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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2014 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 A function of cell membranes in humans is the
  (1) synthesis of the amino acids
  (2) production of energy
  (3) replication of genetic material
  (4) recognition of certain chemicals
Answer: 4

2.
2 Forests, mountains, rivers, and marshes are
  examples of the wide variety of ecosystems in
  New York State. The diversity of these ecosystems is most likely the result of
  (1) the variety of abiotic conditions in these
      regions
  (2) interactions between producers and
      decomposers
  (3) increased efforts to protect endangered
      species
  (4) a lack of competition between the heterotrophs living there
Answer: 1

3.
3 The diagram below represents two organisms.
Which statement concerning organism A and
organism B is correct?
(1) Organism A contains organs, whereas
    organism B lacks organs.
(2) Organism A and organism B have the same
    organ systems.
(3) Organism A and organism B both have
    structures that perform life processes.
(4) Organism A lacks structures that help
    maintain dynamic equilibrium.
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which statement best describes the organelles
  in a cell?
  (1) All organelles are involved directly with
      communication between cells.
  (2) Organelles must work together and their
      activities must be coordinated.
  (3) Organelles function only when there is a disruption in homeostasis.
  (4) Each organelle must function independently
      of the others in order to maintain homeostasis.
Answer: 2

5.
5 A substance directly involved in cellular communication within the human body is
  (1) an antibody            (3) a hormone
  (2) an antibiotic          (4) a starch
Answer: 3

6.
6 The list below includes three organ systems that
  are directly used when a human runs.
              circulatory system
               muscular system
                skeletal system
  Which system should also be included in the list?
  (1) immune system        (3) digestive system
  (2) reproductive system (4) nervous system
Answer: 4

7.
7 In a pine forest, there are different species of
  birds known as warblers that are able to coexist
  on the same pine trees. The Cape May warblers
  feed on insects located on the tips of the highest
  pine branches. The yellow-rumped warblers
  feed on insects on lower branches of the same
  trees. The different feeding locations for these
  two species of warblers indicate that they have
  different
  (1) niches
  (2) ecosystems
  (3) methods of asexual reproduction
  (4) methods of selective breeding
Answer: 1

8.
8 The diagram below represents the locations of
  two mutations in a strand of a DNA molecule.
If this DNA is located in the nucleus of a skin
cell, the cell will
(1) pass the mutations on to only half the cells
    that develop from it
(2) delete all of the DNA in the nucleus and
    synthesize new DNA
(3) correct the mutations after several generations
(4) pass the mutations on to the cells that
    develop from it
Answer: 4

9.
9 A human skin cell contains 46 chromosomes. A
  frog sperm cell contains 12 chromosomes.
  Which pair of numbers shows the chromosome
  number of a normal gamete from each of these
  species?
  (1) human 46; frog 12 (3) human 23; frog 24
  (2) human 46; frog 24 (4) human 23; frog 12
Answer: 4

10.
10 According to the theory of biological evolution,
   most present-day species of organisms
   (1) developed from similar, smaller prehistoric
       organisms
   (2) have always existed in the form they have
       today
   (3) developed from fossils of the other organisms
   (4) descended from earlier, different species of
       organisms
Answer: 4

11.
11 Corn seeds with identical genetic information
   were planted on two adjacent farms. The corn
   plants on one farm were well fertilized and grew
   large, while the plants on the other farm were
   not given fertilizer and did not grow as large.
   The best explanation for these observations is
   that
   (1) crops grow differently in different climates
   (2) the corn plants all contained mutated genes
       that made them grow
   (3) environmental conditions affect gene
       expression
   (4) the plants on one farm had different genes
       from the plants on the other farm
Answer: 3

12.
12 The male red-winged blackbird defends its
   territory and uses loud vocalizations to attract a
   mate. Such behavior directly benefits these birds
   because it results in
   (1) increased competition for food
   (2) greater reproductive success
   (3) reduced biodiversity
   (4) global stability
Answer: 2

13.
13 Extinction occurs when the environment
   changes and
   (1) a species can reproduce successfully
   (2) an individual has adaptive characteristics
       insufficient to allow survival
   (3) all members of a species are no longer living
   (4) one individual produces some offspring that
       evolve into a new species
Answer: 3

