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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2006 Exam

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Part A
Answer all 30 questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
3

2. Two closely related species of birds live in the same tree. Species A feeds on ants and termites, while species B feeds on caterpillars. The two species coexist successfully because
(1) each occupies a different niche
(2) they interbreed
(3) they use different methods of reproduction
(4) birds compete for food
1

3. After a hormone enters the bloodstream, it is transported throughout the body, but the hormone affects only certain cells. The reason only certain cells are affected is that the membranes of these cells have specific
(1) receptors
(2) tissues
(3) antibodies
(4) carbohydrates
1


4. A characteristic of a DNA molecule that is not characteristic of a protein molecule is that the DNA molecule
(1) can replicate itself
(2) can be very large
(3) is found in nuclei
(4) is composed of subunits
1

5. The graph below illustrates the relative amounts of product formed by the action of an enzyme in a solution with a pH of 6 at seven different temperatures.

Which statement best expresses the amount of product that will be formed at each temperature if the experiment is repeated at a pH of 4?
(1) The amount of product formed will be equal to that produced at pH 6.
(2) The amount of product formed will be greater than that produced at pH 6.
(3) The amount of product formed will be less than that produced at pH 6.
(4) The amount of product formed can not be accurately predicted.
4

6. Which statement best explains the fact that some identical twins appear different from one another?
(1) Their DNA is essentially the same and the environment plays little or no role in the expression of their genes.
(2) Their DNA is very different and the environment plays a significant role in the expression of their genes.
(3) Their DNA is very different and the environment plays little or no role in the expression of their genes.
(4) Their DNA is essentially the same and the environment plays a significant role in the expression of their genes.
4

7. Which statement best expresses the relationship between the three structures represented below?


(1) DNA is produced from protein absorbed by the cell.
(2) Protein is composed of DNA that is produced in the cell.
(3) DNA controls the production of protein in the cell.
(4) Cells make DNA by digesting protein.
3

8. The diagram below represents a common laboratory technique in molecular genetics.

One common use of this technology is the
(1) production of a human embryo to aid women who are unable to have children
(2) change of single-celled organisms to multi- cellular organisms
(3) introduction of a toxic substance to kill bacterial cells
(4) production of hormones or enzymes to replace missing human body chemicals
4

9. Which statement provides accurate information about the technique illustrated below?

(1) This technique results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parents.
(2) New varieties of organisms can be developed by this technique known as selective breeding.
(3) This technique is used by farmers to eliminate mutations in future members of the species.
(4) Since the development of cloning, this technique is no longer used in agriculture.
2

10. Thousands of years ago, giraffes with short necks were common within giraffe populations. Nearly all giraffe populations today have long necks. This difference could be due to
(1) giraffes stretching their necks to keep their heads out of reach of predators
(2) giraffes stretching their necks so they could reach food higher in the trees
(3) a mutation in genetic material controlling neck size occurring in some skin cells of a giraffe
(4) a mutation in genetic material controlling neck size occurring in the reproductive cells of a giraffe
4

11. Estrogen has a direct effect on the
(1) formation of a zygote
(2) changes within the uterus
(3) movement of an egg toward the sperm
(4) development of a placenta within the ovary
2

12. A new chemical was discovered and introduced into a culture containing one species of bacteria. Within a day, most of the bacteria were dead, but a few remained alive. Which statement best explains why some of the bacteria survived?
(1) They had a genetic variation that gave them resistance to the chemical.
(2) They were exposed to the chemical long enough to develop a resistance to it.
(3) They mutated and became a different species after exposure to the chemical.
(4) They absorbed the chemical and broke it down in their digestive systems.
1

13. A current proposal in the field of classification divides life into three broad categories called domains. This idea is illustrated below.

