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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2015

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Which observation could lead to the conclusion
  that an object is nonliving?
  (1) It passes on hereditary information only
      through asexual reproduction.
  (2) It carries out synthesis.
  (3) It cannot perform metabolic processes.
  (4) It is composed of a cell, but does not have
      tissues.
Answer: 3

2.
2 Decomposers are necessary in a food chain
  because they
  (1) manufacture food by photosynthesis
  (2) return nutrients to the ecosystem
  (3) absorb energy from the Sun
  (4) produce organic nutrients
Answer: 2

3.
3 In early spring, many wildflowers begin to grow,
  produce flowers, and release seeds. The leaves
  of the wildflowers make food before the leaves
  of the trees in the area begin to develop. The
  early growth pattern of the wildflowers would
  likely result in
  (1) decreased competition for sunlight between
      the trees and the wildflowers
  (2) decreased competition for suitable temperature
      between the trees and the wildflowers
  (3) increased competition for space between the
      trees and the wildflowers
  (4) increased competition for oxygen between
      the trees and the wildflowers
Answer: 1


4.
4 Which sequence best represents increasing
  complexity?
  (1) tissues → cells → organelles → organs
  (2) cells → organelles → organs → organism
  (3) organelles → cells → tissues → organs
  (4) organism → cells → tissues → organelles
Answer: 3

5.
5 The diagram below represents two processes that
  occur in organisms. A characteristic represented
  by X is common to both of these processes.
A characteristic that the two processes have in
common is that each process
(1) uses ATP              (3) uses oxygen
(2) requires enzymes      (4) moves molecules
Answer: 4

6.
6 The molecules represented in the diagram below
  can interact to cause a biochemical process to
  occur.
Molecule A and molecule B most likely represent
(1) a nerve signal and a gene
(2) a receptor and a hormone
(3) a chromosome and an antigen
(4) a starch and an amino acid
Answer: 2

7.
7 The cytoplasm in a single-celled organism and
  the circulatory system in a human both
  (1) break down molecules into smaller components
  (2) release energy to be used by the organism
  (3) transport substances throughout the organism
  (4) distribute blood to all of the parts of the
      organism
Answer: 3

8.
8 A hydrangea plant has blue flowers when grown
  in acidic soil, but has pink flowers when grown in
  basic soil. A clone of the pink-flowered plant is
  grown in acidic soil and produces blue flowers.
  This change in flower color is most likely due to
  (1) sexual reproduction in the plants, resulting
      in variation
  (2) asexual reproduction in the plants, resulting
      in variation
  (3) genes being expressed in different ways due
      to environmental conditions
  (4) a gene mutation that occurred after the clone
      was produced
Answer: 3

9.
9 The diagram below represents a microscopic
  structure observed during mitosis.
The region indicated by letter A is known as
(1) an enzyme            (3) a gene
(2) a gamete             (4) an amino acid
Answer: 3

10.
10 A significant difference between the effects of
   the genetic information passed on from asexually
   reproducing parents to their offspring and sexually
   reproducing parents to their offspring is the
   (1) degree of modification of the size of
       chromosomes
   (2) types of DNA subunits
   (3) number of chromosomes in the body cells of
       the offspring
   (4) amount of variation between the parents and
       the offspring
Answer: 4

11.
11 A normal sequence of DNA bases in a single
   human skin cell is CATGGC. If this sequence
   replicates in this cell and becomes GATGGC,
   this alteration will most likely be passed to
   (1) every cell that develops from it
   (2) all human body cells
   (3) offspring of the human
   (4) all skin cells of this person
Answer: 1

12.
12 Beta cells in the pancreas and human skin cells
   both contain the insulin gene. The beta cells can
   make insulin; however, skin cells cannot. Which
   process is responsible for this gene being
   expressed in one cell type and not in another
   cell type?
   (1) mitosis               (3) differentiation
   (2) replication           (4) meiosis
Answer: 3

13.
13 Information in segments of human DNA can be
   expressed by a bacterial cell as a result of
   (1) sexual reproduction (3) genetic variability
   (2) random mutation       (4) genetic engineering
Answer: 4

