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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2014 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 The concentration of potassium is higher in red
  blood cells than in the surrounding blood plasma.
  This higher concentration is maintained by the
  process of
  (1) circulation             (3) excretion
  (2) diffusion               (4) active transport
Answer: 4

2.
2 Human genetic material is represented in the
  diagram below.
The region labeled A is made up of a section of
(1) a protein that becomes an enzyme
(2) DNA that may direct protein synthesis
(3) a carbohydrate made from amino acids
(4) glucose that may be copied to make DNA
Answer: 2

3.
3 Brothers and sisters often have similar facial
  characteristics, such as nose shape or eye color,
  because they
  (1) are raised in similar environments
  (2) eat similar types of foods
  (3) have similar types of proteins
  (4) use similar types of facial care products
Answer: 3


4.
4 Compared to a normal body cell, a normal egg
  cell contains
  (1) the same number of chromosomes
  (2) half the number of chromosomes
  (3) twice the number of chromosomes
  (4) four times the number of chromosomes
Answer: 2

5.
5 The variations that exist in a population of wild
  giraffes are usually a result of events that occur
  during
  (1) mitotic division
  (2) genetic engineering
  (3) asexual reproduction
  (4) sexual reproduction
Answer: 4

6.
6 Evidence that best supports the theory of
  biological evolution was obtained from the
  (1) investigation of environmental niches
  (2) study of fossil records
  (3) comparison of the number of cells in organisms
  (4) analysis of food chains and food webs
Answer: 2

7.
7 The human immune system fights infection by
  releasing
  (1) ATPs             (3) antibodies
  (2) antibiotics      (4) antigens
Answer: 3

8.
8 The function of a specific enzyme is most directly
  influenced by its
  (1) molecular size         (3) carrying capacity
  (2) physical shape         (4) stored energy
Answer: 2

9.
9 A vaccine for the viral disease known as chicken
  pox would contain
  (1) a large amount of live virus
  (2) a dead or weakened form of the pathogen
  (3) several different antibiotics
  (4) a small number of white blood cells
Answer: 2

10.
10 Which process will result in a gain of energy in
   an ecosystem?
   (1) photosynthesis in algae cells
   (2) digestion in hummingbirds
   (3) ATP synthesis in fungi
   (4) respiration in maple tree cells
Answer: 1

11.
11 A photograph of a polar bear in its environment is shown below.
One possible reason why polar bears might not be able to survive if the environment they live in changes
is because
(1) the species will experience decreased competition for mates
(2) the new environment will cause greater variation in the species
(3) there will be a larger variety of food sources available
(4) they are adapted to the specific environment in which they now live
Answer: 4

12.
12 An ecological process is represented below.
Which statement describes an event in this process?
(1) Community B modifies the environment, making it suitable for community C.
(2) Community D modifies the environment, making it suitable for community C.
(3) Community E will develop into community A, if the environment remains stable.
(4) Community A organisms will develop directly into community D organisms.
Answer: 1

13.
13 An infection in the body might result in a sudden
   (1) decrease in the activity of antigens produced
       by the mitochondria
   (2) decrease in the amount of DNA present in
       the nuclei of cells
   (3) increase in the activity of white blood cells
   (4) increase in the number of red blood cells
Answer: 3

14.
14 Which disorder could develop in the human
   body when the immune system attacks a usually
   harmless environmental substance?
   (1) cancer              (3) an allergy
   (2) AIDS                (4) an infection
Answer: 3

15.
15 In the human body, carbon monoxide reduces
   the amount of oxygen that can be transported to
   cells. Breathing in too much carbon monoxide
   will most likely result in the production of
   (1) less ATP                (3) more DNA
   (2) less glucose            (4) more protein
Answer: 1


16.
16 Which human activity would interfere most
   directly with the production of oxygen in the
   environment?
   (1) using fertilizer for agriculture
   (2) using nuclear fuels
   (3) accelerating deforestation
   (4) preserving wetlands
Answer: 3