14.
14 All the information necessary for growth,
   development, and eventual reproduction of
   sexually reproducing organisms is present in
   (1) sperm cells, only
   (2) egg cells, only
   (3) zygotes
   (4) either sperm cells or egg cells
Answer: 3

15.
15 Which activity can occur without the use of
   energy?
   (1) contraction of muscle tissue
   (2) protein synthesis in a cell
   (3) active transport of minerals
   (4) movement of water across a membrane
Answer: 4


16.
16 An alternative to the use of insecticides to
   combat the Mediterranean fruit fly is the Sterile
   Insect Technique (SIT). SIT involves the
   sterilization of male insects by radiation, which
   prevents the formation of functional male
   gametes. When these male insects mate with
   female insects of the same species, the result
   would be that
   (1) only female offspring would be produced
   (2) no offspring would be produced
   (3) the offspring would have a reduced number
       of chromosomes
   (4) the offspring would no longer be sterile
Answer: 2

17.
17 The diagrams below represent a human organ
   system.
The major function of the system is to
(1) provide immunity essential for the survival
    of each individual in a population
(2) provide cells that are necessary for the
    survival of the species
(3) produce chemical messages that are
    necessary for nerve cell development
(4) control the passage of nutrients into and out
    of a developing fetus
Answer: 2

18.
18 Sheep were the first species of mammals to be
   cloned. Which statement about cloned sheep is
   correct?
   (1) Different kinds of body cells in a cloned
       sheep contain different DNA.
   (2) Cloned sheep cannot produce offspring if
       they are mated with noncloned sheep.
   (3) Two sheep cloned from the same parent
       cannot mate and have offspring.
   (4) Many cells in cloned sheep have two
       identical nuclei, instead of a single nucleus.
Answer: 3

19.
19 In a sexually reproducing species, evolution
   could occur as a result of
   (1) modification of genes in body cells
   (2) modification of genes in sex cells
   (3) increased reproduction among individuals
       with identical chromosomes
   (4) recombination of genes in cells reproducing
       by mitosis
Answer: 2

20.
20 An increase in the level of hormone A causes an
   increase in the level of hormone B. The increase
   in the level of hormone B then causes a decrease
   in the level of hormone A. This process is an
   example of
   (1) a failure to maintain homeostasis
   (2) the breakdown of chemicals
   (3) a disruption in cellular coordination
   (4) a feedback mechanism
Answer: 4

21.
21 Human population growth has led to a reduction
   in the populations of predators throughout
   natural ecosystems across the United States.
   Scientists consider the loss of these predators to
   have a
   (1) positive effect, because an increase in their
       prey helps to maintain stability in the
       ecosystem
   (2) positive effect, because predators usually
       eliminate the species they prey on
   (3) negative effect, since predators have always
       made up a large portion of our food supply
   (4) negative effect, because predators have an
       important role in maintaining stable
       ecosystems
Answer: 4

22.
22 Which environmental change would cause the
   greatest reduction in the biodiversity of a large
   ecosystem?
   (1) building a new home
   (2) building a new store in a shopping mall
   (3) widespread use of pesticides
   (4) widespread recycling programs
Answer: 3

23.
23 The diagram below represents a variety of fossil
   types, which can be found in many rocks.
These fossils can be best used to provide
information that could be used in a study of
(1) evolutionary relationships
(2) dynamic equilibrium
(3) selective breeding
(4) cell specialization
Answer: 1

24.
24 The bottom of Onondaga Lake in upstate New
   York contains large amounts of pollutants. One
   proposal to clean the lake bottom requires that
   the pollutants be removed and stored nearby.
   People who live near the proposed storage sites
   are opposed to this plan. The officials who must
   decide on the proposal will examine both the
   benefits and risks of the plan. The decision made
   by the officials will most likely involve
   (1) increased industrialization
   (2) direct harvesting
   (3) an increase in finite resources
   (4) consideration of trade-offs
Answer: 4

25.
25 The increased use of wind turbines and solar
   collectors to generate electric power will
   (1) negatively affect ecosystems by increasing
       biodiversity
   (2) negatively alter the chemical composition of
       soil and water
   (3) reduce the amount of pollution that comes
       from the burning of fossil fuels
   (4) increase oil consumption for business and
       industry
Answer: 3

