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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2011 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 The greatest number of relationships between
  the organisms in an ecosystem is best shown in
  (1) a food chain
  (2) an energy pyramid
  (3) a food web
  (4) an ecological succession diagram
Answer: 3

2.
2 The diagram below shows stages of human
  reproduction.
The direct result of fertilization is represented at
(1) A                        (3) C
(2) B                        (4) D
Answer: 3

3.
3 Certain organisms are able to store energy from
  the Sun in energy-rich compounds. Which event
  best illustrates this activity?
  (1) A fox captures and eats a young rabbit.
  (2) A caterpillar is eaten by a blackbird.
  (3) Lettuce produces organic substances.
  (4) Bacteria change organic material into simple
      nutrients.
Answer: 3


4.
4 The diagram below shows how a chemical
  message produced by one cell is received by
  other cells.
If these chemical messages are destroyed, the
target cells will
(1) produce their own chemical messages
(2) not respond with appropriate actions
(3) develop different receptors
(4) no longer be produced in the organism
Answer: 2

5.
5 Coded instructions that are passed from one
  generation to the next can be most directly
  changed by the processes of
  (1) passive transport, natural selection, and
      synthesis
  (2) selective breeding, replication, and absorption
  (3) recombination, mutation, and genetic
      engineering
  (4) evolution, reproduction, and digestion
Answer: 3

6.
6 The diagram below represents a cross section of
  a leaf of a green plant, showing an opening
  (stomate) in the lower surface.
A stomate in the lower surface of the leaf has a
function most similar to the function of which
cell structure?
(1) cell membrane        (3) ribosome
(2) vacuole              (4) nucleus
Answer: 1

7.
7 When S. marcescens, a bacterium, is grown in a
  refrigerator, it produces red-colored colonies.
  However, if the bacterium is grown at room
  temperature, the colonies are white. The best
  explanation for this situation is that
  (1) refrigeration changes the structure of genes
  (2) room temperature stimulates the synthesis
      of a red pigment
  (3) temperature has an effect on the expression
      of genes
  (4) only temperature is responsible for the
      expression of a trait
Answer: 3

8.
8 In sexually reproducing organisms, mutations can
  be inherited if they occur in
  (1) the egg, only
  (2) the sperm, only
  (3) any body cell of either the mother or the
      father
  (4) either the egg or the sperm
Answer: 4

9.
9 The diagram below represents a structure found
  in most cells.
The section labeled A in the diagram is most
likely a
(1) protein composed of folded chains of base
    subunits
(2) biological catalyst
(3) part of a gene for a particular trait
(4) chromosome undergoing a mutation
Answer: 3

10.
10 Researchers have reported that the number of
   different species of fish found in certain areas of
   the ocean has been greatly reduced over the past
   50 years. This situation is an example of
   (1) a loss of biodiversity
   (2) an increase in ecological succession
   (3) a lack of differentiation
   (4) an increased carrying capacity
Answer: 1

11.
11 Large rebates and low-cost loans have been
   made available to homeowners to install solar
   panels to heat their homes. The use of these
   incentives benefits ecosystems because it
   (1) encourages conservation of resources
   (2) reduces the need for recycling
   (3) promotes the use of nonrenewable resources
   (4) discourages the use of alternative energy
Answer: 1

12.
12 Which sequence represents the correct order of events for the production of necessary complex molecules
   after food is taken in by a multicellular animal?
   (1) diffusion → synthesis → absorption → digestion → circulation
   (2) circulation → diffusion → synthesis → absorption → digestion
   (3) digestion → absorption → circulation → diffusion → synthesis
   (4) synthesis → digestion → absorption → diffusion → circulation
Answer: 3

13.
13 The number in each circle below represents the chromosome number of the cell. Which diagram
   represents the production of offspring by an asexually reproducing organism?

