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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2003 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part. [35]
Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. A biologist reported success in breeding a tiger with a lion, producing healthy offspring. Other biologists will accept this report as fact only if
(1) research shows that other animals can be crossbred
(2) the offspring are given a scientific name
(3) the biologist included a control in the experiment
(4) other researchers can replicate the experiment
4

2. The diagram below represents a pyramid of energy in an ecosystem.

Which level in the pyramid would most likely contain members of the plant kingdom?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
4

3. Which condition would cause an ecosystem to become unstable?
(1) only heterotrophic organisms remain after a change in the environment
(2) a slight increase in the number of heterotrophic and autotrophic organisms occurs
(3) a variety of nonliving factors are used by the living factors
(4) biotic and abiotic resources interact
1


4. Nerve cells are essential to an animal because they directly provide
(1) communication between cells
(2) transport of nutrients to various organs
(3) regulation of reproductive rates within other cells
(4) an exchange of gases within the body
1

5. Certain bacteria produce a chemical that makes them resistant to penicillin. Since these bacteria reproduce asexually, they usually produce off-spring that
(1) can be destroyed by penicillin
(2) mutate into another species
(3) are genetically different from their parents
(4) survive exposure to penicillin
4

6. A sudden change in the DNA of a chromosome can usually be passed on to future generations if the change occurs in a
(1) skin cell
(2) liver cell
(3) sex cell
(4) brain cell
3

7. A change in the order of DNA bases that code for a respiratory protein will most likely cause
(1) the production of a starch that has a similar function
(2) the digestion of the altered gene by enzymes
(3) a change in the sequence of amino acids determined by the gene
(4) the release of antibodies by certain cells to correct the error
3

8. Many vaccinations stimulate the immune system by exposing it to
(1) antibodies
(2) enzymes
(3) mutated genes
(4) weakened microbes
4

9. The data in the graph below show evidence of disease in the human body.

A disruption in dynamic equilibrium is indicated by the temperature change between points
(1) A and B
(2) B and C
(3) C and D
(4) E and F
3

10. The diagram below represents events involved as energy is ultimately released from food.

Which row in the table below best represents the chain of Xs and letters A and B in the diagram?
2

11. In the diagram below, the dark dots indicate small molecules. These molecules are moving out of the cells, as indicated by the arrows. The number of dots inside and outside of the two cells represents the relative concentrations of the molecules inside and outside of the cells.

ATP is being used to move the molecules out of the cell by
(1) cell A, only
(2) cell B, only
(3) both cell A and cell B
(4) neither cell A nor cell B
1

12. The diagrams below represent some steps in a procedure used in biotechnology.
Letters X and Y represent the
(1) hormones that stimulate the replication of bacterial DNA
(2) biochemical catalysts involved in the insertion of genes into other organisms
(3) hormones that trigger rapid mutation of genetic information
(4) gases needed to produce the energy required for gene manipulation
2

13. According to some scientists, patterns of evolution can be illustrated by the diagrams below.

Which statement best explains the patterns seen in these diagrams?
(1) The organisms at the end of each branch can be found in the environment today.
(2) The organisms that are living today have all evolved at the same rate and have undergone the same kinds of changes.
(3) Evolution involves changes that give rise to a variety of organisms, some of which continue to change through time while others die out.
(4) These patterns cannot be used to illustrate the evolution of extinct organisms.
3

14. Which statement best illustrates a rapid biological adaptation that has actually occurred?
(1) Pesticide-resistant insects have developed in certain environments.
(2) Scientific evidence indicates that dinosaurs once lived on land.
(3) Paving large areas of land has decreased habitats for certain organisms.
(4) The characteristics of sharks have remained unchanged over a long period of time.
1

15. During meiosis, crossing-over (gene exchange between chromosomes) may occur. Crossing-over usually results in
(1) overproduction of gametes
(2) fertilization and development
(3) the formation of identical offspring
(4) variation within the species
4

16. The diagram below illustrates the change that occurred in the physical appearance of a rabbit population over a 10-year period.


