowstone-bearman.com/w-update.html
    After the wolves were given time to establish a new pack structure, the packs were released into the wild.
    The number of wolf pups was counted each year for four years. The data are shown in the table below.
                                      Number of Wolf Pups Observed
                                         Year       Number of Pups
                                         1996                11
                                         1997                64
                                         1998                42
                                         1999                61
    Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a bar graph on the grid, following the
directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the axis labeled “Number of Pups.” [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
44 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the axis labeled
       “Number of Pups.”


45.
45 Construct vertical bars to represent the data. Shade in each bar. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
45 [1] Allow 1 credit for constructing vertical bars to represent the data.
        Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 44 and 45:
Note: Allow credit if the correct data are clearly represented, even if the bars are not shaded.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0) unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.


46.
46 State one positive result of reintroducing wolves into Yellowstone Park. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
46 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Wolves will not go extinct.
            — increase biodiversity
            — control the number of prey
            — increase stability in the ecosystem
            — The wolf population increases.


47.
47 The number of wolves that can be supported in this environment for a long period of time is known as
   (1) ecosystem stability                                 (3) ecological succession
   (2) carrying capacity                                   (4) biological evolution
Answer: 2

48.
48 State one possible reason why the wolf population showed a decline from 1997 to 1998. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
48 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Available food limited the population of wolves.
            — Weather conditions were harsh.
            — The prey animals migrated out of the area.
            — Some wolves left the Yellowstone area.
            — Some wolves died from disease.
            — They had exceeded carrying capacity.


49.
49 Some levels of organization in a multicellular organism are shown in the sequence below.
                            A → cells → tissues → B → organ systems → organism
   Which terms represented by letters A and B would complete the sequence?
   (1) A–gametes; B–zygote                               (3) A–organs; B–organelles
   (2) A–zygote; B–gametes                               (4) A–organelles; B–organs
Answer: 4

50.
50 The BMI for a person who is 5 feet 9 inches tall and weighs 170 pounds is between
   (1) 24 and 25                                            (3) 27 and 28
   (2) 25 and 26                                            (4) 29 and 30
Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             Excess body weight is considered to be a risk factor for diseases such as diabetes and
         high blood pressure. The Body Mass Index (BMI) chart below can be used as a guide to
         determine if a person’s body weight puts that person at risk for such diseases.

Answer: 2

51.
51 Is a person with a BMI of 27 at risk for diseases such as diabetes or high blood pressure? Support your
   answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating if a person with a BMI of 27 is at risk for diseases such as diabetes or high
       blood pressure and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The BMI indicates the person is overweight and is therefore at risk for these diseases.
             — Yes, there is a slight risk because the BMI places the person in the overweight category, but
               not in the obese range.


52.
52 State whether an individual who is 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 146 pounds needs to gain or lose weight
   in order to be classified as healthy. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for lose weight or lose.


53.
53 Calculate the minimum number of pounds that an individual who is 6 feet 3 inches tall and weighs 232
   pounds would have to gain or lose to be classified as a healthy individual with a BMI of 24. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 40 or –40.


54.
  Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge in Alaska is over 19 million acres of land. This
         unique habitat supports many species of land and marine animals, including 36 species of
         fish and 180 species of birds. Some people want to drill for oil in parts of the refuge.
         Scientists estimate that the total amount of recoverable oil in the refuge is between 5 and
         16 billion barrels.
54 State one benefit of drilling for oil in the refuge in Alaska. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — create jobs
             — increased revenue for the state
             — increased supply of U.S. oil
             — decreased reliance on foreign oil