17.
17 Tissues of oleander plants contain chemicals that
   are poisonous to many mammals. The production
   of these poisonous chemicals most likely benefits
   oleanders by preventing leaf loss caused by
   (1) lack of rain          (3) mineral absorption
   (2) scavengers            (4) herbivores
Answer: 4

18.
18 Sugar maples and white pines are two different
   tree species that often grow side by side in
   the Adirondack Mountains. Which statement
   concerning these trees is correct?
   (1) Since they are both trees, they can interbreed.
   (2) Since they are not closely related, they do
       not compete with one another.
   (3) Even though they are both trees, each plays
       a different role in the ecosystem.
   (4) They utilize totally different abiotic resources.
Answer: 3

19.
19 People living in and around the Amazon rain forest
   have used parts of the gaviola tree to prepare
   medicines. Research is being conducted to
   determine if this tree can provide cures for many
   types of cancer. Continued destruction of rain
   forests might
   (1) reduce biodiversity and remove organisms
       with the potential to help humans
   (2) increase biodiversity and remove damaged
       and diseased trees
   (3) reduce biodiversity and increase the
       reproductive rates of all organisms
   (4) increase biodiversity and ecosystem stability
       where humans plant crops
Answer: 1

20.
20 A fundamental concept of ecology is that living
   organisms
   (1) are independent and do not interact with
       each other or with the physical environment
   (2) do not interact with other living organisms, but
       do interact with the physical environment
   (3) interact with each other, but do not interact
       with the physical environment
   (4) interact with other living organisms and
       interact with the physical environment
Answer: 4

21.
21 Many families now use compost to make the soil
   in their gardens more fertile. They collect
   vegetable scraps and yard trimmings, place them
   in a compost pile or special container, and let
   them decompose. The organisms primarily
   responsible for decomposing the vegetable
   scraps and yard trimmings are
   (1) plant parasites
   (2) autotrophs
   (3) bacteria and fungi
   (4) scavengers and viruses
Answer: 3

22.
22 In 2003, the city of Rochester, New York, began
   killing weeds with steam. A machine heats water
   to 280°F then sprays it on the weeds with great
   pressure. The extreme heat destroys the cellular
   structure of the plants. What is a possible
   disadvantage of this method of weed control?
   (1) It can be used safely in areas where children
        play.
   (2) It reduces the number of mutations in the
        ecosystem.
   (3) It destroys weeds without chemicals.
   (4) It alters the habitats of some beneficial insects.
Answer: 4

23.
23 A food chain is represented below.
             grass → rabbit → hawk
   Structures within the rabbit are formed using
   (1) solar energy from the grass
   (2) heat energy lost to the environment
   (3) chemical energy from the hawk
   (4) chemical energy from the grass
Answer: 4

24.
24 The graduating class of a high school would like
   to give the school a gift that would have a positive
   impact on the environment. Which plan would
   be the best choice?
   (1) making wooden benches by harvesting trees
       from school property
   (2) planting native trees along the border of the
       school property
   (3) introducing a new population of foxes, the
       school mascot, to school grounds
   (4) clearing an area to make room for additional
       student parking
Answer: 2

25.
25 Which graph best illustrates the change in the
   human population over the past 2000 years?

Answer: 1

26.
26 Which processes lead to the greatest variety of
   genetic combinations?
   (1) asexual reproduction and cloning
   (2) meiosis and fertilization
   (3) meiosis and mitosis
   (4) cloning and mitosis
Answer: 2

27.
27 One possible explanation for the fact that some
   simple, one-celled organisms did not evolve into
   complex, multicellular organisms is that
   (1) energy flow in an ecosystem requires simple
       autotrophic organisms
   (2) the reproductive rate of single-celled organisms
       is too fast for change to occur
   (3) these organisms possessed traits that enabled
       them to survive in a changing environment
   (4) stability within an ecosystem requires the
       presence of a variety of different species
Answer: 3