Answer: 3

14.
14 The arrows in the diagram below indicate the development of four different varieties of vegetable plants
   from wild mustard.
Each of these varieties was most likely produced as a result of
(1) asexual reproduction in the wild for many years        (3) competition between plants
(2) changes in light availability                          (4) selective breeding over many generations
Answer: 4

15.
15 The sorting and recombination of genes during
   reproduction is important to evolution because
   these processes
   (1) decrease variation and help maintain a stable
       population
   (2) increase variation that enables species to
       adapt to change
   (3) decrease the chances of producing offspring
       that are adapted to the environment
   (4) increase the ability of all the offspring to
       adapt to the environment
Answer: 2


16.
16 A diagram of evolutionary pathways of various
   animal species is shown below.
The pattern of these evolutionary pathways is
most likely the result of alterations within which
structure?
(1) vacuole                 (3) nucleus
(2) cell membrane           (4) ribosome
Answer: 3

17.
17 Which situation is least likely to result in new
   inherited characteristics?
   (1) altering genetic information
   (2) changes in the structure of genes
   (3) producing new individuals by means of
       cloning
   (4) changes in the structure of individual chromosomes
Answer: 3

18.
18 In most mammals, the placenta is essential to
   the embryo for the processes of
   (1) meiosis and excretion
   (2) nutrition and excretion
   (3) milk production and digestion
   (4) blood exchange and digestion
Answer: 2

19.
19 Ancestors of the giant panda had rounded paws
   with five very short toes. Today, the giant panda
   has a sixth toe, often referred to as a thumb, even
   though it develops from a wrist bone. This
   unique thumb is an adaptation that allows the
   panda to easily hold and eat bamboo shoots. The
   presence of the giant panda’s thumb is most
   likely the result of
   (1) natural selection
   (2) selective breeding
   (3) asexual reproduction
   (4) ecological succession
Answer: 1

20.
20 The diagram below represents levels of organization within a cell of a multicellular organism.
Which statement is correct regarding the
structure represented by X?
(1) Structure X is composed of many different
    amino acids that determine the type of cell it
    will become in the organism.
(2) Structure X has the same base sequence in
    all the body cells of the organism.
(3) Structure X is a folded chain arrangement of
    carbohydrate found in all the body cells of
    the organism.
(4) Structure X contains 20 different kinds of
    subunits that are present in all the cells of
    the organism.
Answer: 2

21.
21 A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus
   could cause
   (1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the
       fetus
   (2) an increase in milk production in the mother
   (3) gamete production to increase
   (4) an infection in the fetus
Answer: 4

22.
22 The diagram below represents the human male
   reproductive system.
Which activity would be prevented by blockages
at X and Y?
(1) transport of urine out of the body
(2) passage of testosterone to the female to
    stimulate egg production
(3) movement of sperm out of the body
(4) movement of testosterone to the testes to
    stimulate sperm production
Answer: 3

23.
23 One environmental problem caused by the use of
   nuclear power as an energy source is the
   (1) destruction of the ozone shield
   (2) disposal of wastes
   (3) production of acid rain
   (4) accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere
Answer: 2

24.
24 Which method of protecting members of an
   endangered species is most ecologically sound?
   (1) protecting the habitats where these animals
       live from human development
   (2) capturing these animals and putting them in
       wildlife parks
   (3) feeding and constructing shelters for these
       organisms
   (4) passing laws that encourage hunting of the
       predators of these species
Answer: 1

25.
25 The interaction of which two systems provides
   the molecules needed for the metabolic activity
   that takes place at ribosomes?
   (1) digestive and circulatory
   (2) reproductive and excretory
   (3) immune and nervous
   (4) respiratory and muscular
Answer: 1

26.
26 The swordfish contains a heat generating organ
   that warms its brain and eyes up to 14°C above
   the surrounding ocean water temperature.
   Which structures are most likely to be found at
   relatively high concentrations within the cells of
   this heat generating organ?
   (1) nuclei                (3) chromosomes
   (2) chloroplasts          (4) mitochondria
Answer: 4