Which condition would explain this change over time?
(1) a decrease in the mutation rate of the rabbits with black fur
(2) a decrease in the advantage of having white fur
(3) an increase in the advantage of having white fur
(4) an increase in the chromosome number of the rabbits with black fur
2

17. The diagram below represents some stages of early embryonic development.


Which process is represented by the arrows in the diagram?
(1) meiosis
(2) fertilization
(3) mitosis
(4) evolution
3

18. The reproductive system of the human male produces gametes and
(1) transfers gametes to the female for internal fertilization
(2) produces enzymes that prevent fertilization
(3) releases hormones involved in external fertilization
(4) provides an area for fertilization
1

19. Blood can be tested to determine the presence of the virus associated with the development of AIDS. This blood test is used directly for
(1) cure
(2) treatment
(3) diagnosis
(4) prevention
3

20. The equation below represents a summary of a biological process.
carbon dioxide + water → glucose + water + oxygen
This process is completed in
(1) mitochondria
(2) ribosomes
(3) cell membranes
(4) chloroplasts
4

21. In a stable, long-existing community, the establishment of a single species per niche is most directly the result of
(1) parasitism
(2) interbreeding
(3) competition
(4) overproduction
3

22. The diagram below represents a developing bird egg.

What is the primary function of this egg?
(1) food supply for predators to preserve predator populations
(2) adaptation to allow maximum freedom for parent birds
(3) continuation of the species through reproduction
(4) preservation of the exact genetic code of the parent birds
3

23. The diagram below represents part of the human female reproductive system.

Fertilization and development normally occur in structures
(1) 1 and 5
(2) 2 and 4
(3) 3 and 1
(4) 4 and 5
4

24.
2

25. The presence of parasites in an animal will usually result in
(1) an increase in meiotic activity within structures of the host
(2) the inability of the host to maintain homeostasis
(3) the death of the host organism within twenty-four hours
(4) an increase in genetic mutation rate in the host organism
2

26. In Texas, researchers gave a cholesterol-reducing drug to 2,335 people and an inactive substitute (placebo) to 2,081. Most of the volunteers were men who had normal cholesterol levels and no history of heart disease. After 5 years, 97 people getting the placebo had suffered heart attacks compared to only 57 people who had received the actual drug. The researchers are recommending that to help prevent heart attacks, all people (even those without high cholesterol) take these cholesterol-reducing drugs. In addition to the information above, what is another piece of information that the researchers must have before support for the recommendation can be justified?
(1) Were the eating habits of the two groups similar?
(2) How does a heart attack affect cholesterol levels?
(3) Did the heart attacks result in deaths?
(4) What chemical is in the placebo?
1

27. What is represented by the sequence below?

(1) a feedback mechanism in multicellular organisms
(2) an immune response by cells of the pancreas
(3) differentiation of organic molecules
(4) the disruption of cellular communication
1

28. In an ecosystem, which component is not recycled?
(1) water
(2) energy
(3) oxygen
(4) carbon
2

29. Vultures, which are classified as scavengers, are an important part of an ecosystem because they
(1) hunt herbivores, limiting their populations in an ecosystem
(2) feed on dead animals, which aids in the recycling of environmental materials
(3) cause the decay of dead organisms, which releases usable energy to herbivores and carnivores
(4) are the first level in food webs and make energy available to all the other organisms in the web
2

30. “Natural ecosystems provide an array of basic processes that affect humans.”
Which statement does not support this quotation?
(1) Bacteria of decay help recycle materials.
(2) Trees add to the amount of atmospheric oxygen.
(3) Treated sewage is less damaging to the environment than untreated sewage.
(4) Lichens and mosses living on rocks help to break the rocks down, forming soil.
3

31. The carrying capacity of a given environment is least dependent upon
(1) recycling of materials
(2) the available energy
(3) the availability of food and water
(4) daily temperature fluctuations
4

32. Increased efforts to conserve areas such as rain forests are necessary in order to
(1) protect biodiversity
(2) promote extinction of species
(3) exploit finite resources
(4) increase industrialization
1