Which concept is best supported by this diagram?
(1) Evolutionary pathways proceed only in one set direction over a short period of time.
(2) All evolutionary pathways will eventually lead to present-day organisms.
(3) All evolutionary pathways are the same length and they all lead to present-day organisms.
(4) Evolutionary pathways can proceed in several directions with only some pathways leading to present-day organisms.
4

14. After the union of sperm and egg, the single-celled zygote develops into a multicellular organism with specialized cells by the processes of
(1) meiosis and replication
(2) mitosis and differentiation
(3) cloning and growth
(4) fertilization and gamete production
2

15. A certain plant species, found only in one particular stream valley in the world, has a very shallow root system. An earthquake causes the stream to change its course so that the valley in which the plant species lives becomes very dry. As a result, the species dies out completely. The effect of this change on this plant species is known as
(1) evolution
(2) extinction
(3) mutation
(4) succession
2

16. When a planarian (a type of worm) is cut in half, each half usually grows back into a complete worm over time. This situation most closely resembles
(1) asexual reproduction in which a mutation has occurred
(2) sexual reproduction in which each half represents one parent
(3) asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism
(4) sexual reproduction of a single-celled organism
3

17. Which statement describes the reproductive system of a human male?
(1) It releases sperm that can be used only in external fertilization.
(2) It synthesizes progesterone that regulates sperm formation.
(3) It produces gametes that transport food for embryo formation.
(4) It shares some structures with the excretory system.
4

18. The immune system of humans may respond to chemicals on the surface of an invading organism by
(1) releasing hormones that break down these chemicals
(2) synthesizing antibodies that mark these organisms to be destroyed
(3) secreting antibiotics that attach to these organisms
(4) altering a DNA sequence in these organisms
2

19. Which statement about the gametes represented in the diagram below is correct?


(1) They are produced by females.
(2) They are fertilized in an ovary.
(3) They transport genetic material.
(4) They are produced by mitosis.
3

20. The dissolved carbon dioxide in a lake is used directly by
(1) autotrophs
(2) parasites
(3) fungi
(4) decomposers
1

21. Which transplant method would prevent the rejection of tissue after an organ transplant?
(1) using organs cloned from the cells of the patient
(2) using organs produced by genetic engineering to get rid of all proteins in the donated organs
(3) using organs only from pigs or monkeys
(4) using an organ donated by a close relative because the proteins will always be identical to those of the recipient
1

22. Ten breeding pairs of rabbits are introduced onto an island with no natural predators and a good supply of water and food. What will most likely happen to the rabbit population?
(1) It will remain relatively constant due to equal birth and death rates.
(2) It will die out due to an increase in the mutation rate.
(3) It will increase until it exceeds carrying capacity.
(4) It will decrease and then increase indefinitely.
3

23. Vaccinations help prepare the body to fight invasions of a specific pathogen by
(1) inhibiting antigen production
(2) stimulating antibody production
(3) inhibiting white blood cell production
(4) stimulating red blood cell production
2

24. All cells of an organism are engaged in many different chemical reactions. This fact is best supported by the presence in each cell of thousands of different kinds of
(1) enzymes
(2) nuclei
(3) chloroplasts
(4) organelles
1

25. Nutritional relationships between organisms are shown in the diagram below.


The mouse population would most likely decrease it there were
(1) an increase in the frog and tree populations
(2) a decrease in the snake and hawk populations
(3) an increase in the number of decomposers in the area
(4) a decrease in the amount of available sunlight
4

26. Even before a flower bud opens, certain plant chemicals have colored the flower in patterns particularly attractive to specific insects. At the same time, these chemicals protect the plant’s reproductive structures by killing or inhibiting pathogens and insects that may feed on the plant. Which statement about the plant and the other organisms mentioned is correct?
(1) Chemicals affect plants but not animals.
(2) Organisms of every niche may be preyed on by herbivores.
(3) Any chemical produced in a plant can protect against insects.
(4) Organisms may interact with other organisms in both positive and negative ways.
4

27. A fire burns an oak forest down to bare ground. Over the next 150 years, if the climate remains constant, this area will most likely
(1) remain bare ground
(2) return to an oak forest
(3) become a rain forest
(4) become a wetland
2

28. Continued depletion of the ozone layer will most likely result in
(1) an increase in skin cancer among humans
(2) a decrease in atmospheric pollutants
(3) an increase in marine ecosystem stability
(4) a decrease in climatic changes
1

29. A change in the acidity of mountain lakes would most likely be a result of
(1) ecological succession of the area at the top of the mountain
(2) the introduction of new species into the lakes
(3) air pollution from smoke stacks miles away
(4) planting grasses and shrubs around the lakes
3

30. A forest is cut down and is replaced by a corn-field. A negative consequence of this practice is
(1) an increase in the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere
(2) an increase in the size of predators
(3) a decrease in biodiversity
(4) a decrease in the amount of soil that is washed away during rainstorms
3



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part. [8]

Directions (31-38): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31. The diagram below shows how a cover-slip should be lowered onto some single-celled organisms during the preparation of a wet mount.