27.
27 Two species of animals with a similar appearance
   live in the same habitat but do not compete for
   food. This is because they most likely
   (1) reproduce at different times of the year
   (2) are the same size
   (3) occupy different ecological niches
   (4) are active at night
Answer: 3

28.
28 During its annual migration, the red knot, a
   medium-size shorebird, flies the entire length of
   North and South America. During one critical
   stop to feed on the eggs of horseshoe crabs, the
   birds nearly double their body mass. The
   relationship between the red knot and the horseshoe crab is that of
   (1) parasite–host
   (2) consumer–producer
   (3) scavenger–producer
   (4) predator–prey
Answer: 4

29.
29 It is recommended that people at risk for serious
   flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce
   (1) antigens to fight the flu virus
   (2) antibodies against the flu virus
   (3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu
        virus
   (4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the
        flu virus
Answer: 2

30.
30 The diagram below represents a process that occurs during normal human development.
Which statement is correct regarding the cells and DNA?
(1) All the cells have identical DNA.
(2) The DNA of the fertilized egg differs from the DNA of all the other cells.
(3) The DNA of the fertilized egg differs from some, but not all, of the other cells.
(4) Only the fertilized egg contains DNA.
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [15]
   Directions (31–45): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram below.
Which title would be appropriate for the diagram?
(1) Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Amount of Water Taken In
(2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis
(3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity
(4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels
Answer: 2

32.
32 A company that manufactures a popular multivitamin wanted to determine whether their multivitamin had
   any side effects. For its initial study, the company chose 2000 individuals to take one of their multivitamin
   tablets per day for one year. Scientists from the company surveyed the participants to determine whether
   they had experienced any side effects. The greatest problem with this procedure is that
   (1) only one brand of vitamin was tested                    (3) the sample size was not large enough
   (2) the study lasted only one year                          (4) no control group was used
Answer: 4

33.
33 In a particular ecosystem, squirrels make up a large portion of the diet of coyotes. A fatal disease in the
   squirrel population begins to reduce their population over a period of months. Which graph best represents
   the expected changes in population size of the coyotes and the squirrels?

Answer: 2

34.
34 Which statement would most likely be used to describe the procedure represented in the diagram below?
(1) Enzymes are used to assemble an insulin gene, which is then attached to bacterial DNA.
(2) Bacterial DNA is cut from a human DNA strand and inserted into a human cell to form an insulin gene.
(3) The insulin gene is cut out of a human DNA strand using an enzyme and inserted into bacterial DNA,
    resulting in a combination of different DNA segments.
(4) A gene is deleted from bacterial DNA to produce an insulin gene, which is then inserted into human DNA.
Answer: 3

35.
35 Part of a molecule found in cells is represented
   below.
Which process is most directly affected by the
arrangement of components 1 through 4?
(1) diffusion through cell membranes
(2) fertilization of a sex cell
(3) sequencing of amino acids in cells
(4) increasing the number of cells in an organism
Answer: 3

36.
36 What is the volume of water represented in the
   graduated cylinder shown below?

Answer: 2

37.
37 A student prepared a test tube containing yeast,
   glucose, and water. After 24 hours, the test tube
   was analyzed for the presence of several
   substances.
   What substance would the student expect to find
   if respiration occurred in the test tube?
   (1) a hormone              (3) nitrogen
   (2) starch                 (4) carbon dioxide
Answer: 4

38.
38 A student used the low-power objective of a
   compound light microscope and observed a
   single-celled organism as shown in the diagram
   below.
When he switched to high power, the organism
was no longer visible. This most likely happened
because switching to high power made the
(1) field too bright to see the organism
(2) image too small to be seen
(3) area of the slide being viewed smaller
(4) fine-adjustment knob no longer functional
Answer: 3

