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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2010 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Which type of organism can obtain energy
  directly from any of the other organisms in an
  ecosystem?
  (1) herbivore            (3) producer
  (2) decomposer           (4) carnivore
Answer: 2

2.
2 Which structures are listed in order from the
  least complex to the most complex?
  (1) plant cell, leaf, chloroplast, rose bush
  (2) chloroplast, plant cell, leaf, rose bush
  (3) chloroplast, leaf, plant cell, rose bush
  (4) rose bush, leaf, plant cell, chloroplast
Answer: 2

3.
3 The ameba represented in the diagram below is
  a single-celled organism.
Which two processes are most closely associated
with structure A?
(1) insertion and deletion
(2) nervous regulation and circulation
(3) active transport and diffusion
(4) replication and photosynthesis
Answer: 3


4.
4 The virus that causes bird flu can attach to the
  cells of the lower part of the respiratory system
  in humans, but not to the cells of the upper part
  of the respiratory system. The most likely reason
  for this is that these two groups of cells have
  different
  (1) DNA codes in their nuclei
  (2) enzymes in their mitochondria
  (3) amounts of water in their cytoplasm
  (4) receptor molecules on their membranes
Answer: 4

5.
5 A piece of refrigerated, cooked meat will remain
  safe to eat for a longer period of time than a
  refrigerated piece of raw meat of similar size.
  Which statement is a valid inference based on
  this information?
  (1) Cooking meat kills many bacteria and fungi.
  (2) Cool temperatures stimulate the growth of
      microbes on raw meat.
  (3) Raw meat cannot be preserved.
  (4) Cooked meat contains antibodies that
      destroy decomposers.
Answer: 1

6.
6 Some bloodsucking insects insert their mouthparts directly into a blood vessel and withdraw
  blood. Other bloodsucking insects have mouthparts that cut through the skin and blood vessels
  and produce a small pool of blood from which
  they feed. Both mouthpart types are specialized
  for
  (1) autotrophic nutrition
  (2) heterotrophic nutrition
  (3) regulation
  (4) excretion
Answer: 2

7.
7 If the ribosomes of a cell were destroyed, what
  effect would this most likely have on the cell?
  (1) It would stimulate mitotic cell division.
  (2) The cell would be unable to synthesize
      proteins.
  (3) Development of abnormal hereditary features
      would occur in the cell.
  (4) Increased protein absorption would occur
      through the cell membrane.
Answer: 2

8.
8 Which substances play an important role in
  communication between cells in a multicellular
  organism by acting as chemical messengers?
  (1) fats                 (3) minerals
  (2) antibiotics          (4) hormones
Answer: 4

9.
9 The diagram below illustrates asexual reproduction
  in yeast.
Yeast produce offspring that usually have
(1) genes that are different from those of the
    parent
(2) genes that are identical to those of the parent
(3) half of the genetic information of the parent
(4) organelles that are not found in the parent
Answer: 2

10.
10 The molecule represented below is found in
   living things.
Which statement describes one characteristic of
this molecule?
(1) It is the template for the replication of
    genetic information.
(2) Organic catalysts are made up of these
    molecules.
(3) It is different in each cell of an organism.
(4) Cell membranes contain many of these
    molecules.
Answer: 1

11.
11 Which reproductive pattern would be associated
   with a species that is most likely to undergo
   rapid evolutionary change?
   (1) asexual reproduction with a short reproductive
       cycle
   (2) sexual reproduction with a short reproductive
       cycle
   (3) asexual reproduction with a long reproductive
       cycle
   (4) sexual reproduction with a long reproductive
       cycle
Answer: 2

12.
12 If a gene is inserted into the DNA of a bacterial
   cell, every cell produced by that cell will have
   (1) DNA that is different from that of the other
       cells produced
   (2) a 50% chance of having a copy of the inserted
       gene
   (3) a copy of the inserted gene
   (4) a new type of DNA base
Answer: 3

13.
13 The shape of a protein is most directly determined by the
   (1) amount of energy available for synthesis of
       the protein
   (2) kind and sequence of amino acids in the
       protein
   (3) type and number of DNA molecules in a cell
   (4) mistakes made when the DNA is copied
Answer: 2