26.
26 Antibiotics are substances used to help fight an
   infection of Streptococcus, a bacterium that
   causes strep throat. Overuse of these antibiotics
   can
   (1) prevent future infections by these pathogens
   (2) cause a decrease in the production of
       enzymes
   (3) allow organic molecules to be synthesized
   (4) select for resistant organisms
Answer: 4

27.
27 An allergic reaction to certain types of natural,
   unprocessed foods, such as peanuts, is caused by
   (1) a lack of digestive enzymes
   (2) a response to specific antigens
   (3) microorganisms living within the food
   (4) high levels of carbon dioxide in the air
Answer: 2

28.
28 A variety of pear tree, known as Bradford, was
   originally introduced into the eastern United
   States in the 196os. Today, this tree is crowding
   out other plants in these states. This situation
   best illustrates
   (1) an unintentional negative effect of altering
       an ecosystem
   (2) how a foreign species is controlled in the
       eastern United States
   (3) that the introduction of a foreign species
       does not affect food webs
   (4) that serious environmental consequences
       can be avoided by importing a foreign
       species
Answer: 1

29.
29 The diagram below represents a process that occurs in nature.
If the oak and hickory trees were burned in a forest fire, leaving bare soil, which group of plants would most
likely be the first to grow back?
(1) crabgrass and horseweed                                   (3) broomsedge and pine seedlings
(2) oak and hickory trees                                     (4) mature pine and young deciduous trees
Answer: 1

30.
30 A growing mass of plastic garbage is collecting in an area of the Pacific Ocean. This is caused by plastic
   garbage that is discarded by people, and it ends up in rivers that carry it to the ocean. Over time, ocean
   currents cause it to accumulate in this area of the Pacific. Currently, the mass is estimated to cover an area
   of ocean twice the size of Texas. As these plastics slowly break down, chemicals enter the water, and can
   enter ocean organisms that we might eventually use for food. This sequence of events illustrates that
   (1) humans modify ecosystems as a result of population growth, consumption, and technology
   (2) human activities that degrade ecosystems result in an increase in diversity of ecosystems
   (3) when humans alter ecosystems by adding specific organisms, serious consequences could result
   (4) industrialization brings a reduced demand for fossil and nuclear fuels
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 Which organic compounds would be the best to
   analyze in order to determine if two species are
   closely related?
   (1) fats                 (3) sugars
   (2) starches             (4) proteins
Answer: 4

32.
32 The diagram below represents some structures
   observed in a drop of human blood.
Which statement correctly describes all of these
structures in human blood?
(1) They produce antibiotics that fight disease.
(2) They are useful in the digestion of oxygen.
(3) They use all of the DNA present in the cells
    of the body.
(4) They perform specific functions that aid in
    maintaining homeostasis.
Answer: 4

33.
   Base your answer to question 33 on the energy
pyramid below and on your knowledge of biology.
33 Letter A in the pyramid represents
   (1) scavengers            (3) carnivores
   (2) producers             (4) herbivores
Answer: 2

34.
34 The graph below shows changes in the level of
   glucose in the blood of a person over a period of
   time.
The graph represents the
(1) maintenance of dynamic equilibrium
(2) failure of homeostasis
(3) reaction of white blood cells to a pathogen
(4) oxygen carrying capacity of the blood
Answer: 1

35.
Base your answer to question 35 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
          The Thousand Islands region in upstate New York has many isolated islands. On one
      island, a fire burned most of the trees. The data table below indicates the percentages of
      tan beetles and dark-brown beetles present before and after the fire.
35 The increase in the percentage of dark-brown beetles over time was most likely due to the fact that the
   (1) dark-brown beetles could not find food as well as the tan beetles
   (2) dark-brown beetles were harder for predators to locate
   (3) tan beetles turned dark brown to blend in with the darker, ash-covered ground
   (4) exposure to ash from the fire changed the DNA of some of the tan beetles
Answer: 2