33. Which practice would most likely deplete a non-renewable natural resource?
(1) harvesting trees on a tree farm
(2) burning coal to generate electricity in a power plant
(3) restricting water usage during a period of water shortage
(4) building a dam and a power plant to use water to generate electricity
2

34. Changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere that may produce acid rain are most closely associated with
(1) insects that excrete acids
(2) runoff from acidic soils
(3) industrial smoke stack emissions
(4) flocks of migrating birds
3

35. One way to help provide suitable environments for future generations is to urge individuals to
(1) apply ecological principles when making decisions that will have an environmental impact
(2) control all aspects of natural environments
(3) agree that population controls have no impact on environmental matters
(4) work toward increasing global warming
1



Part B
Answer all questions in this part. [30]

Directions (36-64): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

As the depth of the ocean increases, the amount of light that penetrates to that depth decreases. At about 200 meters, little, if any, light is present. The graph below illustrates the population size of four different species at different water depths.
36. Which species most likely performs photosynthesis?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
2

37. Which structure is best observed using a compound light microscope?
(1) a cell
(2) a virus
(3) a DNA sequence
(4) the inner surface of a mitochondrion
1

38. Which words best complete the lettered blanks in the two sentences below?
Organic compounds, such as proteins and starches, are too A to diffuse into cells. Proteins are digested into B and starches are digested into C.
(1) A—large, B—simple sugars, C —amino acids
(2) A—small, B—simple sugars, C —amino acids
(3) A—large, B—amino acids, C—simple sugars
(4) A—small, B—amino acids, C—simple sugars
3

39. The photographs below show some physical similarities between John Lennon and his son Julian.


Which conclusion can be drawn regarding these similarities?
(1) The DNA present in their body cells is identical.
(2) The percentage of their proteins with the same molecular composition is high.
(3) The base sequences of their genes are identical.
(4) The mutation rate is the same in their body cells.
2


Base your answers to questions 40 through 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

A decade after the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled millions of gallons of crude [oil] off Prince William Sound in Alaska, most of the fish and wildlife species that were injured have not fully recovered.
Only two out of the 28 species, the river otter and the bald eagle, listed as being injured from the 1989 spill are considered to be recovered said a new report, which was released by a coalition of federal and Alaska agencies working to help restore the oil spill region.
Eight species are considered to have made little or no progress toward recovery since the spill, including killer whales, harbor seals, and common loons [a type of bird].
Several other species, including sea otters and Pacific herring, have made significant progress toward recovery, but are still not at levels seen before the accident the report said.
More than 10.8 million gallons of crude oil spilled into the water when the tanker Exxon Valdez ran aground 25 miles south of Valdez on March 24, 1989.
The spill killed an estimated 250,000 seabirds, 2,800 sea otters, 300 harbor seals, 250 bald eagles, and up to 22 killer whales. Billions of salmon and herring eggs, as well as tidal plants and animals, were also smothered in oil.

Reuters


40.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that both the river otter and the bald eagle appear to have been least affected by the oil spill.


41. The oil spilled by the Exxon Valdez tanker is an example of a
(1) nonrenewable resource and is a source of energy
(2) renewable resource and is a source of ATP
(3) nonrenewable resource and synthesizes ATP
(4) renewable resource and is a fossil fuel
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1


42. The impact that the oil spill made on the environment is still being experienced. State information from the reading passage that supports this statement. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for citing information from the passage that indicates that the impact of the oil spill on the environment is still being experienced. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A decade after the Exxon Valdez oil tanker spilled million of gallons of crude oil off Prince William Sound in Alaska, most of the fish and wildlife species that were injured have not fully recovered.
— Eight species are considered to have made little or no progress toward recovery since the spill, including killer whales, harbor seals, and common loons.
— Several other species, including sea otters and Pacific herring, have made significant progress toward recovery but are still not at levels seen before the accident.


43. Which autotrophic organisms were negatively affected by the oil spill? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that tidal plants (or other plants) were the autotrophic organisms negatively affected by the oil spill.