14.
14 The photograph below shows a recently discovered
   all-black penguin chick and several typical blackand-white chicks.
The appearance of this penguin chick with all
black feathers might
(1) increase the types of foods penguins can eat
(2) decrease the diversity of the penguin
    population
(3) decrease the number of variations present in
    the black penguin population
(4) result in an increase in black penguins over
    time if the trait provides a reproductive
    advantage
Answer: 4

15.
15 Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences
   provide a scientific explanation for
   (1) the fossil record of ancient life-forms
   (2) predictions about the rate of global warming
   (3) the amount of precipitation in a rain forest
   (4) the amount of soil used to grow certain crops
Answer: 1


16.
16 Some organs in the human body are represented
   in the diagram below.
A sudden change in the DNA of cells developing
in which organ could be passed to future
generations?
(1) A                   (3) C
(2) B                   (4) D
Answer: 4

17.
17 Two cellular events that normally occur during
   two processes are represented below.
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies
the processes in which these events occur?

Answer: 1

18.
18 Photosynthesis and respiration are alike in that
   they both
   (1) require the Sun as a direct source of energy
   (2) result in the production of glucose molecules
   (3) require specific catalysts
   (4) occur within mitochondria
Answer: 3

19.
19 The reproductive cycle in females is regulated
   primarily by
   (1) estrogen and testosterone
   (2) estrogen and progesterone
   (3) progesterone and insulin
   (4) progesterone and testosterone
Answer: 2

20.
20 One function of the male reproductive system in
   mammals is to
   (1) produce insulin necessary for sexual
       reproduction
   (2) transport eggs necessary for fertilization
   (3) allow for delivery of gametes needed for
       reproduction
   (4) provide protection for the developing zygote
Answer: 3

21.
21 A zygote develops into a multicellular organism
   through
   (1) mitosis and specialization
   (2) mitosis and meiosis
   (3) recombination and communication
   (4) genetic engineering and natural selection
Answer: 1

22.
22 Pneumocystis is an organism normally found in
   the human lungs that can cause pneumonia. It
   seldom causes problems in individuals with
   healthy immune systems. However, people with
   AIDS sometimes become seriously ill with
   pneumonia. This is most likely due to the fact
   that individuals with AIDS have
   (1) inherited a tendency to contract pneumonia
   (2) difficulty fighting off infections
   (3) an allergy to this organism
   (4) hormones that strengthen the infection
Answer: 2

23.
23 A technique used to alter cells is represented in the diagram below.
The genetic material contained in the nucleus of each of the new cells is most likely
(1) identical to that in the original body cell
(2) identical to that in the original egg cell
(3) 50% the same as the original egg cell and 50% the same as the original body cell
(4) 25% the same as the original egg cell and 75% the same as the original body cell
Answer: 1

24.
24 A graph is shown below.
The graph contains information about
(1) finite resources                   (3) biotic factors
(2) limiting factors                   (4) mineral availability
Answer: 2

25.
25 Nicotine is only one of the many toxic chemicals
   inhaled while smoking. What effect can such
   toxic chemicals have on the body?
   (1) They stimulate an increase in height.
   (2) They stimulate uncontrolled cell division.
   (3) They eliminate carbon dioxide from cells.
   (4) They eliminate chromosomes from many cells.
Answer: 2

26.
26 The diagram below represents different feeding
   levels in an energy pyramid.
The most likely explanation for showing fewer
organisms at each feeding level going up the
pyramid is that
(1) some energy is lost to the environment as heat
(2) the larger the organism, the less energy it
    requires
(3) some energy is recycled within each level
    and remains there
(4) decomposers convert most of the energy into
    inorganic compounds
Answer: 1

27.
27 Which process uses energy to combine inorganic
   molecules to synthesize organic molecules?
   (1) respiration          (3) photosynthesis
   (2) digestion            (4) decomposition
Answer: 3

28.
28 The Nature Conservancy is an organization that
   protects a variety of habitats around the world.
   A project this organization would probably
   support is one that
   (1) uses endangered animals for medical research
   (2) protects the biodiversity of areas for future
       generations
   (3) alters habitats for industry and housing
   (4) prevents animal species from migrating to
       other habitats
Answer: 2

29.
29 Certain animal species that are endangered or
   threatened have been cloned. Closely related
   species have been used to carry the embryos of
   the endangered species. This process of increasing
   the population size of a species in danger of
   becoming extinct is an example of a
   (1) natural method to decrease ecosystem stability
   (2) natural method of controlling the population
       of an endangered species
   (3) technological fix to increase habitat destruction
   (4) technological fix for the problem of
       endangered species
Answer: 4