28.
28 In New York State, cars are inspected to be sure
   they are not releasing excessive amounts of
   several gases into the atmosphere. This is done
   in an effort to
   (1) recycle more nutrients
   (2) reduce biodiversity
   (3) reduce global warming
   (4) increase the growth rates of forests
Answer: 3

29.
29 Damage to the ozone shield over the United
   States is likely to cause
   (1) increased warming of local ecosystems
   (2) increased exposure to ultraviolet light
   (3) reduction in the pH of acid precipitation
   (4) reduction in the frequency of floods and
       droughts
Answer: 2

30.
30 Researchers recently discovered that when
   hammerhead sharks were moved to shallower
   water, resulting in exposure to increased light
   intensity, their backs turned a deep brownish black.
   Which statement best supports this observation?
   (1) Genes are inherited, but their expression
       can be modified by interactions with the
       environment.
   (2) The cells of hammerhead sharks contain many
       thousands of different genes in their nuclei.
   (3) An inherited trait of an individual can be
       determined by one or by many genes.
   (4) Asexually produced offspring are normally
       genetically identical to the parent.
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
  Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             An experiment was carried out to answer the question “Does the pH of water affect the
         growth of radish plants?” Two groups of ten radish plants were set up. One group was
         watered with water having a pH of 3.0, and the other group was watered with water having
         a pH of 7.0. Both groups of plants received the same amount and intensity of light, the same
         amount of water, and they were grown in the same type of soil. The heights of the radish
         plants were measured every 2 days for a period of 2 weeks.
31 Which sentence is a possible hypothesis that was tested in this experiment?
   (1) Does the pH of water affect the growth of radish plants?
   (2) Will the amount of water alter the heights of the radish plants?
   (3) The temperature of the water will affect the heights of the radish plants.
   (4) The pH of the water will affect the heights of the radish plants.
Answer: 4

32.
32 What was the dependent variable in this experiment?
   (1) heights of the plants                             (3) temperature of the water
   (2) pH of the water                                   (4) type of soil
Answer: 1

33.
33 Which activity might help to increase the validity of this experiment?
   (1) repeating the experiment several times
   (2) using two different types of radish seeds in each group
   (3) using the same pH for both groups of plants
   (4) placing one set of plants in sunlight and one in darkness
Answer: 1

34.
  Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Female mosquitoes spread diseases when they bite humans to obtain blood. It is only
        the females that do the biting. Research is being conducted to alter the DNA of male
        mosquitoes. These altered males could then mate with normal female mosquitoes. All of
        the resulting female offspring would have wing defects that prevent them from flying.
34 One assumption from this research is that the
   (1) altered males would begin to bite humans and spread the diseases
   (2) female offspring would be unable to bite humans, since they cannot fly
   (3) altered males would not be able to reproduce
   (4) female offspring would become larger in size
Answer: 2

35.
35 The method used to alter the male mosquitoes is an example of an application of
   (1) a feedback mechanism                               (3) biotechnology
   (2) selective breeding                                 (4) physiology
Answer: 3

36.
36 Scientists have successfully cloned animals, including large mammals such as sheep. Which statement
   provides the most likely reason that a human has not yet been cloned?
   (1) Humans have DNA that is structurally very different from other mammals.
   (2) Cloning can only be performed on animals that normally reproduce asexually.
   (3) Human genes are made of too many different types of simple sugars.
   (4) Some people consider human genetic experiments unethical.
Answer: 4

37.
37 Some evolutionary pathways are represented in the diagram below.
An inference that can be made from information in the diagram is that
(1) species E evolved from species G
(2) species A was probably much larger than all the other species
(3) species C is a direct descendant of species I
(4) species J is adapted to the existing environment
Answer: 4

38.
38 The diagram below represents a technique used in some molecular biology laboratories.
Which phrase best describes a possible result of this process?
(1) the production of gametes having both human and bacterial DNA
(2) the production of a human hormone by the bacterial cell
(3) the introduction of a pathogen into a human cell
(4) the separation of DNA fingerprints in the bacterial cell
Answer: 2