44. Although paramecia (single-celled organisms) usually reproduce asexually, some have developed a method by which they exchange genetic material with each other in a simple form of sexual reproduction. State one advantage this simple form of sexual reproduction would provide over asexual reproduction for the survival of these single-celled organisms. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that exchanging genetic information provides genetic variations.


45. Identify a specific structure in a single-celled organism. State how that structure is involved in the survival of the organism. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 for identifying a structure in a single-celled organism and 1 for stating how that structure is involved in the survival of the organism. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— mitochondrion: site of respiration or releases energy
— cell membrane: regulates what enters (or leaves) the cell



Base your answers to questions 46 and 47 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.


46. State why Process 2 is necessary in sexual reproduction. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that Process 2 restores the normal species number of chromosomes or that fertilization is necessary to produce offspring.


47. State one difference between the cells produced by Process 1 and the cells produced by Process 3. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating a difference between the cells produced by Process 1 and the cells produced by Process 3. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Cells resulting from Process 1 have half the number of chromosomes as cells produced by Process 3.
— Cells produced by Process 1 are sex cells and those produced by Process 3 are body cells.



Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the diagram of a slide of normal human blood below and on your knowledge of biology.


48. An increase in the production of the cells labeled A is a response to an internal environmental change. State a change that might cause this response. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating a change in the internal environment that might cause an increase in the cells labeled A. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— invasion of the body by any of the following: bacteria, fungi, viruses, antigens, foreign proteins, allergens, foreign substances, disease-causing organisms
— pregnancy
— sickness
— cancer


49. Describe one possible immune response, other than an increase in number, that one of the cells labeled A would carry out. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing one possible immune response, other than an increase in number, that one of the cells labeled A would carry out. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— attack or destroy a pathogen/antigen
— produce antibodies
— move to site of antigen
— engulf invaders



Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the diagram of a food web below and on your knowledge of biology.


50. If the population of mice is reduced by disease, which change will most likely occur in the food web?
(1) The cricket population will increase.
(2) The snake population will increase.
(3) The grasses will decrease.
(4) The deer population will decrease.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1


51. What is the original source of energy for this food web?
(1) chemical bonds in sugar molecules
(2) enzymatic reactions
(3) the Sun
(4) chemical reactions of bacteria
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
3


52. Which organisms are not shown in this diagram but are essential to a balanced ecosystem?
(1) heterotrophs
(2) autotrophs
(3) producers
(4) decomposers
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
4


53. State one example of a predator-prey relationship found in the food web. Indicate which organism is the predator and which is the prey. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating a predator-prey relationship found in the food web and indicating which organism is the predator and which is the prey. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Predator/Prey
— lion/deer
— lion/rabbit
— hawk/mouse
— mouse/cricket
— frog/cricket



Base your answers to questions 54 through 58 on the information, diagram, and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Directions (54-56): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below. The data for fan and mist conditions have been plotted for you.

A student conducted an investigation to determine the effect of various environmental factors on the rate of transpiration (water loss through the leaves) in plants. The student prepared 4 groups of plants. Each group contained 10 plants of the same species and leaf area. Each group was exposed to different environmental factors. The apparatus shown in the diagram was constructed to measure water loss by the plants over time in 10-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The results are shown in the data table.


54. Mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Time (min)."? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled "Time."


55. Plot the data for the classroom conditions from the data table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for classroom conditions correctly, surrounding each point with a small circle, and connecting the points.


56. Plot the data for classroom conditions + floodlight from the data table. Surround each point with a small triangle and connect the points. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data for classroom conditions + floodlight correctly, surrounding each point with a small triangle, and connecting the points.


57. Identify the environmental factor that resulted in the lowest rate of transpiration. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that classroom conditions + mist resulted in the lowest rate of transpiration.


58. Identify the control group of plants in this experiment. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that the group of plants in classroom conditions was the control.



Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
The number in the parenthesis ( ) at the end of a sentence is used to identify that sentence.