30.
30 Car manufacturers have begun to explore the use
   of biofuels, such as biodiesel, ethanol, and cooking
   oils made from plant material. The desired
   outcome of using these biofuels would be
   (1) a decrease in the use of fossil fuels
   (2) a decrease in the release of oxygen gas
   (3) an increase in abiotic resources
   (4) an increase in global warming
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 In the 18th century, Carolus Linnaeus classified
   organisms based on their structural similarities.
   Modern classification determines relationships
   more accurately because it is based on genetic
   and other biochemical similarities. This change
   in classification method best illustrates that
   (1) multiple trials are required to increase the
       validity of a scientific explanation
   (2) scientific explanations are subject to the
       ethical view of the scientist proposing them
   (3) peer review is required to validate the results
       of scientific investigations
   (4) all scientific explanations are tentative and
       subject to change and improvement
Answer: 4

32.
32 Rabbits have evolved strategies that get them
   through periods of time when there is little food.
   The diagram below represents essential life
   functions that rabbits need to perform.
Which life function in the diagram could be
eliminated without affecting an individual
rabbit’s ability to survive when food is scarce?
(1) digestion               (3) circulation
(2) excretion               (4) reproduction
Answer: 4

33.
33 The inability of an organism to produce certain
   proteins can occur when an organism is lacking
   an enzyme needed to combine
   (1) oxygen molecules      (3) amino acids
   (2) simple sugars         (4) biological catalysts
Answer: 3

34.
34 Bumblebees show some ability to control their
   own body temperature. During cold weather,
   bumblebees have been observed warming their
   flight muscles by shivering. The bees are able to
   maintain a body temperature several degrees
   above that of the surrounding air. Regulation of
   their internal body temperature is an example of
   (1) diffusion             (3) respiration
   (2) synthesis             (4) homeostasis
Answer: 4

35.
35 A cell begins to produce a new type of protein.
   This is most likely due to an alteration of the
   (1) structure of the cell membrane
   (2) sequence of bases in a section of a chromosome
   (3) chemical makeup of the cytoplasm
   (4) shape of the antibodies produced by the
       nucleus
Answer: 2

36.
36 Mother rattlesnakes care for and protect their
   young. Baby rattlesnakes find safety in the coils
   of their mothers. Female snakes stay together
   for the first few weeks after giving birth. This
   gathering of female rattlesnakes provides a safe
   environment for newborn rattlers. This is an
   example of which type of adaptation?
   (1) structural            (3) molecular
   (2) nutritional           (4) behavioral
Answer: 4

37.
37 The diagram below represents one stage during
   the human reproductive process.
A function of structure A is to
(1) remove nutrients from the fetus
(2) provide the fetus with metabolic wastes
(3) remove all toxins from the blood of the mother
(4) provide for the exchange of oxygen and
    carbon dioxide
Answer: 4

38.
38 Which statement is supported by the information
   in the graph below?
(1) The enzymes respond in a similar way to
    changes in temperature.
(2) The enzymes in bacteria function best at
    40°C.
(3) The enzymes function best at the same
    temperature.
(4) The enzymes break down the same substances.
Answer: 1

39.
39 Farmland abandoned in 1899 was observed to
   have significant changes in plant species over a
   50-year period. The changes are shown in the
   chart below.
A forest fire burned all the trees on the land in
1955. Assuming no human interference, climate
changes, or natural disasters, the plant species
you would expect to see on this land in 2010
would most likely be
(1) grasses
(2) shrubs and briars
(3) birch and cherry trees
(4) beech and maple trees
Answer: 4

40.
40 A list of environmental issues is shown below.
   • Rabbits transported from Europe overrun and
     deplete farmlands in Australia.
   • Many areas in the southeastern United States
     are overgrown with the kudzu plant from Asia.
   • In parts of New York State, bluebirds must
     compete with starlings originally brought here
     from England.
   All of these issues are the result of
   (1) introduction of nonnative species into stable
       ecosystems
   (2) genetic engineering without using adequate
       safety precautions
   (3) preservation of habitats due to human
       population growth
   (4) use of foreign species to replace native
       predators
Answer: 1

41.
41 The diagram below represents a specimen in the low-power field of view of a compound light microscope.
If the slide is not moved, which view best represents the way the specimen will look when the high-power
objective lens is switched into place?