Why is this a preferred procedure?
(1) The cover-slip will prevent the slide from breaking.
(2) The organisms will be more evenly distributed.
(3)The possibility of breaking the cover-slip is reduced.
(4) The possibility of trapping air bubbles is reduced.
4

32. The diagram below represents the setup for an experiment. Two black paper discs are opposite each other on both sides of each of two leaves.

This experimental setup would most likely be used to show that
(1) glucose is necessary for photosynthesis
(2) protein is a product of photosynthesis
(3) light is necessary for photosynthesis
(4) carbon dioxide is a product of photosynthesis
3

33. An experiment was carried out to determine which mouthwash was most effective against bacteria commonly found in the mouth. Four paper discs were each dipped into a different brand of mouthwash. The discs were then placed onto the surface of a culture plate that contained food, moisture, and bacteria commonly found in the mouth. The diagram below shows the growth of bacteria on the plate after 24 hours.

Which change in procedure would have improved the experiment?
(1) using a smaller plate with less food and moisture
(2) using bacteria from many habitats other than the mouth
(3) using the same size paper discs for each mouthwash
(4) using the same type of mouthwash on each disc
3


Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Analysis of a sample taken from a pond showed variety in both number and type of organisms present. The data collected are shown in the table below.


34. If the frogs feed on insect larvae, what is the role of the frogs in this pond ecosystem?
(1) herbivore
(2) parasite
(3) consumer
(4) host
3

35.
1


Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Lichens are composed of two organisms, a fungus that cannot make its own food and algae that contain chlorophyll. Lichens may live on the bark of trees or even on bare rock. They secrete acids that tend to break up the rock they live on, helping to produce soil. As soil accumulates from the broken rock and dead lichens, other organisms, such as plants, may begin to grow.
36. The ability of lichens to alter their environment, enabling other organisms to grow and take their places in that environment, is one step in the process of
(1) biological evolution
(2) ecological succession
(3) maintenance of cellular communication
(4) differentiation in complex organisms
2

37. What is the role of the algae component of a lichen in an ecosystem?
(1) decomposer
(2) parasite
(3) herbivore
(4) producer
4


38. The diagram below illustrates some of the changes that occur during gamete formation.

Which graph best represents the changes in the amount of DNA in one of the cells at each stage?

1



Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [17]

Directions (39-54): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answer in the spaces provided.

Base your answers to questions 39 through 43 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
Directions (39-40): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.

The results of blood tests for two individuals are shown in the data table below The blood glucose level before breakfast is normally 80-90 mg/100 mL of blood. A blood glucose level above 110 mg/100 mL of blood indicates a failure in a feedback mechanism. Injection of chemical X, a chemical normally produced in the body, may be required to correct this problem.

39. Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each labeled axis.


40.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for picking only individual 2 to plot.
• Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for either individual, surrounding each point with a small circle, and connecting the points.


41. Identify chemical X. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying chemical X as insulin.


42. State one reason for the change in blood glucose level between 7:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason for the change in blood glucose level between 7 a.m. and 8 a.m.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— They had a meal containing carbohydrates.
— They had breakfast.
— digestion
— absorption


43. What term refers to the relatively constant level of blood glucose of individual 1 between 9:00 a.m. and 11:00 a.m.? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for homeostasis or steady state or dynamic equilibrium.



44. Acetylcholine is a chemical secreted at the ends of nerve cells. This chemical helps to send nerve signals across synapses (spaces between nerve cells). After the signal passes across a synapse, an enzyme breaks down the acetylcholine. LSD is a drug that blocks the action of this enzyme. Describe one possible effect of LSD on the action of acetylcholine. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing one possible effect of LSD on the action of acetylcholine. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Cell communication would be disrupted.
— The Work of acetylcholine would occur continuously.
— Nerve signals would not be turned off.