39.
39 The diagram below represents a portion of a molecule found in cells of the human body.
Sequences represented by the letters in this molecule enable human cells to
(1) alter the method of absorption of material           (3) synthesize enzymes from organic molecules
(2) carry out asexual reproduction by meiosis            (4) modify genetic recombination during mitosis
Answer: 3

40.
40 Potatoes were the main crop in Ireland in the 180os. Almost the entire population of Ireland was dependent
   on a single variety of potato, the “lumper.” These potatoes were reproduced by a method of asexual
   reproduction known as vegetative propagation. In the middle of the 180os, a disease caused by a fungus
   killed almost the entire lumper crop within two years. As a result, millions of people in Ireland died of starvation.
   The most likely reason the potato disease was able to destroy the potato crop in such a short time is that the
   (1) potato population lacked variations
   (2) lumper variety had a long reproductive cycle
   (3) lumper had several variations caused by vegetative propagation
   (4) potato population in Ireland utilized all of the finite resources
Answer: 1

41.
41 The chart below shows examples from two groups of organisms, multicellular and one-celled.
The tissues and organs in group A perform functions that are
(1) similar to those performed by the tissues and organs in group B
(2) similar to those performed by the cell organelles in group B
(3) different from those performed by the tissues and organs in group B
(4) identical to those performed by the cell organelles in group B
Answer: 2

42.
42 The graph below shows changes in the concentrations of glucose and insulin in the blood of a human over
   a period of time.
Which statement correctly explains these changes?
(1) High glucose levels cause more insulin to be released.
(2) High insulin levels cause more glucose to be released.
(3) Low glucose levels cause more insulin to be released.
(4) Low insulin levels cause more glucose to be released.
Answer: 1

43.
43 The diagram below represents an incomplete sequence of levels of organization.
                      organelles → tissues → organs → organ systems → organism
   This sequence can be completed correctly by inserting
   (1) “cells →” between organelles and tissues
   (2) “proteins →” between tissues and organs
   (3) “populations →” between organs and organ systems
   (4) “molecules →” between organ systems and organisms
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the data table below, which shows the estimated
population of wolves in Minnesota from 1995 through 2002.
                                        Minnesota Wolf Population
                                       Year      Estimated Population
                                       1995             2000
                                       1996             2200
                                       1997             2300
                                       1998             2450
                                       1999             2500
                                       2000             2600
                                       2001             2600
                                       2002             2600
    Directions (44–46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid,
following the directions below.
 44 Label the y-axis on the line provided. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
44 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly labeling the y-axis.


45.
45 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
45 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each axis.


46.
46 Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
46 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
        Example of a 3-credit graph for questions 44–46:
                       Minnesota Wolf Population
Note: Allow credit if points are correctly plotted, but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


47.
47 The most likely explanation for the size of the wolf population for the 2000–2002 period is that the population
   (1) reached the carrying capacity of the environment          (3) began reproducing at a faster rate
   (2) stabilized due to global warming                          (4) was affected by a new pathogen
Answer: 1

48.
48 Wolves prey on animals such as deer. Identify one adaptation of deer that would help them to survive in an
   area populated by wolves. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
48 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — speed
            — antlers
            — hooves for protection/defense
            — fur color similar to surroundings
            — well-developed senses


49.
Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                         Tracking the Big Horn
          Bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, are a majestic symbol of the mountainous West. They
      browse at high altitudes and in steep, rocky areas from Texas to British Columbia. Rams’
      horns curl around their eyes and grow up to 45 inches long. Males butt horns to establish
      dominance during the fall rut [mating season]. Ewes [females] sport shorter, spiked horns
      similar to a mountain goat’s. From their first days of life, bighorns are surefooted enough to
      scale cliffs too steep for most predators to follow.…
          Two centuries ago, an estimated 1.5 million to 2 million bighorn sheep lived in North
      America; today, a mere 28,000 remain. Diseases caught from domestic sheep, competition
      from livestock for forage, and trophy hunting for their horns caused populations to
      plummet [drop rapidly]. Bighorns graze in mountain meadows, habitat that is being lost to
      expanding forests, which are growing beyond their historic boundaries in part because the
      wildfires that are used to hold them in check have been suppressed. Glacier National Park,
      home to 400 to 600 bighorn sheep, lists the animals as a “species of concern,” that is, at risk
      of becoming endangered.…
                                               Source: Becky Lomax, Smithsonian Magazine, March, 2008
                                                                               “Tracking the Big Horn”
49 The feeding activity of the bighorn sheep is best described as
   (1) consumers feeding on autotrophs                        (3) autotrophs feeding on decomposers
   (2) decomposers feeding on consumers                       (4) autotrophs feeding on heterotrophs
Answer: 1