55.
55 Describe one environmental problem that could be caused by drilling for oil in the refuge in Alaska. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — If oil is spilled, it can kill many plants and animals.
             — The pollution from an oil spill could be long lasting.
             — Spilling oil could cause harm by coating the feathers of birds and the fur of animals.
             — Trucks and other needed equipment could damage habitats.
             — Leaking oil could harm wildlife.
             — Noise from the oil rig may scare animals away, resulting in the loss of biodiversity.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
  Base your answer to question 56–58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                                Fish Farming
            Fish farming has risen in popularity to the point that, in 2009, it was estimated that 30%
        of all fish consumed by humans came from fish farms. Fish farms tend to specialize in one
        or two species of fish, which are produced in great numbers. Fish farms are conveniently
        located along shorelines, where the fish are contained in pens. Deep-sea vessels are not
        necessary to harvest the fish, as they are when fish are caught in the wild. The farms
        provide a relatively inexpensive way to provide protein for a growing world population.
            As the technique gains in popularity, however, scientists and coastal residents have
        become concerned that the concentrated mass of fish in fish farms is producing large
        quantities of wastes. These wastes may be carried by ocean currents to public beaches and
        recreational boating areas, making them unusable. Others are concerned that uneaten fish
        food will decay, produce strong odors, and pollute marine environments miles away. If the
        wastes are not flushed out of the pens, they accumulate on the ocean floor and create a toxic
        “dead zone” beneath the fish.
56–58 Describe some aspects of fish farming that are examples of humans interacting with the environment.
      In your answer, be sure to:
      • state one specific benefit humans gain from fish farming [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one specific benefit humans gain from fish farming. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — Fish farming provides a convenient source of food.
            — inexpensive source of protein
            — a source of food for a growing human population
            — Decreased use of deep-sea vessels reduces the cost of fishing.


57.
• state how biodiversity may be reduced by fish farming and support your answer [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating how biodiversity may be reduced by fish farming and supporting the
       answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Biodiversity is decreased because waste from fish farms may produce dead zones on the
              ocean floor.
            — It is reduced because pollution from fish farms may destroy the habitats of other fish.
            — The farms concentrate one species of fish in one area.


58.
• describe the impact, other than a reduction in biodiversity, fish farming may have on the natural
  ecosystems of coastal water if no changes are made [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing the impact, other than a reduction in biodiversity, fish farming may
       have on natural ecosystems of costal waters if no changes are made. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — Large quantities of wastes from fish farming pollute marine environments.
            — Uneaten fish food may pollute marine environments.
            — Beaches may become unusable.
            — It may create a toxic “dead zone.”
        Note: Do not accept just “pollution” without a description.


59.
   Base your answers to questions 59 through 62 on the data table and information below and on your
knowledge of biology. The data table describes various pH levels.
                                                 pH Levels
                                       pH         pH Description
                                        1            very acidic
                                        5           slightly acidic
                                        7              neutral
                                        9           slightly basic
                                        13            very basic
             A scientist is concerned about the effects of acid rain on newly fertilized fish eggs in
         lakes in the Adirondack Mountains of New York State. The scientist would like to
         investigate the hatching rates of these fish eggs in water at different acidic pH levels. The
         scientist designed an experiment that could show the effect of an acid pH on the hatching
         of these fish eggs.
    59 State how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental groups. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The control group would be in normal lake water. The experimental groups would be kept
              in water with lower pHs.
            — The control group would be kept in water from normal lakes.
            — The control group would be kept in lake water not affected by acid rain.


60.
60 State two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental groups and the control group. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — the type of fish eggs
            — the number of fish eggs
            — the temperature of the water
            — the amount of oxygen in the water


61.
61 Describe the type of data to be collected. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — the number of eggs that hatched in the experimental group compared to the number in the
              control group
            — the number of eggs that hatched
            — the time it took the eggs to hatch
            — the number of eggs that hatch in 24 hours
        Note: The type of data must be measurable.


62.
62 State one example of experimental results that would show that the increasing acidity of lake water has
   a negative effect on the hatching rate of fish eggs. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Fewer eggs hatched in the lower pH levels.
            — It took longer for fish eggs to hatch in water that had a lower pH.
            — Fewer eggs hatched in the experimental group.