They Sure Do Look Like Dinosaurs


When making movies about dinosaurs, film producers often use ordinary lizards and enlarge their images thousands of times (1). We all know, however, that while they look like dinosaurs and are related to dinosaurs, lizards are not actually dinosaurs(2). Recently, some scientists have developed a hypothesis that challenges this view (3). These scientists believe that some dinosaurs were actually the same species as some modern lizards that had grown to unbelievable sizes. (4) They think that such growth might be due to a special type of DNA called repetitive DNA, often referred to as “junk” DNA because scientists do not understand its functions (5). These scientists studied pumpkins that can reach sizes of nearly 1,000 pounds and found them to contain large amounts of repetitive DNA (6) . Other pumpkins that grow to only a few ounces in weight have very little of this kind of DNA(7). In addition, cells that reproduce uncontrollably have almost always been found to contain large amounts of this type of DNA (8).
59. State one reason why scientists formerly thought of repetitive DNA as “junk.” [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that scientists formerly thought of repetitive DNA as “junk" because they did not understand its functions.


60. Which kind of cells would most likely contain large amounts of repetitive DNA?
(1) red blood cells
(2) cancer cells
(3) nerve cells
(4) cells that are unable to reproduce
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
2


61. Write the number of a sentence that provides evidence that supports the hypothesis that increasing amounts of repetitive DNA are responsible for increased sizes of organisms. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that sentence 6 or 7 provides evidence that supports the hypothesis that increased amounts of repetitive DNA are responsible for increased size of organisms.



62. An enzyme and four different molecules are shown in the diagram below.
The enzyme would most likely affect reactions involving
(1) molecule A, only
(2) molecule C , only
(3) molecules B and D
(4) molecules A and C
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
2


63. The temperature of the environment in which alligator embryos develop influences the sex of the embryos. At higher temperatures, more embryos develop into males while at lower temperatures, more develop into females. What effect might global warming have on the ability of these alligators to survive as a species? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that global warming could decrease the ability of alligators to survive as a species.


64. The diagram below shows changes that might occur over time after a fire in a forest area.

Which statement is most closely related to the events shown in the diagram?
(1) The lack of animals in an altered ecosystem speeds natural succession.
(2) Abrupt changes in an ecosystem only result from human activities.
(3) Stable ecosystems never become established after a natural disaster.
(4) An abrupt environmental change can cause a long-term gradual change in an ecosystem.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
4




Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [20]
65. In an experiment to test the effect of light on plant growth, a student used two marigold plants of the same age. The plants were grown in separate pots. One pot was exposed to sunlight, the other to artificial light. All other conditions were kept the same. The height of each plant was measured at the start and at the end of the experiment. The student’s data are shown in the table below.
The student concluded that all plants grow more rapidly in sunlight than in artificial light. Discuss whether this conclusion is valid. Your answer must include at least:
• the significance of the difference in the results shown in the data table [1]
• the significance of the number of individual plants used in the experiment [1]
• the significance of the number of species of plants used in the experiment [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, 1 for each of the three components in the response.
• For significance of the difference in the results: [1]
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— One centimeter is not a significant difference.
— The difference could be the result of human error.
• For significance of the number of plants used: [1]
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Growing one marigold in each location is not enough.
— A larger sample size is needed to make valid conclusions.
• For significance of the number of species of plants used: [1]
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
—The student cannot conclude that all plants grow more rapidly in sunlight when this observation was based on only one species.
—The student would need to conduct the investigation with many different species in order to support a conclusion relating to all plants.


66. Select one human body system from the list below.
Body Systems
Digestive
Circulatory
Respiratory
Excretory
Nervous
Describe a malfunction that can occur in the system chosen. Your answer must include at least:
• the name of the system and a malfunction that can occur in this system [1]
• a description of a possible cause of the malfunction identified [1]
• an effect this malfunction may have on any other body system [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating a malfunction associated with the selected system.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— digestive - ulcer
— circulatory - heart attack
— respiratory - emphysema
— excretory - kidney stones
— nervous - Parkinson’s disease
• Allow 1 credit for stating a direct or indirect cause of the malfunction identified.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— ulcer - excess stomach acid
— heart attack - high fat diet
— emphysema - smoking
— kidney stones - genetic cause
— Parkinson’s disease - brain stops making a sufficient supply of a critical chemical (dopamine)
• Allow 1 credit for stating the effect the malfunction has on any other system.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— ulcer - causes bleeding
— heart attack - reduces oxygen to the brain
— emphysema - reduces oxygen in the circulatory system
— kidney stones - stimulates nervous system resulting in pain
— Parkinson's disease - involuntary muscular contractions