14.
14 Researchers have found that formaldehyde and
   asbestos can alter DNA base sequences. Based
   on this research, the use of these chemicals has
   been greatly reduced because they
   (1) may act as fertilizers, increasing the growth
       of algae in ponds
   (2) have been replaced by more toxic
       compounds
   (3) are capable of causing mutations in humans
   (4) interfere with the production of antibiotics
       by white blood cells
Answer: 3

15.
15 When the adaptive characteristics of a species
   are insufficient to allow its survival, that species
   is likely to
   (1) mate with other species
   (2) produce a beneficial mutation
   (3) form a fossil
   (4) become extinct
Answer: 4


16.
16 If a chemical that interrupts cell division is
   added to a culture of human liver tissue, which
   process would stop?
   (1) meiosis
   (2) mitosis
   (3) breakdown of glucose
   (4) diffusion of nutrients
Answer: 2

17.
17 Sexual reproduction involves the processes listed
   below.
                     Processes
                 A. Differentiation
                 B. Fertilization
                 C. Gamete production
                 D. Mitosis
   Which sequence represents the order in which
   these processes occur?
   (1) A → B → C → D
   (2) B → A → C → D
   (3) C → B → D → A
   (4) D → B → C → A
Answer: 3

18.
18 A dogfish shark contains 24 chromosomes in
   each of its muscle cells. How many chromosomes are normally found in each of its gametes?
   (1) 6                    (3) 24
   (2) 12                   (4) 48
Answer: 2

19.
19 Which structure is correctly paired with its
   function?
   (1) testis — produces nutrients for the offspring
   (2) placenta — allows nutrients to diffuse from
       the mother to the embryo
   (3) uterus — produces testosterone used in egg
       production
   (4) ovary — provides a place for the internal
       development of the embryo
Answer: 2

20.
20 The maintenance of homeostasis in the body is
   most directly related to
   (1) cellular communication
   (2) cycling of energy
   (3) aging of the organism
   (4) recombination of chromosomes
Answer: 1

21.
21 Abiotic factors that affect the growth of grass in
   a lawn include
   (1) bacteria and soil
   (2) earthworms and nutrients
   (3) moisture and minerals
   (4) fertilizer and decomposers
Answer: 3

22.
22 Which statement best describes the flow of
   energy and the movement of chemical
   compounds in an ecosystem?
   (1) Energy flows into living organisms and
       remains there, while chemical compounds
       are transferred from organism to organism.
   (2) Chemical compounds flow in one direction
       in a food chain and energy is produced.
   (3) Energy is transferred from organism to
       organism in a food chain and chemical compounds are recycled.
   (4) Energy flows out of living organisms and is
       lost, while chemical compounds remain permanently inside organisms.
Answer: 3

23.
23 The carrying capacity for herbivores in a habitat
   is most directly affected by the availability of
   (1) heat energy released by carnivores
   (2) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
   (3) photosynthetic organisms
   (4) decomposers in the soil
Answer: 3

24.
24 One advantage of biodiversity in an ecosystem is
   that it
   (1) guarantees that the largest organisms will
       dominate the area
   (2) ensures a large amount of identical genetic
       material
   (3) develops relationships between organisms
       that are always positive over long periods of
       time
   (4) increases the chance that some organisms
       will survive a major change in the environment
Answer: 4

25.
25 In 1960, an invasive species of fish was introduced into the stable ecosystem of a river. Since
   then, the population of a native fish species has
   declined. This situation is an example of an
   (1) ecosystem that has recovered
   (2) ecosystem altered through the activities of
       an organism
   (3) environmental impact caused by physical
       factors
   (4) ecological niche without competition
Answer: 2

26.
26 The diagram below represents a process that occurs in nature.
This diagram can be used to illustrate the
(1) effects of reduced competition between different types of plant life
(2) effect of human intervention on a stable ecosystem
(3) ecological succession from bare rock to stable ecosystem
(4) evolution of mosses to trees over 200 years
Answer: 3