36.
36 The graph below represents the growth in length and mass of a fetus up to week 32. The length is measured
   in millimeters (mm) and the mass in grams (g).
Which statement best describes human fetal growth between weeks 26 and 32?
(1) There is a faster rate of increase in mass than in length.
(2) The rate of increase in mass levels off, while the increase in length constantly increases.
(3) The fetal mass increases by 750 g and the fetal length increases by about 100 mm.
(4) There are slight decreases in both length and mass.
Answer: 1

37.
Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
37 The population of wolves in 1980 was close to
   (1) 20                                          (3) 800
   (2) 50                                          (4) 1000
Answer: 2

38.
38 An observable trend in the wolf and moose data between 1980 and 1995 is
   (1) as the wolf population decreases, the moose population increases
   (2) as the wolf population decreases, the moose population decreases
   (3) the numbers of wolves and moose are relatively constant
   (4) the numbers of wolves and moose appear to be unrelated
Answer: 1

39.
39 A student wants to test the hypothesis that an acidic environment will decrease enzyme activity. In the
   experiment, the student used an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and bubbles of
   oxygen. To test the hypothesis, the student should collect data on the number of oxygen bubbles produced
   at different
   (1) temperatures                                           (3) enzyme concentrations
   (2) pH levels                                              (4) concentrations of hydrogen peroxide
Answer: 2

40.
    Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents events that occur during embryonic development. Letters A through E represent structures.
40 Between which two letters does mitosis occur?
   (1) A and B                                     (3) A and C
   (2) B and C                                     (4) C and D
Answer: 4

41.
41 Between which two letters does differentiation occur?
   (1) A and B                                             (3) C and D
   (2) B and C                                             (4) D and E
Answer: 4

42.
42 The graph below represents a change in event A that leads to changes in events B and C.
Which row in the chart best identifies each event in the graph?

Answer: 4

43.
43 Which graph best shows changes in a population of yeast that develops in a test tube and completely
   consumes a limited supply of food?

Answer: 3


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Five groups of corn seeds, each containing 275 seeds, were soaked for 1 hour in
      different concentrations of gibberellic acid, a plant growth hormone. After 1 hour, the seeds
      were rinsed in tap water and drained of all excess water. The seeds were then placed on
      paper towels and kept moist for 7 days. After 7 days, the growing stems were cut and
      weighed to determine the increase in growth. Then, the percent increase in growth
      compared to the growth of a group of untreated seeds was calculated. The results were
      recorded and are shown in the data table below.
Directions (44 and 45): Using the information given in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid,
following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis on the grid on the next page. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
44 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data range, on each
       labeled axis.


45.
45 Plot the data from the table on the grid on the next page. Surround each point with a small circle and
   connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
45 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data from the data table and surrounding each point with
       a small circle and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit if the points are plotted correctly, but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


46.
46 Identify the control group in this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
46 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — the group of untreated seeds
            — the group of seeds not soaked in the gibberellic acid


47.
47 Which conclusion is supported by the data from this investigation?
   (1) A concentration of gibberellic acid under 300 ppm inhibits the growth of corn plants.
   (2) Plants from untreated corn seeds grow better than those treated with gibberellic acid at a concentration
       of 600 ppm.
   (3) A concentration of gibberellic acid over 300 ppm makes corn seeds germinate best.
   (4) Corn seedlings treated with gibberellic acid at concentrations between 225 and 600 ppm grow better
       than untreated seedlings.
Answer: 4

48.
48 State how farmers should use gibberellic acid to grow the largest plants. Support your answer with data
   from this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
48 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating how farmers should use gibberellic acid to grow the largest plants and
       supporting the answer with data from this experiment. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — Use 300 ppm of gibberellic acid on the seeds, as that concentration produced the greatest
              amount of growth.
            — Use somewhere between 275 and 350 ppm of gibberellic acid because it results in faster
              growth.
            — Soak corn seeds in 300 ppm gibberellic acid for 1 hour before planting for a faster growth
              rate.