Answer: 1

42.
42 Two methods of moving from place to place are represented below. The single-celled ameba moves by
   a process that involves the flow of cytoplasm.
Which statement is best supported by these diagrams?
(1) Both simple and complex organisms move directly by the movement of cytoplasm.
(2) Single-celled organisms, like complex organisms, are able to move; however, they differ in the way they
    carry out this activity.
(3) Cytoplasm is a fluid substance in simple cells and a solid substance in cells of complex organisms.
(4) Cells in complex organisms function in the exact same way as cells in simple organisms.
Answer: 2

43.
Base your answer to question 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
43 What information would be appropriate to add to box X in order to complete the diagram?
   (1) cellular respiration by humans                      (3) oxygen
   (2) simple sugar                                        (4) burned by automobiles
Answer: 4


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
     Directions (44– 45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below,
following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. [1]
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
             Onondaga Lake is a small lake located near Syracuse, New York. Industrialized municipal
         wastes have been polluting the lake for decades. Eating fish from the lake has been banned
         due to mercury concentrations in the fish. The data table below indicates the mercury
         concentrations in smallmouth bass taken from Onondaga Lake. Smallmouth bass eat
         smaller fish, which feed on aquatic plants.
             At each feeding level in the food chain, more mercury accumulates. The older and
         larger the fish, the greater the concentration of mercury.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis.


45.
45 Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit if points are correctly plotted but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


46.
46 Explain how mercury dumped into the lake and taken up by plants reached the smallmouth bass
   population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — It was taken up by plants, which were eaten by small fish, which were then eaten by the
     bass.
   — Small fish that ate these aquatic plants were then eaten by smallmouth bass.


47.
47 Which statement could be a possible explanation for the drop in mercury concentration in the fish of
   Onondaga Lake between the years 2002 and 2003?
   (1) Between 2000 and 2005, a large number of fish were sampled.
   (2) The dumping of industrial waste was prohibited in 2004.
   (3) More young fish were tested in 2003, compared to the other years.
   (4) The industrial waste contained more mercury in 2004.
Answer: 3

48.
  Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Most animal fossils include hard body parts such as teeth and bones. Until recently,
        scientists had little hope that soft tissue could be preserved in the bones. A team of
        scientists has removed soft tissue containing a collagen protein from the leg bone of a
        68-million-year-old fossil from a dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus rex. The technique of mass
        spectrometry was used to identify the sequences of certain molecules in several small
        fragments of the dinosaur collagen protein.
            The molecular sequences were compared to those of modern animals. The scientist
        found that the collagen protein of the Tyrannosaurus rex more closely resembled the
        collagen protein found in modern chickens than that in some other modern animals.
48 State one kind of evidence that would support the conclusion that birds evolved from dinosaurs like
   Tyrannosaurus rex. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The collagen protein of Tyrannosaurus rex more closely resembles the collagen protein of
     chickens than other animals.
   — similar bone structures
   — Similar proteins were identified in both.


49.
49 When the scientists compared the molecular sequences in the collagen proteins of the Tyrannosaurus rex
   to those of modern animals, they were most likely seeking information about
   (1) patterns of behavior                                 (3) common ancestry
   (2) reproductive cycles                                  (4) changing environmental conditions
Answer: 3

50.
Base your answers to questions 50 through 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                   Found: A Plant-Eating Spider
          Spiders are meat-eaters. Until recently, scientists thought that was true for the roughly
      40,000 spider species in the world. Now, researchers have discovered a spider that eats
      mostly plants.
          Bagheera kiplingi, a jumping spider, lives in Central America and Mexico. It nests in the
      leaves of acacia shrubs. Scientists have long known that ants live in these plants. The ants
      eat the plants’ little yellow vegetables. But scientists had no idea that the spiders eat the
      vegetables too.
          Christopher Meehan was a college student when he found the plant nibbling spiders. “I
      thought I was hallucinating,” he told TFK (Time for Kids). “But by the end of the day, I had
      seen about 100 more spiders eating plants.”
                                                                     Source: Time for Kids World Report,
                                                                         Edition 10/23/09 Vol. 15, #7 p.3
50 Which row best characterizes Bagheera kiplingi and acacia shrubs?