67. Biological research has generated knowledge used to diagnose genetic disorders in humans. Explain how a specific genetic disorder can be diagnosed. Your answer must include at least:
• the name of a genetic disorder that can be diagnosed [1]
• the name or description of a technique used to diagnose the disorder [1]
• a description of one characteristic of the disorder [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, 1 each for the name of the genetic disorder, the technique used in diagnosis, and one characteristic of the disorder.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— sickle cell anemia, microscopic examination of blood, low oxygen supply to the cells
— Down syndrome, karyotype analysis, mental retardation
— PKU, urine analysis, mental retardation


68. State two safety procedures that should be followed when conducting an experiment that involves heating protein in a test tube containing water, an acid, and a digestive enzyme. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 for each appropriate safety procedure that should be followed when conducting an experiment that involves heating protein in a test tube containing water, an acid, and a digestive enzyme. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
-— wear goggles
— wear gloves
— wear apron
— handle chemicals properly
— point test tube opening away from self and others
— don’t stopper test tube



Base your answers to questions 69 and 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Over the last 30 years, a part of the Hudson River known as Foundry Cove has been the site for many factories that have dumped toxic chemicals into the river. Some of these pollutants have accumulated in the mud at the bottom of the river. The polluted cove water contains many single-celled organisms and simple multi-cellular animals. Curiously, when the same species from nearby regions with non-polluted sediments are moved to the polluted cove water, they die. Scientists hypothesized that the organisms living in the cove have evolved so that they are able to survive in polluted water. To test this hypothesis, biologists tried to duplicate the history of the cove in the laboratory. They took a large number of one species of simple animal from a cove with unpolluted mud and placed them in a flask that contained polluted mud from Foundry Cove (diagram 1). Most of the animals died, but a few survived (diagram 2). The scientists then bred the survivors with each other for several generations producing offspring that were descendants of the survivors. When placed in Foundry Cove, most of these descendants survived. The diagrams below represent the steps in this investigation.


69. On the diagram of the flask below, sketch the animals that would be present in flask 3 after several generations of breeding in the laboratory. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for a sketch that shows more than three "organisms," with more than half (or possibly all) shaded.


70. Explain how the simple animals of Foundry Cove adapted to the polluted water. Your answer must include an explanation of the role of three of the following in this process. [3]
• environment
• genetic variation
• selection
• reproduction
• survival of the fittest
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of`3 credits, 1 for each accurate explanation of three different components in the response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Not all of the animals were identical. They had genetic variations.
— By reproduction, more organisms will be produced than can survive.
— Only those organisms best adapted to their environment will survive. This is known as survival of the fittest.
— Those animals that survive will reproduce and pass those favorable traits on to their offspring
— As the environment became more polluted, the pollution caused some animals to die. This is known as selection.
Note: No Lamarckian answers are acceptable. No credit should be allowed for responses that simply repeat the prompt and/or name the terms listed without an explanation.



Base your answers to questions 71 through 73 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

The diagram represents a system in a space station that includes a tank containing algae. An astronaut from a spaceship boards the space station.

71. Identify one process being controlled in the setup shown in the diagram. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for naming a process being controlled in the setup. Acceptable answers include, but are not limited to:
— photosynthesis
— energy flow
— carbon dioxide - oxygen cycle


72. State two changes in the chemical composition of the space station atmosphere as a result of the astronaut coming on board the space station. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 for each of two changes in chemical composition of the space station atmosphere as a result of the astronaut coming on board. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— an increase in the level of water vapor
— an increase in the CO2 level 
— a decrease in the O2 level


73. State two changes in the chemical composition of the space station atmosphere that would result from turning on more lights. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 for each of two changes in the chemical composition of the space station atmosphere that would result from turning on more lights. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
-— increase in oxygen level
-— decrease in the CO2 level



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