45. Mice store only a small amount of the energy they obtain from plants they eat. State what might happen to some of the remaining energy they obtain from the plants. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what might happen to some of the remaining energy mice obtain from the plants they eat after they store a small amount of it. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Much of the energy is lost as heat (during cellular respiration).
— Some of the energy is used by the mice for life functions.


46. State one reason that most foods must be digested before they can enter a cell. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason that most foods must be digested before they can enter a cell. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Food must be digested before it can enter a cell since certain food molecules are too large to pass through the cell membrane.
— Only small molecules can pass through membrane pores.



Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Sickle-cell anemia is an inherited disease that occurs mainly in people from parts of Africa where malaria is common. It is caused by a gene mutation that may be harmful or beneficial. A person with two mutant genes has sickle-cell disease. The hemoglobin of a person with sickle-cell disease twists red blood cells into a crescent shape. These blood cells cannot circulate normally. Symptoms of the disease include bleeding and pain in bones and muscles. People with sickle-cell disease suffer terribly in childhood and, until modern medicine offered treatment, most of them died before reproducing. An individual who has one mutant gene is protected from malaria because the gene changes the hemoglobin structure in a way that speeds removal of malaria-infected cells from circulation. A person with two normal genes has perfectly good red blood cells, but lacks resistance to malaria.
47. Define the term mutation. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for a correct definition of a mutation. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— a change in a gene
— a change in DNA code
— a change in an allele


48. Which statement about having one sickle-cell gene is correct?
(1) It is fatal to anyone who inherits the gene.
(2) It is beneficial to anyone who inherits the gene.
(3)It is beneficial in certain environments.
(4) It is beneficial or harmful depending on whether it is common or rare.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
3


49. Explain why the percentage of the population with one mutant sickle-cell gene is higher in areas where malaria is common. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why the percentage of the population with one mutant sickle-cell gene is higher in areas where malaria is common. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The gene is beneficial to people who have only one copy.
— The allele makes people resistant to malaria.
— People with one gene survive malaria and pass the gene on to offspring.



Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology.


50. State how the PH of these Adirondack lakes changed between 1880 and 1980. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how the PH of these Adirondack lakes changed between 1880 and 1980. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The PH decreased.
— The lakes became more acidic.
— The PH dropped from about 6.8 to about 4.8.


51. State the effect that the pH change in these Adirondack lakes had on lake trout, brown trout, smallmouth bass, and mussels. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating the effect that the pH change in these Adirondack lakes had on lake trout, brown trout, smallmouth bass, and mussels. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Their populations decreased.
— Their survival rate decreased.
— There are not as many trout, bass, and mussels.
— They died.



Base your answers to questions 52 through 54 on the diagram below, which illustrates a transport pathway of CO2 in the human body, and on your knowledge of biology.


52. Identify the cellular process that most likely produced the CO2 in the body cell. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the cellular process that most likely produced the CO2 in the body cell. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— respiration
— cellular respiration


53. Explain why carbon dioxide moves into red blood cells by diffusion rather than by active transport. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why carbon dioxide moves into red blood cells by diffusion rather than by active transport. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Carbon dioxide is moving from high to low concentration.
— Active transport moves materials from low to high concentration and the CO2 is moving from high to low.


54. State what would happen to the production of bicarbonate ions (HCO3) if the carbonic anhydrase were not present in red blood cells. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what would happen to the production of bicarbonate ions (HCO3) if the carbonic anhydrase were not present in red blood cells. Acceptable responses include, but are not liinited to:
— Bicarbonate ion (HCO3) production would decrease (or stop).
— CO2 would not become part of (HCO3).




Part C
Base your answers to questions 55 through 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.


Where is the Beef? Out Being Irradiated

E. coli bacteria in food cause an estimated 73,000 cases of infection leading to some deaths in the United States each year. Until recently, the only way to guarantee meat free of E. coli was to heat it to 160°F, which kills E. coli. The rare hamburgers preferred by many people are not heated to this temperature, and just a few E. coli may cause severe illness.

Recently, ground beef has been decontaminated by irradiation using electron beam technology. The packaged ground beef is scanned by an electron beam that disrupts the genetic structure of the pathogens. This kills them or leaves them unable to reproduce.