50.
50 Which statement best accounts for the decline in bighorn sheep populations?
   (1) Predators of the sheep decreased in number.
   (2) Sheep ewes that have shorter, spiked horns increased in number.
   (3) Human activities directly and indirectly affected the sheep.
   (4) The sheep were listed as a “species of concern” by Glacier National Park.
Answer: 3

51.
51 State one way that young bighorn sheep are able to avoid predators. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Young bighorn sheep are able to climb mountains too steep for predators to follow.
            — They can scale cliffs.
            — They are surefooted.


52.
  Base your answer to question 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            For many years, scientists hypothesized the existence of a single tomato gene that
        increases the sweetness and production of tomatoes. After years of research, a team of
        scientists identified the gene and observed greater sweetness and tomato production in
        plants that contain this gene.
52 Identify a process that could be used to insert this gene into other plant species to increase fruit
   production. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — genetic engineering
            — gene splicing
            — gene manipulation
        Note: Do not allow credit for biotechnology; it is a field of science, not a process.


53.
   Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Bisphenol-A (BPA), is an industrial chemical commonly added to disposable, plastic
        water bottles to make them sturdier. BPA has been shown to inhibit the development of
        tadpoles into frogs. Some tadpoles exposed to high levels of BPA develop into frogs without
        legs. Others, when exposed to the chemical as tadpoles, fail to reabsorb their tails and thus
        grow into frogs with significantly long tails.
53 State one specific way humans can help decrease the exposure of animals to bisphenol-A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — use reusable water bottles not made with BPA
            — pass legislation that outlaws the manufacturing of products with BPA
            — ensure that water bottles are not littered in the environment
            — recycle disposable water bottles
            — use metal/glass containers
            — control the disposal of industrial waste


54.
54 Organ systems of the human body interact to maintain a balanced internal environment. As blood flows
   through certain organs of the body, the composition of the blood changes because of interactions with those
   organs. State one change in the composition of the blood as it flows through the respiratory system. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The blood takes in oxygen as it flows through the respiratory system.
            — The oxygen level goes up/increases.
            — It releases water.
            — It releases carbon dioxide.


55.
55 State one possible negative impact of importing a natural predator to control a pest. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The predator might feed on beneficial organisms.
            — might outcompete other species of predators
            — might become a pest
            — They might overpopulate and wipe out prey species.
            — might bring in a disease
            — could alter the existing ecosystem



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
  Base your answer to question 56–60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            A student has a sandwich for lunch. The bread contains starch molecules and various
        other molecules. After chewing and swallowing some of the sandwich, the starch moves
        along the digestive system and is digested. The sequence below represents what takes place
        next.
                     digested starch → bloodstream → cell → cell structure → ATP
56–60 Explain what occurs, beginning with the digestion of starch and ending with ATP production. In your
      answer, be sure to:
      • identify the molecules that are used to digest the starch [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the molecules that are used to digest the starch. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — enzymes
            — biological catalysts
            — amylase molecules


57.
• identify the molecules produced when starch is digested [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the molecules produced when starch is digested. Acceptable
       responses include, but are not limited to:
            — glucose molecules
            — simple sugars
            — monosaccharides
            — sugars


58.
• explain why starch must be digested before its building block molecules can enter the bloodstream [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining why starch must be digested before its building block molecules can
       enter the bloodstream. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Starch molecules are too large.
            — They are too big to get from the digestive tract into the blood.
            — Large molecules cannot diffuse through cell membranes.