63.
Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                         The Protein Shredder
           In every cell, thousands of important processes are occurring around the clock. One of
      the ways a cell manages to coordinate all of these processes is by sending protein messages.
      After the protein messages are delivered and read, they need to be destroyed to prepare for
      the arrival of the next message.
           The task of destroying these proteins falls on cell structures known as proteasomes.
      Think of a proteasome as a tubelike protein shredder. Protein molecules that have served
      their purpose are transported to the proteasome, unfolded, fed through the tube, and cut
      into smaller molecules that can then be used to synthesize new protein molecules.
      Proteasomes can shred any type of protein.
           Individuals with a neurological disorder known as hereditary ataxia have been found to
      have an excess of protein in the cells of their brains and spinal cords. The abnormal level
      somehow leads to the death of cells in portions of the cerebellum. These areas of cell loss
      can be seen on a brain scan.
           There are several forms of hereditary ataxia but all of them result in poor coordination.
      The symptoms progress over a period of years. In the beginning, the individuals experience
      only minor coordination problems. As time passes, the symptoms become worse. The
      affected individuals will have poor balance when walking. They will be clumsy and have
      difficulty talking and swallowing.
 63 Based on the symptoms shown by individuals with hereditary ataxia, state two functions regulated by
    the cerebellum and spinal cord. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — coordination
            — balance
            — walking
            — talking
            — swallowing
        Note: Do not accept symptoms, i.e, “poor balance” or “difficulty walking.”


64.
64 Explain why researchers could think that proteasomes might not be working correctly in nerve cells of
   individuals with hereditary ataxia. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — There is an excess of proteins in the cells of the brain and spinal cord.
            — There are abnormal levels of proteins in their nerve cells.


65.
65–68 Explain the role of these groups of organisms in the cycling of materials and the transfer of energy in
      an ecosystem. In your answer, be sure to:
      • explain why an ecosystem requires a constant input of energy [1]
Base your answer to question 65–68 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
represents three groups of organisms that are part of an ecosystem.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining why an ecosystem requires a constant input of energy. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Energy is always lost as it is transferred through the ecosystem.
            — Energy is continuously needed for metabolic processes.
            — It is needed so that autotrophs can make food.


66.
• explain how organisms in group B obtain energy [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining how organisms in group B obtain energy. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — Some group B animals eat group A plants.
            — Organisms in group B obtain energy from organisms in group A when they eat them.
            — Group B eats plants, fungi, and/or other animals.
            — The animals eat the plants.
            — They obtain energy from their food.


67.
• explain the role of organisms in group C in the ecosystem [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining the role of organisms in group C in the ecosystem. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Organisms in group C break down dead organisms and return nutrients to the soil.
            — Group C returns raw materials to the ecosystem by decomposing dead organisms.
            — These organisms are decomposers who recycle nutrients in the ecosystem.


68.
• identify the process used by all three groups of organisms to make energy available to their cells to
  carry out life functions [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the process used by all three groups of organisms to make energy
       available to their cells to carry out life functions as respiration or cellular respiration.


69.
69–72 Discuss the process used by scientists to insert a gene from one organism into the DNA of another.
      In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify the scientific technique used to insert a gene from one organism into another [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the scientific technique used to insert a gene from one organism into
       another. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — genetic engineering
            — genetic recombination
            — genetic manipulation
            — gene splicing
        Note: Do not allow credit for biotechnology. It is a field of science, not a technique.


70.
• describe the function of a gene [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing the function of a gene. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — a segment of DNA that codes for a protein
            — Genes control traits.
            — Genes carry genetic information form one generation to the next.


71.
• identify the type of molecule used to cut the gene from the DNA of an organism [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the type of molecule used to cut the gene from the DNA of an
       organism. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — enzyme
            — restriction enzyme
            — biological catalyst


72.
• state one benefit of this technique to humans [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one benefit of this technique to humans. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — make medicines for humans
            — increase the yield of crops
            — use plants to produce vaccines
            — produce needed hormones (chemicals) for humans
            — introduce new traits/characteristics into an organism



Part D
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
    Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             Students were asked to design a lab that investigated the relationship between exercise
         and heart rate. Heart rate was determined by recording the pulse rate in beats per minute.
         The students hypothesized that increased exercise results in an increased heart rate. The
         class results for the experiment are shown in the graph below.
73 Which statement is best supported by the graph?
   (1) Before exercising, the average pulse rate was 65; four minutes after exercising, the average pulse rate was 65.
   (2) After four minutes of exercising, the average pulse rate was 120; two minutes after exercising, the
       average pulse rate was 120.
   (3) While exercising, the highest average pulse rate was 150; before exercising, the average pulse rate was 65.
   (4) Two minutes before exercising, the average pulse rate was 80; after two minutes of exercise, the
       average pulse rate was 140.
Answer: 3