39.
39 The daphnia shown below has produced three
   egg cells, eats live single-celled organisms, lives
   in freshwater, and is caught and eaten by animals
   known as hydra.
Which terms would most likely be used in a
description of this organism?
(1) asexual reproduction, herbivore, prey,
    aquatic, heterotrophic
(2) sexual reproduction, predator, aquatic,
    heterotrophic, prey
(3) asexual reproduction, autotrophic, predator,
    terrestrial, scavenger
(4) sexual reproduction, carnivore, aquatic,
    autotrophic, prey
Answer: 2

40.
40 Changes in a deer population are shown in the graph below.
Which statement best explains section X?
(1) The population has reached the carrying capacity of its environment.
(2) Energy is used for interbreeding between members of different species.
(3) A predator recycles the remains of dead organisms.
(4) Competition does not occur between members of different species in the same habitat.
Answer: 1

41.
41 The diagram below shows various ecological communities that occupied an area over a period of 300 years.
Which statement best describes the diagram?
(1) Community A is the most stable community.
(2) Community B replaced community C after a period of 100 years.
(3) Community C developed into community A after a period of 75 years.
(4) Community D modified the environment, making it more suitable for community E.
Answer: 4

42.
Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the food web below and on your knowledge of biology.
42 Which organisms are carnivores?
   (1) grass and trees               (3) deer and mountain lion
   (2) mouse, rabbit, and cricket    (4) frog, snake, and hawk
Answer: 4

43.
43 A decrease in the grass population will most immediately decrease the available energy for the
   (1) mouse                                                 (3) snake
   (2) hawk                                                  (4) frog
Answer: 1

44.
44 The diagram below shows two different kinds of substances, A and B, entering a cell.
ATP is most likely being used for
(1) substance A to enter the cell   (3) both substances to enter the cell
(2) substance B to enter the cell   (4) neither substance to enter the cell
Answer: 1

45.
45 A biological process that occurs in plants is represented below.
Which row in the chart below identifies the lettered substances in this process?

Answer: 2


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [10]
    Directions (46–55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding the
choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

46.
    Base your answers to questions 46 through 50 on the data table below and on your
knowledge of biology. The data table shows the concentrations of oxygen in parts per
million (ppm) present in freshwater and seawater at various temperatures.
Directions (46–48): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on
the grid on the next page, following the directions below.
 46 Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
46 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each axis.


47.
47 Plot the data for freshwater oxygen concentration on the grid. Surround each point
   with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
47 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting freshwater data, surrounding each point with a small circle,
       and connecting the points.


48.
48 Plot the data for seawater oxygen concentration on the grid. Surround each point with
   a small triangle and connect the points. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
48 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting seawater data, surrounding each point with a small triangle,
       and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit only if circles and triangles are used.
      Make no assumptions about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0, 0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.
      Do not deduct more than 1 credit for plotting points that are not in the data table or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


49.
49 Predict the oxygen concentration in freshwater at 35°C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
49 [1] Allow 1 credit for response between 6 ppm and 7.5 ppm.


50.
50 State one relationship between temperature and dissolved oxygen concentration in
   water. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
50 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — As temperature increases, oxygen concentration decreases.
             — As temperature decreases, oxygen concentration increases.


51.
   Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                      A New Theory on Malaria Transmission
            Plasmodium falciparum, one parasite that causes malaria, spreads
         rapidly, infecting up to 500 million people every year. Malaria spreads
         when an infected mosquito bites an uninfected human, who then
         becomes infected. This infected human is bitten by an uninfected
         mosquito, which then becomes infected. This infected mosquito then
         bites and infects an uninfected human. Malaria transmission is
         illustrated below.
Scientists have a new idea about how this disease spreads. When the
        malaria parasite is passed to humans through the bite of an infected
        mosquito, there is a great possibility that this action alters the chemical
        scent of the human. The altered human body scent then attracts more
        uninfected mosquitoes, which bite the infected person, thus spreading
        the disease.
           To test this hypothesis, an experiment was conducted on humans
        infected with malaria. The results indicate that malaria gametocytes
        (a stage of the parasite) may trigger the production of chemicals that
        change the scent of the human. The change in human scent makes
        humans more appealing to mosquitoes.
           Scientists are now studying ways to copy this chemical scent for use
        in traps that would attract mosquitoes.
51 Which statement best describes the role of gametocytes in the spread of malaria?
   (1) They give off a scent that attracts infected mosquitoes.
   (2) They absorb human body scents that attract mosquitoes.
   (3) They release a scent into the human body.
   (4) They cause a chemical reaction that alters human scent.
Answer:
4