59.
• identify the structure in the cell that will produce ATP from the starch building blocks [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the structure in the cell that will produce ATP from the starch
       building blocks as the mitochondrion (mitochondria).


60.
• state why ATP is important to cells [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating why ATP is important to cells. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — ATP is the molecule that supplies usable energy for all the activities of a cell.
            — ATP molecules provide energy for cells.


61.
Base your answers to questions 61 through 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                  A Study of Antibacterial Cleansers
          An experiment was designed to test the effectiveness of three antibacterial hand-cleansing
      solutions against bacteria present on hands. Swabs were used to take one sample each from
      the unwashed hands of ten test subjects. Each swab was then rubbed across the surface of
      bacterial growth medium in a separate petri dish. The dishes were placed in an incubator
      to allow bacterial colonies to develop.
          Ten other test subjects treated their hands with an antibacterial hand-cleansing
      solution, then had their hands swabbed, and ten more petri dishes were set up and
      incubated in the same way as the first set of dishes.
          The process was repeated again with ten more test subjects for a second hand cleanser,
      and again for a third group with a third hand cleanser.
          The results from the incubated petri dishes were averaged. The averages are shown in
      the data table below.
                             Effectiveness of Antibacterial Cleansers
                                                               Average Number of
                       Treatment Before Swabbing
                                                               Bacterial Colonies
                  none                                                   30
                   antibacterial hand-cleansing solution 1               12
                   antibacterial hand-cleansing solution 2               13
                   antibacterial hand-cleansing solution 3               11
 61 What was the purpose of testing unwashed hands? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — to have a group for comparison
            — to use the unwashed group as a control
            — to see what would happen without the treatment
            — the control


62.
62 Explain why the researchers used data from ten trials and averaged them, rather than data from a single
   trial. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Data from single trials are more likely to include error.
            — to make the experiment/conclusion more valid
            — Averaging data makes the conclusion more valid.
            — to make the experiment/conclusion more reliable


63.
63 Based on the data provided, what could the researchers conclude regarding the effectiveness of the
   antibacterial hand-cleansing solutions tested? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Solution 3 is the most effective antibacterial hand-cleansing solution of those tested.
            — Solution 2 is the least effective antibacterial hand-cleansing solution of those tested.
            — Solutions 1, 2, and 3 are all more effective at killing bacteria than no treatment.
            — All of them are equally effective.
            — None of them were 100% effective.


64.
  Base your answer to question 64–66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                    The Critical Role of the Placenta
            The proper functioning of the placenta is critical to the growth and development of a
        healthy fetus. For example, the placenta appears to act as a nutrient sensor. It regulates the
        amounts and types of nutrients that are transported from the mother to the fetus.
            Improper functioning of the placenta can alter the structure and function of specific
        cells and organ systems in the developing fetus, putting it at risk for health problems as an
        adult. For example, in some pregnancies, the placenta develops a resistance to blood flow.
        This resistance appears to force the heart of the fetus to work harder. This could result in
        an increased chance of the individual developing heart disease as an adult. A group of
        hormones known as glucocorticoids affects the development of all the tissues and organ
        systems. One of the things this group of hormones does is to alter cell function by
        changing the structure of cell membrane receptors.
64–66 Discuss the importance of the placenta in the development of a healthy fetus. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify two factors that could influence the nutrients that can pass from the mother to the fetus [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying two factors that could influence the nutrients that can pass from the
       mother to the fetus. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — diet of the mother
            — hormones
            — blood supply to the placenta
            — the ability of the placenta to sense nutrients
            — concentration of nutrients in the blood/blood vessels
            — permeability of the placenta
            — improper functioning of the placenta
            — illness/disease
            — size of molecules


65.
• identify the group of hormones that alter cell membrane receptors and explain how this alteration
  can affect cell function [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the group of hormones that alter cell membrane receptors and for
       explaining how this alteration can affect cell function. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — Glucocorticoids–Receptors have a specific shape that determines their function. If the
              shape of a receptor is altered, it might not be able to perform its job appropriately.
            — Glucocorticoids–They alter cell function by changing the structure of the cell membrane
              receptors.
            — Glucocorticoids–They alter receptors to help them function.