49.
Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
49 The temperature range in a pond in which all three fish species could grow and survive is most likely
   (1) 2°C to 8°C                                       (3) 22°C to 28°C
   (2) 12°C to 18°C                                     (4) 32°C to 38°C
Answer: 2

50.
50 In the pond where these fish live, temperature is both a
   (1) source of energy and biotic factor                (3) limiting factor and biotic factor
   (2) source of nutrition and abiotic factor            (4) limiting factor and abiotic factor
Answer: 4

51.
51–52 The work of a cell is carried out by the many different types of molecules it assembles. Most of these
      molecules are proteins. Explain how the cell is able to make the many different proteins it needs.
      In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify where in the cell the information necessary to construct a particular protein is located and
        the specific molecule that contains this information [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying where in the cell the information necessary to construct a particular
       protein is located and the specific molecule that contains this information. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — The information is in DNA molecules in the nucleus of the cell.
            — The nucleus contains the DNA molecules where the information is found.
            — The information is located on a chromosome, which contains DNA.


52.
• identify both the cellular structure that assembles these proteins and the kinds of molecules that are
  used as the building blocks of the proteins [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying both the cellular structure that assembles these proteins and the
       kinds of molecules that are used as the building blocks of the proteins. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — Ribosomes construct proteins out of amino acids.
            — Ribosomes use amino acids to assemble proteins.
            — Ribosomes use amino acids.


53.
    Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents a food web.
53 Identify two herbivores that compete for food in the food web above. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for mice and crickets.


54.
54 Even though both hawks and owls have two sources of food, explain why hawks would be less likely to
   survive if a disease wiped out the mice. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The hawks eat mice and snakes, which also eat mice; while the owls eat mice and frogs,
              which eat crickets not mice.
            — The hawk’s second food source also feeds on mice.
            — The owl’s second food source is not dependent on mice.
            — Snakes also eat mice, but frogs do not.


55.
55 State the role of the decomposers in this food web. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — break down organic compounds and return nutrients to the environment
            — break down dead plants and animals and release nutrients to the environment
            — prevent the build-up of dead organisms
            — recycle nutrients



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
Base your answers to questions 56 through 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           There has been an increase in the number of dead birds found on the beaches of the
      Great Lakes. These birds were poisoned by a bacterial toxin in the lake water. The birds do
      not ingest enough water to become sick directly from the toxin found in the lake water.
      Scientists think that the cause of the increasing bird deaths lies with an invasive species—
      the zebra mussel. This freshwater organism was introduced into the Great Lakes
      accidentally by humans, and has become well established in the Great Lakes. Zebra mussels
      filter out microscopic organisms, as well as the toxins found in the lake water. The toxins
      become concentrated in the zebra mussels, which are eaten by small fish called gobies, and
      the gobies are eaten by the birds. The concentration increases in each level of the food
      chain. It appears that the introduction of the zebra muscles into the Great Lakes has
      resulted in a new food chain that increases the concentration of the naturally occurring
      toxins and passes dangerous levels on to these top-level predators. This process is known as
      bioaccumulation.
 56 Why are the accidentally introduced zebra mussels referred to as an invasive species? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
56 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — They outcompete native species.
            — They harm/negatively affect native species.
            — They were introduced to the Great Lakes by humans.
            — They interfere with the ability of other organisms to function in the environment.
            — They are not native to the Great Lakes.


57.
57 On the diagram below, complete the food chain by filling in the correct organisms from the passage. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
57 [1] Allow 1 credit.


58.
58 How has bioaccumulation resulted in the deaths of large numbers of birds even though the toxin level
   in the lake water is not high enough to make them sick? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
58 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The concentration of the toxin increases in each level of the food chain until it is high
              enough to kill top-level predators.
            — The birds eat gobies that have accumulated toxins.
            — The food chain increases the concentration of naturally occurring toxins by passing
              dangerous levels on to top-level predators.


59.
59 Describe one possible effect that the increased deaths of the birds could have on the rest of the
   ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
59 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Animals that eat the birds would not have enough food.
            — The decomposing birds could spread disease.
            — The gobie population would increase.
            — decreases biodiversity
            — disrupts food webs


60.
60–63 The immune system protects against foreign substances and even some cancers. Explain how the
      immune system functions. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify one way the immune system fights pathogens [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one way the immune system fights pathogens. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — White blood cells engulf pathogens.
            — Antibodies fight invaders.
            — produces antibodies


61.
• identify the substance in a vaccine that stimulates the immune system [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the substance in a vaccine that stimulates the immune system.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — dead/weakened pathogen
            — antigens
            — a small piece of the virus/viral coat
        Note: Do not accept “a little bit of the disease” or “a small amount of the virus.”