52.
52 Malaria is easily spread because uninfected mosquitoes are attracted to
   (1) humans without malaria
   (2) humans infected with gametocytes
   (3) gametocytes in other mosquitoes
   (4) mosquitoes that are uninfected
Answer:
2


53.
53 State one reason why the use of synthetic scents in traps is a better way to lower
   mosquito populations than spraying with pesticides. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
53 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The scents are very specific for the insect they attract.
             — Pesticides disrupt food webs.
             — Pesticides affect organisms other than mosquitoes.
             — Over time, more insects that are resistant to the pesticide would appear in the
               population.


54.
   Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           The graph below shows the effect of substrate concentration on the
         action of enzyme X. This enzyme is functioning at its optimal
         temperature, 36°C, and at its optimal pH, 5.5.
54 When the substrate concentration increases from 0.4% to 0.5%, the rate of the
   reaction
  (1) decreases
  (2) increases
  (3) remains the same
  (4) increases, then decreases
Answer:
3


55.
55 State what would most likely happen to the rate of enzyme action if the temperature
   were reduced by 10 degrees. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
55 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The reaction will slow down because it is below the optimal temperature.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–67): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
    Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the experimental setup shown below. The
tubing connected to both flask setups used in the experiment provides oxygen to the solution.
56 State one possible hypothesis for the experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Potassium helps plants grow.
             — Potassium is not needed by plants for proper growth.
             — Plants missing potassium will not grow tall.
             — Plants lacking potassium will not be green.
         Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


57.
57 State what type of data would most likely be collected during the experiment to
   support or refute your hypothesis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — plant height
             — number/size of leaves/roots
             — amount/percent of leaf discoloration
             — daily growth
         Note: The type of data must be measurable. Allow credit for an answer consistent with the
               student’s hypothesis.


58.
    Base your answer to question 58 on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.
           Stem cells present in an embryo are responsible for the formation of
         various tissues and organs. Recent research suggests that it may be
         possible to replicate stem cells from sections of skin taken from adult
         mice, rather than having to use stem cells from the embryos of mice.
         In the future, human stem cells may be used to replace human tissue
         damaged by diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and multiple sclerosis.
 58 Discuss why the use of stem cells taken from a patient to replace damaged tissues and
    organs may decrease the potential risk to a patient. In your answer, be sure to:
    • identify the major problem that may occur when tissues and organs donated by
      another individual are used [1]
    • explain why this problem may occur [1]
    • explain why this problem will not occur if tissues and organs produced by stem cells
      from the patient are used [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the major problem that may occur when tissues and organs
           donated by another individual are used. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — rejection of tissues or organs
         • Allow 1 credit for explaining why this problem may occur. Acceptable responses include, but
           are not limited to:
             — foreign proteins from donated/tissues/organs trigger immune response
             — immune system attacks foreign tissues/organs
         • Allow 1 credit for explaining why this problem will not occur if tissues and organs produced by
           stem cells from the patient are used. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Proteins in tissues/organs will be the same as those of the patient, so the immune system
               will not attack.