27.
27 An energy pyramid is represented below.
The energy for use by organisms in level A
originally comes from
(1) producers         (3) level B
(2) the Sun           (4) level D
Answer: 2

28.
28 Which human activity would most likely deplete
   finite resources?
   (1) use of natural enemies to eliminate insect
        pests
   (2) development of wildlife refuges
   (3) governmental restriction of industrial pollution
   (4) uncontrolled population growth
Answer: 4

29.
29 The Audubon Society recently released a study
   that showed that the populations of some bird
   species have decreased in number by as much as
   50% since 1966. The study eliminated food and
   water shortages and natural cycles as causes for
   the decrease. Which factor might have contributed to this decline?
   (1) overproduction of bird offspring
   (2) destruction of natural habitats
   (3) fewer predators
   (4) an energy-rich diet
Answer: 2

30.
30 The increasing demands for fossil fuels has led
   government and businesses to consider several
   possibilities to solve the energy crisis. Which
   solution will reduce the impact of this crisis on
   the environment and future generations?
   (1) increase the number of drilling sites for
       crude oil in North America
   (2) build more power plants away from population centers
   (3) limit the number of people in each vehicle
   (4) develop alternative fuel sources that can be
       produced from renewable resources
Answer: 4


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
   Directions (31–42): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 Conclusions based on an experiment are most
   likely to be accepted when
   (1) they are consistent with experimental data
       and observations
   (2) they are derived from investigations having
       many experimental variables
   (3) scientists agree that only one hypothesis has
       been tested
   (4) hypotheses are based on one experimental
       design
Answer: 1

32.
32 A food web is represented below.
A continuous decrease in the size of the rabbit
population would most likely cause a decrease in
which other population?
(1) frog                 (3) grass
(2) cricket              (4) mountain lion
Answer: 4

33.
33 Maple trees and tulips are classified as
   autotrophs because they both
   (1) produce gametes by the process of mitosis
   (2) produce carbon dioxide and water as
       metabolic wastes
   (3) are able to obtain complex organic materials
       from the environment
   (4) are able to synthesize organic molecules from
       inorganic raw materials
Answer: 4

34.
34 The diagram below represents a plant cell.
Which process takes place in structure A?
(1) cellular respiration
(2) heterotrophic nutrition
(3) digestion of fats
(4) protein synthesis
Answer: 1

35.
35 The remains of three organisms are shown below.
A study of these remains would indicate that these organisms have
(1) identical food preferences                            (3) structural similarities
(2) identical body sizes                                  (4) habitat similarities
Answer: 3

36.
36 One possible pathway for the evolution of elephants is represented in the diagram below.
Which statement concerning this pattern of evolution is correct?
(1) Evolution always results in favorable traits.
(2) Evolution does not always result in a species that will survive to present time.
(3) Evolution leads to less complex organisms.
(4) Evolution results in the same changes in all species.
Answer: 2

37.
  Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           Organisms living in a bog environment must be able to tolerate nitrogen-poor, acidic
        conditions. Bog plants such as the Venus flytrap and sundew are able to obtain their
        nitrogen by attracting and consuming insects. These plants produce chemicals that break
        down the insects into usable compounds.
37 The chemicals present in the plants that break down the insects are most likely
   (1) fats                                                 (3) enzymes
   (2) hormones                                             (4) carbohydrates
Answer: 3

38.
38 Which compounds present in insects are composed of the amino acids that provide the Venus flytrap and
   sundew with much of their nitrogen?
   (1) proteins                                          (3) carbohydrates
   (2) sugars                                            (4) fats
Answer: 1

39.
39 The amounts of all the organisms present in four different aquariums are shown below. Which aquarium
   would be the most stable?