62.
• describe the response of the immune system to the vaccine [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing the response of the immune system to the vaccine. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The vaccine stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies.
            — It causes the body to make antibodies.


63.
• identify one disease that damages the immune system and state how it affects this system [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one disease that damages the immune system and for stating how it
       affects this system. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            AIDS/HIV
            — attacks the immune system so it cannot fight off diseases
            cancer/leukemia
            — destroys immune system cells, which weakens immune responses


64.
  Base your answer to question 64–68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Some poinsettia plants have green leaves that turn red. A garden club decided to study
        the color change of poinsettia plants. Knowing that poinsettias change color during the
        short daylight periods of winter, they decided to investigate the effect of different daylight
        lengths on color change.
64–68 Design a controlled experiment using three experimental groups that could be used to determine if the
      number of hours of daylight has an effect on the color change of poinsettias. In your experimental
      design, be sure to:
       • state one hypothesis the experiment would test [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
64 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one hypothesis the experiment would test. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — If plants are exposed to fewer than 11 hours of daylight, then they will change color.
            — The number of hours of daylight will have no effect on color change.
        Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


65.
• state one way the three experimental groups would differ [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one way the three experimental groups would differ. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — One group gets less than 10 hours of daylight, one more than 12 hours of daylight, and one
              11 hours of daylight.
            — exposure to different lengths of daylight


66.
• identify two factors that must be kept the same in all three groups [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying two factors that must be kept the same in all the three groups.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — temperature
            — amount of water/fertilizer
            — soil conditions
            — age/size of plants


67.
• identify the dependent variable in the experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the dependent variable in the experiment. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — leaf color
            — whether or not color changes


68.
• describe experimental results that would support your hypothesis [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing experimental results that would support the hypothesis. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The hypothesis would be supported if only the plants exposed to less than 10 hours of daylight change color and those exposed to more hours of daylight do not change color.
            — All of the plants changed color/none of the plants changed color.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 64.


69.
69 An accident resulted in a man’s hand being cut off from his arm. Paramedics arriving first on the scene
   placed the cut-off hand in ice. The man and his hand were flown to a hospital, where doctors
   successfully reattached the hand to his arm. Explain, using one biological reason, why placing the hand
   in ice improved the chances of saving it. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Cooling would slow down any tissue decomposition/breakdown that may otherwise occur.
            — Cooling the enzymes in the cells of the hand causes the metabolic rate to decrease. This
              extends cell lifetime without additional blood and oxygen supply.
            — The cooling would slow the action of enzymes that could cause tissue damage.
            — to slow down growth of bacteria on the tissue
            — to preserve it, so it does not rot
        Note: Do not accept just “to preserve it” without a biological reason.


70.
Base your answer to question 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Researchers monitoring the atmosphere of Earth report that the ozone shield has
      stopped shrinking and will most likely be on the mend over the next several decades. These
      findings were based on analyses of satellite records and instruments monitoring the surface
      of Earth. Scientists credit an international agreement to phase out the production of ozonedepleting chemicals for this turnabout.
 70 State one reason why the ozone shield is important. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It shields living things from harmful radiation from the Sun.
            — protects us from UV radiation
            — protects us from DNA damage/mutation/skin cancer


71.
71 Which biotechnology procedure did most people feel was the safest? Support your answer. [1]
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                Climate Change for Biotechnology
          Many people were surveyed in 2002 and asked their opinion of some procedures that
      involved biotechnology. These procedures are listed below.
          • Genetic testing to detect inheritable diseases, such as cystic fibrosis
          • Cloning human cells to replace diseased cells in an individual with Parkinson’s disease,
            diabetes, or heart disease
          • Using xenotransplants introducing human genes into pigs to produce hearts for human
            transplants
          • Genetically modifying crops (GM crops) to make crop plants insect resistant
          • Genetically modifying foods (GM foods) to make them higher in protein
          These people were asked whether the technology should be used, if the technology was
      risky, if the technology is morally acceptable, and if they would encourage the technology.
      Those surveyed rated each technology as “definitely agree,” “tend to agree,” “no opinion,”
      “tend to disagree,” and “definitely disagree.” The responses were given a numerical score
      and then averaged together. The results of the survey are shown below.
                                    Adapted from: Gaskell, et. al., AgBioForum, 2003, Volume 6, Article 12

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for genetic testing and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but
       are not limited to:
            — More people agreed the technology should be used.
            — People felt it was not risky.