59.
59 Staphylococcus aureus is a type of bacterium that lives on the skin and in the nostrils
   of most people. Generally, it is controlled by the immune system of the body.
   Occasionally, the antibiotic penicillin is needed to control the bacterium. However,
   some strains of S. aureus have a resistance to penicillin, which makes them hard to kill
   and infections difficult to cure.
   Explain how the resistance to penicillin affects the S. aureus population. In your
   answer, be sure to include an explanation of:
   • how the exposure to penicillin affects the survival of some bacteria in the population
     [1]
   • why the frequency of penicillin-resistant bacteria can change over time within the
     population [1]
   • how it is still possible to cure patients who are infected with penicillin-resistant
     bacteria [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for explaining how the exposure to penicillin affects the survival of some
           bacteria in the population. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Bacteria may vary in their susceptibility to penicillin, and resistant ones survive.
             — In the bacteria that survive, there are naturally occurring variations that provide
               resistance to penicillin.
             — When exposed to penicillin, more of the resistant ones survive.
             — Nonresistant bacteria die off.
         • Allow 1 credit for explaining why the frequency of penicillin-resistant bacteria can change over
           time within the population. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — When exposed to penicillin, the frequency of resistant bacteria will increase as those that
               are resistant survive and reproduce.
             — The resistant bacteria will survive and they will produce offspring that are resistant.
         • Allow 1 credit for explaining how it is still possible to cure patients who are infected with
           penicillin-resistant bacteria. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Patients can be treated with antibiotics other than penicillin.


60.
   Base your answers to questions 60 through 63 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            An ecology class is trying to help reduce the problem of global warming 
         by asking their school district to change all of their old lightbulbs to
         compact fluorescent lightbulbs that use less electricity.
 60 Identify one specific gas that contributes to the problem of global warming. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — carbon dioxide (CO2)
             — methane
             — nitrous oxide
             — CFCs


61.
61 State one activity of humans that increases the concentration of this gas. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           Carbon dioxide:
             — burning fossil fuels
             — deforestation
             — driving cars
           Methane:
             — establishing landfills
             — raising cattle
           Nitrous oxide:
             — treating raw sewage
             — producing synthetic fertilizers
           CFCs:
             — air conditioner leaks
             — use of certain aerosols


62.
62 Describe one negative effect of global warming on humans or ecosystems. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — higher sea levels
             — habitat loss
             — climate change


63.
63 Explain why switching to more efficient lightbulbs will help reduce the school’s
   contribution to global warming. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — They would use less electricity, resulting in less fossil fuels being burned.
             — Reduced energy use would decrease the amount of fossil fuels burned.


64.
   Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                             There’s No Place Like Home!
             Some pets need expensive food, or grow to large sizes, or have nasty,
          dangerous behavior. Because of this, some people realize that they can
          no longer care for their pets. A pet twist-neck turtle in a state of near
          starvation was found by rescuers at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. The
          food that this species eats is not commonly found in New York State. In
          Florida and other warm states, people have released pet snakes such as
          pythons and anacondas into local lakes and swamps, where they have
          become a threat to other animals and even to humans. Those released
          pets that survive in their new environment can eventually breed and
          multiply, causing even more problems!
 64 Identify one abiotic factor that might affect the survival of a released pet and explain
    why that factor would affect survival. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
     Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Lack of water could result in dehydration, which interferes with cell functions.
             — temperature, because different species are adapted to live in different climates


65.
65 State one reason released pets that survive in a new environment may be able to form
   a large population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — lack of natural predators
             — Food/prey may be extremely abundant in the new environment.
             — breed and multiply in the new environment


66.
    Base your answers to questions 66 and 67 on the information and diagrams below and
on your knowledge of biology.
              There are over 40 different species of butterfly fish found in
          tropical reefs throughout the world. Three different species of butterfly
          fish are shown below.
The fish fin diagram and dichotomous key shown below can be used to determine the
species of each of these fish.

Directions (66–67): Using the information and dichotomous key, complete the table
following the directions below.
 66 Use the dichotomous key and fish fin diagram to identify fish A, B, and C and write the
    name of each fish in the column labeled “Scientific Name” in the table below. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
66 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying fish A, B, and C and writing the name of each fish in the
       column labeled “Scientific Name” in the table.
         Note: Allow this credit even if the genus (C.) is not included.