66.
• state the role of the uterus in the development of the fetus and the placenta [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating the role of the uterus in the development of the fetus and the placenta.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The uterus is where the placenta forms and the fetus develops.
            — provides protection


67.
67 A farmer planted two corn varieties, one of which was very tasty but had small ears, and the other one
   had large ears but did not taste nearly as good. The pollen from one variety was used to fertilize the
   other variety of corn. State one biological advantage this method of reproduction has over cloning. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — This method gives the offspring characteristics of each variety, and does not make a copy of
              just one.
            — This method can create new varieties.
            — increases biodiversity


68.
 Base your answer to question 68–70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
68–70 Feedback mechanisms have evolved that maintain homeostasis. Describe how homeostasis is
      maintained through feedback. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify one feedback mechanism in the human body [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one feedback mechanism in the human body. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
             — the change in heart rate in response to exercise
             — the change in respiratory rate in response to exercise
             — sweating or shivering in response to changes in body temperature
             — the maintenance of blood sugar levels
             — regulation of body temperature on a hot day
             — increase in white blood cells in response to an infection


69.
• identify, other than death, one specific result if homeostasis fails in the human body [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying, other than death, one specific result if homeostasis fails in the human
       body. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — disease/gets sick
             — disruption in the body’s ability to carry out respiration/digestion/excretion, etc.
             — The body is unable to respond to external/internal stimuli correctly.
             — diabetes
             — heat stroke/hypothermia
         Note: Do not allow credit for death.


70.
• describe how a plant regulates water loss through a feedback mechanism that involves guard cells [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing how a plant regulates water loss through a feedback mechanism that
       involves guard cells. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Guard cells close openings in the leaves, slowing/stopping water loss.
             — When guard cells close the stomata, less water evaporates out of the leaves.
             — Guard cells regulate the rate of transpiration when they change shape.


71.
Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          New York State relies on natural gas for 24% of its energy supply. It is estimated that
      large deposits of natural gas are located in New York State. It is possible to extract the gas
      via high-volume hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracking). Hydrofracking involves freeing the
      natural gas by using a large amount of water treated with chemicals, which produces large
      quantities of waste products. Some people are in favor of hydrofracking, while others are
      against it. One side is concerned about the negative effect it will have on the environment.
      The other side points out the potential benefits it might provide.
 71 Describe a trade-off that must be considered in the decision whether to move forward with
    hydrofracking. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The decision involves balancing the economic gains and the possible environmental damage.
             — Fracking will provide people with more natural gas but might damage the environment.
             — There might be more jobs, but there is a possibility for increased water pollution.


72.
72 Identify one renewable alternative to natural gas as an energy source that New York State could use
   and describe the advantage of using this source, other than it is renewable. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — solar energy – Energy from the Sun is free.
             — wind energy – no air pollution
             — geothermal – no carbon dioxide released
             — hydroelectricity – Energy is generated locally.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
73 A class is recording pulse rates of the students in a data table like the one shown below.
                                             Class Pulse Rates
                                          Pulse Rate
                            Row                              Number of Students
                                       (beats per minute)
                              A               < 51
                              B              51–70
                              C              71–90
                              D               >90
   One student checks his pulse and counts 23 beats over a time interval of 20 seconds. In which row in the
   data table should the pulse rate of this student be recorded?
   (1) A                                                      (3) C
   (2) B                                                      (4) D
Answer: 2

74.
74 The diagram below represents a compound light microscope. Several parts have been labeled.
In order to make an image brighter, which labeled part of the microscope would most likely be adjusted?
(1) A                                                    (3) C
(2) B                                                    (4) D
Answer: 4