Answer: 1

40.
40 The graph below shows changes in the populations of two species that interact only with each other over a
   period of time.
Which statement best describes these two species?
(1) Species A is a producer and species B is its consumer.
(2) Species A is a host and species B is its parasite.
(3) Species A is a predator and species B is its prey.
(4) Species A is a scavenger and species B is its decomposer.
Answer: 3

41.
41 The diagram below represents one technique used in biotechnology.
The organic compound used to cut the bacterial DNA so that the human DNA could be inserted is a
(1) molecular base                                     (3) specific enzyme
(2) carbohydrate                                       (4) hormone
Answer: 3

42.
42 The diagram below represents a process that occurs in a structure of a specialized cell.
Which row in the chart correctly identifies the letters in the diagram?

Answer: 4


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
    Directions (43–55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding the
choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

43.
   Base your answers to questions 43 through 45 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
             A normally healthy 35-year-old woman was found to have a severe
          intestinal infection usually seen in much older and sicker patients in
          hospitals. Because of so many cases like hers, some doctors became
          alarmed that the organism responsible could spread rapidly and cause
          unusually severe illnesses and some deaths. Scientists suspect that the
          cause is a mutated form of an organism that has a resistance to some of
          the most common treatments.
 43 Since it is difficult to cure an infection caused by this organism, it might be easier to
    prevent these infections by using a vaccine. Identify the specific material a vaccine would
    have to contain to prevent future infections. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — dead/weakened organisms that cause this infection


44.
44 Explain how this vaccine would prevent future infections. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — The vaccine would stimulate antibody production.
           — The vaccinated person would produce antibodies against this organism.
           — produce an immune response
           — stimulates the formation of memory cells


45.
45 The mutated form of this type of organism could result from a change in a molecule
   within one member of the original population. Identify the molecule. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — DNA


46.
   Base your answers to questions 46 through 49 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            The masses of six sections of dialysis tubing, each containing 20 mL of
         a 25% sugar solution, were recorded. They were then placed in beakers
         each containing 100-mL solutions of varying sugar concentrations, as
         shown in the diagrams below.
The sections of tubing remained in the beakers for 30 minutes. They
were then removed and the outside of each section of tubing was blotted
dry. Following this, the mass of each section of tubing was measured
again. The mass change of each section of tubing in the different sugar
solutions is indicated in the data table below.
Directions (46 and 47): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph
on the grid, following the directions below.
 46 Mark an appropriate scale on each axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each axis.


47.
47 Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the
   points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data, surrounding each point with a small circle, and
    connecting the points.
   Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 46 and 47:
Note: Allow credit if the points are plotted correctly but not circled.
      Make no assumption about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table; e.g., (0,0).


48.
48 If another dialysis tube containing a 25% sugar solution were placed in a beaker
   containing a 12% sugar solution for 30 minutes, the change in the mass of the tubing
   would most likely be closest to
   (1) 1.2 g
   (2) 1.9 g
   (3) 2.6 g
   (4) 3.8 g
Answer:
4


49.
49 Identify the process responsible for the change in mass of the dialysis tubing in the
   beakers. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — diffusion
           — passive transport
           — osmosis


50.
    Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the graph below and on your knowledge
of biology. The graph represents changes in the mass of a fetus from week 8 to its birth at
week 43.
50 Identify one factor that could cause a fetus to grow at a slower rate than that shown in
   the graph. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — faults in its genes
           — its mother’s inadequate diet
           — environmental factors such as alcohol/drugs/tobacco
           — toxins
           — infections
           — multiple fetuses


51.
51 During which five-week period did the fetal mass increase at the greatest rate?
   (1) weeks 10–15
   (2) weeks 15–20
   (3) weeks 25–30
   (4) weeks 30–35
Answer:
4


52.
   Base your answers to questions 52 and 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            The graph below represents the amount of energy stored in each
         level of an energy pyramid.
52 Which level most likely represents the autotrophs in the energy pyramid? Support your
   answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for level 1 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
           — has the greatest amount of stored energy


53.
53 State one reason why the amount of energy in level 3 is greater than that in level 4. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Energy is lost at each feeding level.


54.
54 Rabbits introduced into Australia over 100 years ago have become serious pests to
   farmers. Rabbit populations increased so drastically that they displaced many native
   species of herbivores. State one possible reason why the rabbit population was able to
   displace the native species. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — There are few effective predators to keep the rabbit population in check.
           — They have a faster reproductive rate than the native species.
           — Rabbits are better adapted.