67.
67 Select two characteristics from the dichotomous key that are useful for determining the
   identity of fish A, B, and C. Using these characteristics, label the headings for the last
   two columns in the table and complete the last two columns in the table. [2]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
67 [2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for selecting two characteristics from the dichotomous key that are useful for
           determining the identity of fish A, B, and C and labeling the headings for the last two columns
           in the table.
         • Allow 1 credit for correctly completing the last two columns in the table.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (68–78): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

68.
Base your answer to question 68 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
68 Fill in the missing mRNA bases and the amino acid sequence that corresponds to the
   DNA base sequence below. [2]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
68 [2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for correctly filling in the missing mRNA bases and
       1 credit for correctly filling in the amino acid sequence that corresponds to the DNA base
       sequence.
        Example of a 2-credit response:
        DNA                 CAC            GTG            GAC            TGA
        mRNA                GUG            CAC            CUG            ACU
        Amino acids         VAL            HIS            LEU            THR
        Note: Allow credit for an amino acid sequence that is consistent with the student’s response for
              the mRNA sequence.


69.
   Base your answers to questions 69 and 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            An investigation is carried out to determine the effect of exercise on
          the rate at which a person can squeeze a clothespin.
 69 In this investigation, the independent variable is the
    (1) control
    (2) exercise
    (3) rate of squeezing
    (4) number of participants
Answer:
2


70.
70 Muscle fatigue occurs during this activity when
   (1) carbon dioxide is used up in the muscle cells
   (2) simple sugar is converted to starch in the muscle cells
   (3) proteins accumulate in mitochondria in the muscle cells
   (4) certain waste products collect in the muscle cells
Answer:
4


71.
71 Part of a laboratory procedure is shown in the diagram below.
This setup would most likely be involved in a procedure to
(1) stain specimens while making a wet mount
(2) test for the presence of glucose using an indicator
(3) separate pigments in a mixture
(4) determine the pH of solutions
Answer:
2


72.
   Base your answers to questions 72 and 73 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           A valuable medicine is obtained from a certain rare species of plant.
         Scientists are anxious to find another more abundant species of plant
         that is closely related to the rare one, and also produces the medicine.
           Two newly discovered plant species, A and B, were studied and compared to the rare one. 
          The results of the study are shown in the table below.
72 Which newly discovered species is more closely related to the rare species? Support
   your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
72 [1] Allow 1 credit for species B and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
       not limited to:
            — because it has more characteristics in common with the rare species


73.
73 Which procedure could also be carried out to help determine which newly discovered
   species is most closely related to the rare species?
   (1) measurement of respiration rate in the plants
   (2) chromatography of pigment extracts from the plants
   (3) determination of the type of gas released by photosynthesis in the plants
   (4) analysis of chemical bonds present in glucose in the plants
Answer:
2


74.
74 The characteristics of four finches that inhabit the same island are represented in the
   chart below.
Complete the table below using information in the characteristics chart and your
knowledge of biology. [2]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
74 [2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for completing both columns for each of the finches.


75.
75 Studies of the finches of the Galapagos Islands have shown that
   (1) DNA will change to produce structures needed by birds to survive intense
       competition
   (2) a bird’s beak changes annually in response to the type of food that is most abundant
       each year
   (3) natural selection occurs when there are scarce resources and intense competition
   (4) the beak of a finch will change if the environment of the bird remains stable
Answer:
3


76.
   Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           A student prepared four different red blood cell suspensions, as
         shown in the chart below.
76 Which suspension would contain red blood cells that would appear wrinkled and
   reduced in volume?
  (1) A
  (2) B
  (3) C
  (4) D
Answer:
2


77.
77 The change in red blood cell volume is principally due to the movement of
   (1) serum
   (2) oxygen
   (3) water
   (4) salt
Answer:
3


78.
78 Which process is most likely involved in the change in red blood cell volume?
   (1) active transport
   (2) evaporation
   (3) replication
   (4) diffusion
Answer:
4



  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents January 2011 Exam


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