Answer: 2

51.
51 Identify one abiotic factor that most likely affects the size of the acacia shrub population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — light
            — minerals/nutrients
            — water/rainfall
            — temperature


52.
52 Is competition likely to occur between the Bagheera kiplingi and ants living in acacia shrubs? Support your
   answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating if competition is likely to occur between the Bagheera kiplingi and ants
       living in acacia shrubs. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Yes, both ants and Bagheera kiplingi eat the yellow vegetables of acacia shrubs.
            — Yes, they both occupy similar niches.
            — Competition is likely because they eat the same food.
            — No, if the food supply is adequate.


53.
  Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
             Inherited instructions control the color patterns of snakes. Some snakes that are not
         poisonous have colors that resemble the patterns on poisonous snakes. Predators avoid
         eating harmless snakes that have color patterns similar to those of the poisonous snakes.
         The results of a recent study indicate that predators in areas that have only harmless snakes
         do not avoid attacking snakes that have color patterns similar to poisonous snakes.
53 Identify the structure that contains the inherited instructions that determine the different color patterns in
   these snakes. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — gene
            — chromosome
            — nucleus
            — DNA molecule


54.
54 State one advantage for a nonpoisonous snake having coloration similar to that of a poisonous snake. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Predators will avoid it.
            — Predators might mistake it for a poisonous snake and not eat it.


55.
55 State one reason why predators in some areas attack and eat harmless snakes, even though they have color
   patterns similar to those of poisonous snakes. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The predators have never experienced the negative effects of attacking/eating poisonous
              snakes.
            — There are no poisonous snakes in the area for them to learn about.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
56–59 Daphnia are freshwater organisms sometimes referred to as “water fleas.” Design an experiment that
      could be used to test the effects of temperature on the size of a daphnia population. In your
      experimental design, be sure to:
      • state a hypothesis to be tested [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating a hypothesis to be tested. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — As temperature increases, the daphnia population decreases.
            — Temperature has an effect on the size of a daphnia population.
            — If the temperature decreases, then the size of the daphnia population decreases.
         Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


57.
• describe how the control group will be treated differently from the experimental group [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing how the control group will be treated differently from the
       experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The control group will be at normal temperature for the species.
            — The control group will be at normal freshwater pond temperature, while the experimental
              groups will be at other temperatures.


58.
• identify the independent variable in the experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the independent variable in the experiment as temperature.


59.
• identify the type of data that will be collected [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the type of data that will be collected. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — change in the number of daphnia in the population
            — number of daphnia at each temperature
         Note: The type of data must be measurable.


60.
Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                    A Vaccine to Treat Addiction
          A vaccine for cocaine addiction has been developed. This vaccine temporarily blocks
      the effects of cocaine. The vaccine consists of a cocaine molecule attached to the surface of
      an inactive, harmless cholera protein.
          Since cocaine molecules alone are too small to stimulate the immune system to create
      antibodies, they are attached to the cholera protein. When people are injected with the
      vaccine, their bodies make antibodies against cholera. They also make antibodies against
      cocaine. When cocaine later enters the bloodstream, the antibodies bind to cocaine and
      prevent it from leaving the bloodstream, so it does not reach the brain. If the drug does not
      reach the brain, the user does not feel its effect. When antibodies were blocking the
      cocaine, people who took cocaine didn’t get an effect from it, so the drug lost its appeal.
      Later, an enzyme breaks down the cocaine and it is flushed out of the body.
          One problem revealed by the trial was that only 38 percent of vaccinated subjects
      developed high levels of antibodies against the drug. Additionally, the vaccine’s protection
      seems to last for only about two months. Users need to receive booster shots every few
      months for approximately two years to make a complete recovery from the addiction.
 60 Identify the two main substances contained in the vaccine. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — cocaine molecule and cholera protein
            — cocaine and harmless or inactive cholera protein


61.
61 Describe one effect the cocaine vaccine has on the immune system. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — stimulates the immune system to make antibodies to work against cocaine
            — causes it to make antibodies against cholera
            — stimulates antibody production


62.
62 How does this vaccine help to treat cocaine addiction? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — blocks the cocaine so the user does not feel its effects
            — The vaccine keeps the cocaine from reaching the brain.
            — prevents the cocaine from leaving the blood to get to the brain
            — causes the drug to lose its appeal