55.
55 A dichotomous key is shown below.
                         Dichotomous Key
    1. a. tail fins are horizontal.……………..go to 2
       b. tail fins are vertical…………………go to 3
    2. a. has teeth or tusk……………………go to 4
       b. has no teeth……………….………..Balaena mysticetus
    3. a. has gill slits behind mouth………….go to 5
       b. has no gill slits……………….……...Lepidosiren paradoxa
    4. a. black with white underside…………Orcinus orca
       b. tusk, gray with dark spots……..…...Monodon monoceros
    5. a. head is hammer shaped…………....Sphyrna mokarran
       b. tail fins are half the body length……Alopias vulpinus
   Use the dichotomous key to identify the scientific name of the organism represented
   below. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for Sphyrna mokarran or S. mokarran.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–68): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
   Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
              Humans are changing the quality of the atmosphere and some of these
          changes may be harmful to the environment.
 56 Identify one specific pollutant resulting from human activity that has contributed to
    changing the quality of the atmosphere. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — gases associated with acid rain, such as nitrogen and sulfur oxides
           — CO2
           — sulfur compounds


57.
57 State one specific example of how the pollutant you identified in question 56 may be
   harmful to the environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — CO2: leads to global warming
           — sulfur/nitrogen compounds: dissolve in the rain to produce acid rain that damages plants


58.
58 In much of the northeastern United States, the populations of white-tailed deer have
   increased so much that they have become a problem because they eat crops, flowers,
   and shrubs. The elimination of the main predators of the deer and the lack of other
   natural enemies are often given as reasons for this population increase. Three possible
   methods of controlling the deer population are listed below.
       A spread poisoned food in the habitat of the deer
       B introduce a new predator of deer from another region
       C introduce another animal species to compete with the deer for food
   Choose one of these methods and write its letter in the space below. State how this
   method might have a negative impact, other than killing deer, on the local ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           A — The poisoned food supplies may poison animals other than the deer.
               — The poison may get into streams and cause water pollution.
           B — The new predator may not have any natural enemies in the northeast and it may
               become a problem if it overpopulates.
               — The introduced predator may feed on animals that do not need to be controlled.
           C — The other animal species may replace the deer and cause greater problems than those
               caused by the deer.
               — The combined effect of the deer and the introduced animal species may increase crop
                 destruction.


59.
   Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            A researcher wanted to test the effectiveness of a new antibiotic on
         Streptococcus pyrogenes, the species of bacteria that causes strep
         throat. Bacteria were added to dish 1, dish 2, and dish 3. A disk soaked
         in the new antibiotic was then placed in dish 2. Dish 3 was set up as the
         control. The dishes are shown in the diagram below.
59 State one appropriate hypothesis for this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — This antibiotic will have no effect on the growth of this bacterium.
       — The new antibiotic will slow down bacterial growth.
       — The antibiotic will kill the bacteria.
   Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis in the form of a question.


60.
60 All three dishes were placed in an incubator at 37°C for 24 hours. The results for
   dish 1 are shown below.
Complete the diagram of dish 2 below to represent an example of experimental results
that would support your hypothesis. Explain how your diagram supports your
hypothesis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for completing the diagram to represent an example of experimental results that
    would support the student’s hypothesis in question 59 and supporting the answer.
   Examples of 1-credit responses:
— The bacteria continued to grow, so the antibiotic was not effective.
— The antibiotic did not kill the bacteria.
— Some of the bacteria in the dish died off, so the antibiotic was somewhat effective.
— The antibiotic killed some of the bacteria.
— All the bacteria were killed, so the antibiotic was very effective.
— The antibiotic killed all the bacteria.


61.
61 Describe how the disk in dish 3 should be prepared so it can serve as the control for
   this experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — Soak the disk in sterile water.
       — Do not add any antibiotic to the disk.