74.
74 Students in a different science class carried out the same experiment. The data they obtained did not
   support the hypothesis that increased exercise results in increased heart rate. The most scientifically sound
   way to deal with this situation is to
   (1) write a new hypothesis
   (2) read about pulse rate in a biology textbook
   (3) have the students in both classes vote to decide which hypothesis is correct
   (4) ask students in a third class to do the experiment and see if their results support the hypothesis
Answer: 4

75.
75 The change in heart rate that occurs between 1 and 5 minutes of exercise is an adaptation that
   (1) reduces the rate at which oxygen is carried to the muscle cells
   (2) increases the rate at which carbon dioxide is carried to the muscle cells
   (3) results in the production of more ATP in muscle cells
   (4) slows the destruction of enzymes involved in respiration of muscle cells
Answer: 3

76.
76 A student hypothesized that watching sports on television would cause viewers’ pulse rates to increase. She
   designed an experiment to determine the effect of watching sports on pulse rate. A group of 200 volunteers
   took their pulse rates and then watched their favorite sports on television. After the games, they
   immediately took their pulse rates again. The data collected showed that the pulse rates of some people
   increased, but the pulse rates of an equal number of people did not change. Although the hypothesis was
   not supported by the data, the hypothesis is still valuable because it
   (1) may lead to further investigation                       (3) is the opinion of the experimenter
   (2) can be changed to fit the data                          (4) is based on beliefs of the volunteers
Answer: 1

77.
   Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your
knowledge of biology.
                                Universal Genetic Code Chart
                 Messenger RNA Codons and the Amino Acids for Which They Code
77 The table below shows the DNA, mRNA, and amino acid sequences from two similar plant species. Using
   the information given, fill in the missing mRNA base sequences for species A on the table below. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
77 [1] Allow 1 credit for filling in the missing mRNA sequences for species A.
        Note: Allow credit only if all sequences are correct.


78.
78 Using the Universal Genetic Code Chart, fill in the missing amino acids for species B on the table below. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
78 [1] Allow 1 credit for filling in the missing amino acid sequences for species B.
        Note: Allow credit only if all sequences are correct.
        Example of a 2-credit response for questions 77 and 78:


79.
    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
              Two models of a cell were made with dialysis tubing and placed in two beakers of fluid,
          A and B, each containing starch indicator solution, as represented in the diagram below.
          Enzyme Z was added to the artificial cell in beaker B. The solution outside each cell was
          tested for the presence of sugar. Initially, no sugar was present in the solution outside each
          cell. The results after one hour are represented below.
79 State one reason for the color change in beaker A after one hour. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
79 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The starch indicator diffused into the cell and reacted with the starch solution.
            — The starch indicator reacted with the starch.
            — The starch indicator diffused into the cell.


80.
80 How would the results have been different in beaker B if an enzyme that digests protein was used instead
   of enzyme Z? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
80 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Sugar would not be present.
            — The protein enzyme would not digest the starch to sugar.


81.
Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
81 Which finches would be most like the ancestral finch?
   (1) large ground finches                                (3) warbler finches
   (2) cactus finches                                      (4) large tree finches
Answer: 3

82.
82 Present-day cactus finches are a type of
   (1) tree finch                             (3) warbler finch
   (2) ground finch                           (4) ancestral finch
Answer: 2

83.
  Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           As part of a laboratory technique, DNA samples taken from four plants were separated.
        The results are represented in the diagram below.
83 Circle the band in the diagram below in the results for plant X that would contain the smallest DNA
   fragments. Support your answer. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
83 [1] Allow 1 credit for circling the band for plant X that would contain the smallest DNA fragments
       and supporting the answer.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
— The smallest fragments travel the farthest/fastest in the gel.
   — The smallest fragments are farthest from the well.
Note: Allow credit if the farthest bands in plants X, 2, and 3 are all circled.
      Do not allow credit if the last band in plant 1 is included. The student must circle the
      correct band and have correct support to receive 1 credit.


84.
84 Which plant is most closely related to plant X? Support your answer using information from the diagram. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
84 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 and supporting the answer using information from the diagram. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Plant X and plant 3 have the most similar banding pattern.
           — Plant X and plant 3 have all bands in the same positions.


85.
85 Identify the technique used to obtain the results represented in the diagram. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
85 [1] Allow 1 credit for electrophoresis or gel electrophoresis or DNA fingerprinting.



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