63.
Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           Mosquito Technologies of New York, Inc., has developed a Mosquito Killing System
      (MKS) to help control the mosquito population and reduce the transmission of West Nile
      Virus. The MKS works by taking advantage of the natural hunting strategies of mosquitoes,
      such as heat sensing and carbon dioxide detection. Beneficial insects do not use the same
      hunting strategies. The MKS unit produces heat and releases carbon dioxide in cycles,
      mimicking the breathing and body temperatures of humans, pets, and other warm-blooded
      animals. This attracts the mosquitoes to the device and, once inside, a vacuum pulls them
      in, where they pass through an electrocution grid, killing them. The mosquito remains are
      then returned to the environment through the bottom of the unit.
           The unit contains a solar-powered photocell that turns the device on at dusk and turns
      it off at dawn.
 63 State one positive effect the use of this MKS device has on the environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It doesn’t use or produce any harmful chemicals.
            — Mosquito remains are returned to the environment.
            — It does not harm beneficial insects.
            — It reduces the transmission of Wet Nile virus.


64.
64 A town wants to buy a number of MKS devices to solve their mosquito problem. One individual is
   concerned that this device could have a negative effect on insects that are beneficial to the
   environment. Based on the information given, is this a valid concern? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating whether or not this is a valid concern and supporting the answer.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — No. This is not a valid concern. The MKS device uses heat and carbon dioxide to attract
              only insects that prey on people and other warm-blooded animals.
            — No. Environmentally beneficial insects would not be attracted to the device.
            — Yes. Some beneficial insects might accidentally enter the device.
            — No. Beneficial insects use different hunting strategies.


65.
   Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology.
                                              Blood Doping
            Blood is a fluid tissue, which means that blood cells are suspended in a fluid called
        plasma. Blood tests are concerned with not only the number of blood cells present, but with
        the amount of plasma that surrounds the cells.
            The diagram below represents tubes containing blood samples from an athlete before
        and after blood doping. Blood doping is an illegal practice reportedly used by some athletes
        a few weeks before an athletic event, and involves removing whole blood from an athlete,
        separating the oxygen-carrying red blood cells (RBCs), and then freezing them. These
        RBCs are thawed and returned to the athlete’s body just before the athlete competes.
        Serious health risks are associated with this practice.
65 Explain why athletes who practice blood doping would be expected to perform better at an athletic
   event. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The practice increases the number of RBCs that would carry more oxygen to muscle cells.
            — Since muscle cells receive more oxygen for respiration, they would have more energy for
              the athletic event.
            — They would have more energy because they have extra oxygen.


66.
66 State one reason why the extra RBCs represented in sample 2 could be dangerous to the health of
   an athlete. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — RBCs are suspended in a fluid. There needs to be enough fluid surrounding these cells so
              they flow freely in blood vessels, rather than clump or bunch together.
            — Homeostasis could be disrupted.
            — The circulatory system might not function well with “thick” blood.
            — The heart might have trouble pumping the thicker blood.
            — not enough plasma


67.
67 More middleand long-distance runners have tested positive for blood doping than short-distance
   runners, such as sprinters. State one reason why athletes participating in certain events might be more
   likely to practice blood doping than others. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Short distance runners don’t run as long.
            — Some athletic events require oxygen for increased respiration for a longer time. Extra RBCs
              would provide an advantage.
            — Long-distance runners need increased oxygen for a longer time than sprinters.


68.
Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          A woman wanted to remove the dandelion plants from her lawn. She went to the store
      and bought an herbicide spray that was supposed to kill the dandelions. She sprayed it on
      her lawn according to the directions. Within two weeks, almost all of the dandelions had
      died; however, a few dandelions remained.
 68 Explain how some dandelions were able to survive the spraying of the herbicide. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Some plants had a gene that made them resistant to the herbicide.
            — Some plants were resistant.
            — Some did not get enough spray to kill them.
            — Some had a mutation that caused them to be resistant.


69.
69 Explain why this herbicide might not be effective for controlling future generations of dandelions in
   this lawn. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The resistant plants could pass on the resistance to their offspring.
            — The gene for resistance could be inherited by the next generation.
            — Only resistant plants remain to reproduce.