72.
72 State one possible advantage of xenotransplants. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — more organs available for individuals that need them
            — may be less chance of rejection
            — Organs are readily available.
            — Pig hearts with human genes can be used for transplants.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
73 Which branching tree diagram shows that species W and Z are most closely related?

Answer: 4

74.
74 Students noticed that some of their classmates have a hard time concentrating during class. They thought
   it may have some connection with the fact that these students consume energy drinks just before class. An
   experiment was proposed to find out if there is a connection between energy drinks and the lack of ability
   to concentrate in class. A properly designed experiment to determine this would include having
   (1) the whole class drink energy drinks and no water at all, for the entire time of the experiment
   (2) the whole class drink water and no energy drinks at all, for the entire time of the experiment
   (3) the students drink both water and an energy drink just before class
   (4) half the students drink water and the other half drink an energy drink just before class
Answer: 4

75.
75 Which technique could be used to separate pigments from a mixture?
   (1) preparing a wet-mount slide                        (3) paper chromatography
   (2) staining                                           (4) dissection
Answer: 3

76.
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
76 The differences seen in the beaks of the four species of finches are most likely the result of
   (1) gene expression and asexual reproduction               (3) migration and the need to adapt
   (2) variation and natural selection                        (4) heredity and a diet of seeds
Answer: 2

77.
77 A person expressed concern that the vegetarian finch may face greater competition when other finch
   populations increase. State whether the vegetarian finch will face competition if the populations of warbler
   finches, woodpecker finches, and mangrove finches increase. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for yes or no and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — No, they eat different foods.
            — No, the other finches eat insects and the vegetarian finch eats seeds.
            — Yes, they might compete for space/nesting sites.


78.
Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          A laboratory procedure involving a microscope slide is represented in the diagram
      below.
78 State one purpose for this procedure. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It can add a liquid to the slide without removing the coverslip.
            — This procedure is used to add stain to a specimen on a slide.
            — It is used to add salt water to cells on the slide.
            — It is for adding distilled water to red onion cells.


79.
79 Identify one specific substance represented by the liquid in A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — a salt solution
            — a stain/iodine
            — salt water that is to be added to the specimen
            — water/distilled water


80.
80 State the purpose of the paper towel labeled B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The paper towel will soak up liquid from under the coverslip and draw the stain under the
              other side of the coverslip.
            — The paper towel will make the salt water flow over the cells.
            — It is to draw the distilled water under the coverslip.


81.
   Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents two solutions, A and B, separated by a selectively permeable membrane.
81 A sample from solution A and solution B were each tested with blue-colored glucose indicator solution
   before the solutions were placed in the beaker. Which row represents the results?

Answer: 3

82.
82 Which statement best describes the outcome after 20 minutes?
   (1) Solution A will contain approximately the same number of glucose molecules as solution B.
   (2) Solution A will contain all of the water molecules.
   (3) Solution B will remain unchanged.
   (4) Solution B will lose all of the glucose molecules to solution A.
Answer: 1

83.
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          The relationship between lung capacity and gender was studied in a laboratory
      investigation. Relative lung capacity was measured by having each student fill a balloon with
      a deep breath and then measuring the circumference of the balloon. Each student was given
      three trials and the average balloon circumference was recorded in the data table below.
83 A student calculated the group average to be 441.8. State the specific error made in this calculation. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The student did not divide the total by 8 (number of students).
            — This is the total, not the average.


84.
84 A student concluded that “all females have a smaller lung capacity than males.” Is this a valid conclusion?
   Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating that this is not a valid conclusion and supporting the answer. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The conclusion is not supported because one of the males has a smaller average than one
              of the females.
            — because it is a very small sample


85.
85 Identify one biological condition or personal activity that could make it difficult for a person to perform well
   on a test of lung capacity. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The person might have been ill.
            — The person might have asthma.
            — The person was injured.
            — smoking
            — working in a coal mine
            — watching TV instead of exercising



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