62.
62 Cardinals are birds that do not migrate but spend the winter in New York State. Many
   people feed these birds sunflower seeds during the winter months. Explain how the
   starches present in the sunflower seeds help the cardinals to survive. In your answer,
   be sure to:
   • identify the building blocks of starches [1]
   • identify the process used to produce these building blocks [1]
   • state one way cardinals use these building blocks to survive [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
       • Allow 1 credit for identifying the building blocks of starches. Acceptable responses include, but
         are not limited to:
           — simple sugars
           — glucose
       • Allow 1 credit for identifying the process used to produce these building blocks. Acceptable
         responses include, but are not limited to:
           — photosynthesis
           — digestion
           — synthesis
       • Allow 1 credit for stating one way cardinals use these building blocks to survive. Acceptable
         responses include, but are not limited to:
           — as an energy source
           — as a building unit for some cell parts


63.
63 A child is born with a genetic disorder to parents who show no symptoms of the
   disorder. Explain the type of information a genetic counselor might provide to these
   parents. In your answer, be sure to:
   • explain why the child exhibits symptoms of the genetic disorder even though the
      parents do not [1]
   • identify one technique that can be used to detect a genetic disorder [1]
   • identify one genetic disorder [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
       • Allow 1 credit for explaining why the child exhibits symptoms of the genetic disorder even
         though the parents do not. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Nondisjunction could have occurred.
           — A mutation might have taken place.
           — The child may have inherited two recessive alleles.
       • Allow 1 credit for identifying one technique that can be used to detect a genetic disorder.
         Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — amniocentesis
           — karyotyping
           — blood screening
           — electrophoresis
       • Allow 1 credit for identifying one genetic disorder. Acceptable responses include, but are not
         limited to:
           — Down syndrome
           — sickle-cell anemia
           — hemophilia


64.
    Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the passage below and on your knowledge
of biology.
            Scientists often use different species in the laboratory for research
         into human organ development. Zebra fish and mice have been used in
         this research. Both have internal organs that function in a manner
         similar to human organs.
            Genetic engineering can be used to produce zebra fish and mice that
         have genes that result in problems with development. In order to
         analyze the genes involved in the formation of different organs, scientists
         would need to use thousands of mice over many years of study. It would
         also be difficult to watch the development of organs in the embryos of
         mice since this development takes place in the mother’s uterus.
            Scientists began to use zebra fish in the laboratory because they have
         several advantages over mice. They develop into adults in about 90 days
         and produce hundreds of offspring from one mating. The embryo is
         transparent and develops outside the body of the female. Scientists can
         actually see organs developing.
 64 State one advantage of using the zebra fish as a research animal. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — short development time
           — embryo develops outside body of female allowing for easier observation of development
           — The embryo is transparent.
           — hundreds of offspring


65.
65 State one disadvantage of using mice for observing the early development of internal
   organs. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — It takes thousands of mice/many years.
           — The fetus develops inside the mother, so you cannot see it.
           — The embryo is not transparent.


66.
   Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            A town located in New York State has a 500-acre piece of land available
         for development. The town board has to decide how to respond to two
         groups interested in the land.
         Characteristics of the land:
         — mostly trees with some grassland and several small streams
         — a large lake which supports a great variety of fish and other wildlife
         Two different groups are interested in developing the property:
         Group A — a logging company that wants to use the trees for lumber
         Group B — an environmental organization that wants to make it a park
 66 State one benefit that implementing the group A proposal may provide for the town.
    [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — building materials for the residents living in the town
           — employment opportunities for the town
           — clear land for farming


67.
67 State one specific negative consequence of having group A develop the land. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — destruction of habitat
           — loss of biodiversity
           — loss of O2 /increased CO2
           — erosion
           — contribute to global warming


68.
68 State one specific positive consequence of implementing the proposal of group B. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — parkland for the residents to enjoy
           — education center for schools and/or families
           — recreational opportunities
           — preserve habitats
           — prevent soil erosion



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (69–80): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

69.
   Base your answers to questions 69 and 70 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
             A plant known as caltrop is found on one of the Galapagos Islands.
          The caltrop plant produces seeds with tough, spiny coats. There is a
          bird species, Geospiza fortis, that can crack the tough seed coat and eat
          the contents inside. On one part of the island where there are many of
          these birds, the caltrop plants produce fewer seeds and the coats of the
          seeds have longer and more numerous spines. On another part of the
          island where there are few of these birds, the plants produce more
          seeds and the seed coats have fewer, shorter spines.
 69 Identify one variation the caltrop seeds have for survival. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for tough seed coats or spiny seed coats.