This process is considered safe and has been endorsed by various governmental groups in this country as well as the World Health Organization. Irradiation is effective in preserving only certain foods, such as herbs, wheat flour, fresh fruits, vegetables, and some meats. Although some methods of irradiation can change the taste of some foods, this is not an effect of electron beam technology on ground beef.

Opponents of irradiating food are concerned that the process may result in the formation of chemicals that may be harmful or result in a loss of vitamins. Supporters claim that irradiation is safe and should be considered as just another technique for preservation of food.


55. Identify one specific pathogen found in ground beef [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one specific pathogen found in ground beef. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
E.coli.
— bacteria


56. Identify the specific group of molecules in bacteria whose function would be interfered with by heating them to 160°F. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the specific group of molecules found in bacteria whose function would be interfered with by heating them to 160° F. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— enzymes
— proteins


57. Explain how irradiation helps preserve meat. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how irradiation helps preserve meat. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Irradiation kills the bacteria that cause the meat to spoil.
— disrupts the structure of bacteria that cause the meat to spoil


58. Explain how irradiation could interfere with the process of reproduction in bacteria that survive the irradiation. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how irradiation could interfere with the process of reproduction in bacteria that survive the irradiation. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— It causes mutations.
— Essential enzymes are destroyed.
— Irradiation disrupts the structure of bacterial DNA so that it cannot replicate properly.



59. Photosynthesis and respiration are two important processes. Discuss one of these processes and explain its importance to an organism. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify the process being discussed
• identify the organelle where this process occurs [1]
• identify two raw materials necessary for this process [1]
• identify one energy-rich molecule that is produced by this process [1]
• state how organisms use the energy-rich molecule that is produced [1]
• state how a gas produced by this process is recycled in nature [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow of maximum of 5 credits for discussing photosynthesis or respiration, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the organelle where the process occurs.
Photosynthesis: — chloroplast
Respiration: — mitochondrion
• Allow 1 credit for identifying two raw materials necessary for the process. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Photosynthesis:
— CO2 and H2O
Respiration:
— organic molecules and O2
— sugar and oxygen
• Allow 1 credit for identifying one energy-rich molecule that is produced by the process. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: Photosynthesis:
— glucose
Respiration:
— ATP
• Allow 1 credit for stating how organisms use the energy-rich molecule that is produced. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Glucose:
— to produce ATP
— to produce starch
ATP:
— to provide energy for metabolism
• Allow 1 credit for stating how a gas produced by the process is recycled in nature. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Photosynthesis:
— The gas is used for respiration.
— provides O2 for respiration
Respiration:
— provides CO2 for photosynthesis
— The gas is used for photosynthesis.


60. Mosquitoes are eaten by many birds and bats. In the New York City area, mosquitoes have been found to transmit West Nile Virus to some people who have been bitten by a mosquito carrying this virus. As a result, New York City health officials have sprayed pesticides into the air in order to kill as many mosquitoes as possible.
Discuss the use of pesticides to control the mosquito population. In your answer be sure to:
• state one advantage of killing all of the mosquitoes [1]
• state one disadvantage of killing all of the mosquitoes [1]
• state one danger to humans of spraying pesticides into the air[1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits for discussing the use of pesticides to control the mosquito population, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating one advantage of killing all of the mosquitoes. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Killing all the mosquitoes will end the West Nile virus infections of people.
— People will get fewer mosquito bites.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one disadvantage of killing all of the mosquitoes. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Killing all the mosquitoes will reduce the food supply for bats and birds.
— Fish that rely on mosquito larvae for food will have less food.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one danger to humans of spraying pesticides into the air. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Pesticides can enter food and water supplies (causing illness).
— People may breathe in the pesticide.