75.
75 Cell membranes are said to be selectively permeable. Which statement best explains what selectively
   permeable means?
   (1) The cell membrane prevents any harmful substance from entering the cell.
   (2) The cell membrane lets certain substances enter the cell and keeps certain substances out of the cell.
   (3) The cell membrane allows only large molecules to diffuse into the cell.
   (4) The cell membrane has pores that let only water and glucose into the cell and carbon dioxide out.
Answer: 2

76.
Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          One of the effects of Hurricane Katrina, which devastated New Orleans in 2005, was
      the death of almost all of the plants in flooded areas. Initially, toxic chemicals and bacteria
      were suspected as a possible cause. Scientists later determined that the salt concentration
      in the floodwater caused the plants to die.
76 The death of the plants was most likely due to
   (1) water moving into plant cells from the surrounding environment
   (2) water moving out of plant cells into the surrounding environment
   (3) both water and salt moving from plant cells into the surrounding environment
   (4) both water and salt moving into plant cells from the surrounding environment
Answer: 2

77.
77 Identify the process responsible for the effect that the salt water had on the plants. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — diffusion
            — osmosis
            — dehydration


78.
    Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             An investigation was carried out on four different plant species to determine which of
         three species was most closely related to an unknown plant species. The results of the
         investigation are shown in the data table below.
                                   Comparison of Four Plant Species
                                                    Differences in
                                     Test for                      Gel Electrophoresis
                 Plant Species                       Amino Acid
                                    Enzyme M                        Banding Pattern
                                                     Sequences
                    unknown              +                                 11, 8, 6, 2
                        1                 –                4                24, 8, 5
                        2                +                 1               11, 8, 6, 2
                        3                +                 3               13, 7, 5, 2
 78 Which plant species appears to be most closely related to the unknown species? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 2 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It has the most characteristics in common with the unknown species.
            — It has the same gel electrophoresis banding pattern.
            — It has only one amino acid sequence different from the unknown species.


79.
79 Identify two pieces of evidence, other than those shown in the chart, that can be used to determine if two
   plant species are related. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two additional pieces of evidence that can be used to determine if two plant
       species are related. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — shapes of the leaves
            — structures of the stems/flower
            — characteristics of the seeds
            — types of chlorophyll present
            — comparison of DNA sequences
            — fossil records


80.
Base your answer to question 80 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
                        Variations in Beaks of Galapagos Islands Finches
80 There are a number of islands in the Galapagos that these finches could possibly inhabit. Explain why each
   island would not be expected to have all of the species shown. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Each island has its own set of environmental conditions which might not provide food or
              shelter for some of these species.
            — Different islands might have different kinds of food available.
            — too much competition


81.
    Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             The Galapagos Islands are home to many different species of finches. Three finch
         species, their relative beak sizes, and their food preferences are represented below. All
         three species live on the same island.
81 Which statement is correct concerning the nutritional preferences of these finches?
   (1) The three species do not compete for food because they eat different types of foods.
   (2) The vegetarian and cactus finches compete for food because they both feed on producers.
   (3) The vegetarian and warbler finches compete for food because they both live in trees.
   (4) The three species of finches compete for food because their beaks are similar in shape and size.
Answer: 1

82.
82 Which process allows for the evolution of finches over time?
   (1) natural selection                                     (3) asexual reproduction
   (2) selective breeding                                    (4) ecological succession
Answer: 1

83.
83 Complete the food web below by placing the names of the finches in the correct locations. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
83 [1] Allow 1 credit for completing the three boxes with the correct finch species, as shown below.


84.
84 Identify one trait, other than a beak characteristic, that could affect the survival of a finch. Support your
   answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifyng one trait, other than beak characteristic, that could affect the survival
       of a finch and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
         Coloration:
             — Camouflage would help survival.
             — attract a mate for successful reproduction
         Strength:
             — helps in competition for food
         Aggressiveness:
             — helps in competition for mate/food


85.
85 Identify one specific substance necessary for muscle activity that is delivered to muscles more effectively as
   a result of increased heart rate. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — oxygen
             — glucose



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