70.
70 Identify one process that can result in adaptations. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — natural selection
           — mutation
           — sexual reproduction


71.
71 A student observes some cells with a compound light microscope as shown in view A
   below.
What did the student most likely do to obtain view B?
(1) applied a biological stain to the slide
(2) applied distilled water to the slide
(3) used electrophoresis
(4) used a higher magnification
Answer:
1


72.
   Base your answers to questions 72 and 73 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Two students each design their own investigations to determine
         whether resting or exercising beforehand allows a person to squeeze a
         clothespin more times over a certain period of time.
            Student A squeezes the clothespin as many times as he can after
         sitting quietly for two minutes. In the second trial he runs in place for
         two minutes and then squeezes the clothespin as many times as he can.
         He records the results of each trial in his data table.
            Student B uses the same procedure as student A. She also asks that
         the other 25 boys and girls in her class carry out the same procedure
         and she records their data. She then calculates the average number of
         times that the clothespins had been squeezed without exercise and with
         exercise before the trials.
 72 Based on the description given of the investigations, state one reason why student B’s
    investigation will give more reliable results than student A’s. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — sample size is larger
            — results are averaged
            — including both males and females rather than just one sex


73.
73 Student B states that exercising before the second trial will always have the same effect
   on this type of muscular activity. Explain why the statement made by student B could
   be questioned. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The students may not all be in similar physical condition.
            — relatively small sample size used
            — Not all people will respond in the same way.


74.
74 The diagram below shows four species of birds that evolved from an ancestral species
   that had a small, pointed beak. Today, all four species inhabit the same island.
Which statement best explains the variation in the beaks of these four species?
(1) Over time, an abundance of seeds for food led to increased similarities between the
    species.
(2) Over time, an abundance of seeds for food led to increased differences between
    the species.
(3) Competition for limited food resources led to selection for similar traits.
(4) Competition for limited food resources led to selection for different traits.
Answer:
4


75.
75 A laboratory technique is illustrated in the diagram below.
The technique of lowering the coverslip at an angle is used to
(1) make organelles more visible
(2) reduce the formation of air bubbles
(3) make the specimen transparent
(4) reduce the size of the specimen
Answer:
2


76.
    Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the diagram of a microscope below and
on your knowledge of biology.
76 Information about which two lettered parts is needed in order to determine the total
   magnification of an object viewed with the microscope in the position shown? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for both A and C.


77.
77 Which lettered part should be used to focus the image while using high power? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for E.


78.
78 State two ways the image seen through the microscope differs from the actual
   specimen being observed. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
           — enlarged
           — upside down
           — backward
           — more detail


79.
   Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the information and chart below, which
represents a portion of the mRNA codon chart and on your knowledge of biology.
Researchers studying plants in the rain forest have discovered a new
        species of plant. A fragment of DNA is cut from a chromosome in this
        plant. The base sequence of the cut DNA fragment is represented
        below.
                 DNA base sequence: T A C T T A T C A T A G
79 Complete the chart below to show the mRNA codons and amino acids coded for by the
   DNA base sequence. [2]
       DNA base sequence          TAC         TTA       TCA         TAG

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for all of the correct mRNA codons, and 1 credit for all of
       the correct amino acids.
       Example of a 2-credit response:
           mRNA codons: AUG AAU             AGU AUC
           Amino acids:        MET ASN      SER    ILE
       Note: Allow credit for amino acids that are consistent with the mRNA codons.


80.
80 State one reason why the researchers would be interested in finding new plant species
   in rain forests. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — may be a source of new medicines
           — may give new evidence for evolutionary pathways or relationships
           — may be new source of food
           — may be commercially important



  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents January 2010 Exam


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