61. Scientists have successfully cloned sheep and cattle for several years. A farmer is considering the advantages and disadvantages of having a flock of sheep cloned from a single individual. Discuss the issues the farmer should take into account before making a decision. Your response should include: • how a cloned flock would be different from a noncloned flock [1]
one advantage of having a cloned flock [1]
one disadvantage of having a cloned flock [1]
one reason that the farmer could not mate these cloned sheep with each other to increase the size of his flock [1]
one reason that the offspring resulting from breeding these sheep with an unrelated sheep would not all be the same [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 5 credits for discussing the issues the farmer should take into account before making a decision, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating how a cloned flock would be different from a noncloned flock. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— There would be no variation.
— All would be identical genetic copies, unlike noncloned herds, where much genetic diversity would be present.
— All sheep would be the same.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one advantage of having a cloned flock. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— All sheep would have one or more desired traits (that the original individual possessed).
• Allow 1 credit for stating one disadvantage of having a cloned flock. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Since all are the same, the entire flock could be lost if a disease to which they have no resistance were to infect them.
— The sheep may have a genetic flaw.
— shorter life span
• Allow 1 credit for stating that they would all be the same sex, so they could not mate with each other.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one reason that the offspring resulting from breeding these sheep with an unrelated sheep would not all be the same. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Both parents contribute genes to the offspring.
— Different gene combinations will result.




Part D
Answer all questions in this part. [13]

Directions (62-73): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question.

Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Scientists found members of a plant species they did not recognize. They wanted to determine if the unknown species was related to one or more of four known species, A, B, C, and D. The relationship between species can be determined most accurately by comparing the results of gel electrophoresis of the DNA from different species. The chart below represents the results of gel electrophoresis of the DNA from the unknown plant species and the four known species.


62. The unknown species is most closely related to which of the four known species? Support your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating that the unknown plant species is most closely related to species C and supporting that answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— It is most closely related to species C. The bands from the DNA of species C are the closest match to those of the unknown species.


63. Identity one physical characteristic of plants that can be readily observed and compared to help determine the relationship between two different species of plants. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one physical characteristic of plants that can be readily observed and compared to help determine the relationship between two different species of plants. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— structure of flowers
— structure of leaves
— structure of stems
— structure of seeds
— structure of pollen


64. Explain why comparing the DNA of the unknown and known plant species is probably a more accurate method of determining relationships than comparing only the physical characteristic you identified in question 63. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why comparing the DNA of the unknown and known plant species is probably a more accurate method of determining relationships than comparing only the physical characteristic identified in question 63. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: — The physical characteristic chosen may be the only characteristic the organisms have in common, while the more similar the DNA, the more characteristics the organisms have in common.



65. Scientists hypothesize that cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, and radishes developed along a common evolutionary pathway. Which observation would best support this hypothesis?
(1) Fossils of these plants were found in the same rock layer.
(2) Chloroplasts of these plants produce a gas.
(3) These plants live in the same environment.
(4) These plants have similar proteins.
4


66.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW



Base your answers to questions 67 through 70 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.


67. The activity of which body system was measured to obtain these data? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for circulatory system.


68. The activity of which other body system would be altered as a direct result of the exercise? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying another body system that would have its activity altered. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— respiratory system
— excretory system


69. What effect would exercise have on the system you identified in question 68? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating the effect exercise would have on the system identified in question 68. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Respiratory:
— increased breathing rate
Excretory:
— increased perspiration


70. Explain how this change in pulse rate helps maintain homeostasis in muscle cells. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how the change in pulse rate helps maintain homeostasis in muscle cells. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— An increased pulse rate indicates an increased blood flow that carries excess carbon dioxide away from the muscle cells.
— More oxygen is carried to the muscle cells.
— The increased blood flow carries excess heat away from the muscle cells.



71. A student hypothesizes that the pulse rate of a person and background music that is playing are related. The student designs an experiment to test this hypothesis. What would be an appropriate control for this experiment? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating an appropriate control for the experiment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— no music being played while the pulse is being taken
— silence while the pulse is being taken



Base your answers to questions 72 and 73 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.


72. Why did the model cell that was placed in 100% water increase in mass? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining that the model cell that was placed in 100% water increased in mass because water diffused into the model cell.


73. What was the concentration of water in the original blue solution? State evidence in support of your answer. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating that the concentration of water in the original blue solution was 80% and for stating evidence in support of this answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— 80%, because the model cell did not increase in mass
— 80%, because the model cell did not change
— According to the table, when the mass of the model cell is 10 grains, the concentration of water outside the model cell is 80%. This would be the same as the concentration of water inside the model cell.



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