70.
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                        Types of Predators
          When large predators, such as lions or wolves, are removed from a food web, smaller
      “mesopredators” step in to take their places, and the results may be severe. Mesopredators
      are usually smaller and more numerous than the larger “apex” predators that they replace.
      Some are also omnivores, eating plant and animal food sources, rather than eating the
      meat-only diet of the largest predators. Examples of mesopredators include coyotes,
      raccoons, and skunks.
          In 1874, General George Custer noted that there was an abundance of wolves, but few
      coyotes, in South Dakota. Today, there is an abundance of coyotes, but no wolves. The
      wolves were removed to protect domestic sheep, but now the coyotes are often responsible
      for attacking sheep and other animals. The cost of controlling mesopredators by human
      intervention can be very high, as mesopredators are very numerous and quickly “bounce
      back” after control efforts. Meanwhile, the number of apex predators that are endangered
      continues to increase.
 70 Describe how the wolf population is controlled naturally in the environment without human
    intervention. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The population is controlled by the amount of food available.
            — The population is controlled when too many small animals are eaten and there is a reduced
              amount of food for the wolves.
            — The population is limited by the carrying capacity of the environment.
            — Some die from disease/lack of food.
            — Severe winter may kill some of the wolves.


71.
71 State how the mesopredator population was most likely controlled before the wolves were removed
   from the food web. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The wolves ate the mesopredators.
            — The “apex” or top predator was at the top of the food pyramid and fed on the levels below.
            — competition for food


72.
72 If apex predators are so valuable to the ecological balance, state one possible reason why wolves were
   removed from the food web. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Ranchers were concerned that the wolves would eat the sheep.
            — People were afraid that wolves would attack people as well as livestock.
            — People didn’t understand their importance.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
73 A laboratory setup that can be used to provide information about relationships between four plant species
   is represented below.
This setup is part of the technique known as
(1) electrophoresis                            (3) dissection
(2) biological staining                        (4) chromatography
Answer: 4

74.
74 When people exercise, their body cells build up more waste quickly. Which two body systems work
   together to remove these wastes from their cells?
   (1) immune and endocrine                             (3) respiratory and circulatory
   (2) digestive and skeletal                           (4) circulatory and digestive
Answer: 3

75.
75 Red onion cells undergo the change represented in the diagram below.
This change is most likely caused by the cell being transferred from
(1) distilled water to starch indicator                    (3) salt water to tap water
(2) distilled water to salt water                          (4) salt water to distilled water
Answer: 2

76.
76 Which chemicals are used to cut DNA into fragments for a gel electrophoresis procedure?
   (1) enzymes                                            (3) hormones
   (2) molecular bases                                    (4) ATP molecules
Answer: 1

77.
77 The diagram below represents a laboratory setup used to demonstrate the movement of molecules across
   a selectively permeable membrane.
In the diagram below, draw the 5 starch and the 12 glucose molecules to show where they would most
likely be located after 15 minutes. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a response showing the five starch molecules only on the left side and glucose
    molecules distributed on both sides.
Note: The number of glucose molecules on each side does not have to be equal.


78.
   Base your answers to question 78–79 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your
knowledge of biology.
78–79 • In the table below, record the mRNA codons coded for by the DNA base sequences. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for recording the mRNA codons coded for by the DNA base sequences in the table.


79.
• Then, using the Universal Genetic Code Chart, record the amino acid sequence that is coded for by
  the mRNA codons you placed in the table. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for recording the amino acid sequence that is coded for by the mRNA codons in the
table.
Note: Allow credit for an amino acid sequence consistent with the student’s mRNA codons.


80.
80 A student hypothesized that drinking tea would cause an increase in pulse rate. He measured his pulse
   20 minutes after drinking a glass of tea. It was 86 beats per minute. State one error in the experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There is no control.
   — He did not determine his pulse rate before drinking the tea.
   — He should have measured his pulse more than one time.


81.
81 The diagram of the island suggests that in region B finches can feed on
   (1) large seeds and insects                               (3) a large variety of different-sized seeds
   (2) small seeds, only                                     (4) insects and a limited number of small seeds
Base your answers to questions 81 through 84 on the diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagrams represent the variations in the beaks of finches in the Galapagos Islands and the relative abundance of
food sources on a certain island.

Answer: 4

82.
82 Which histogram displays the relative abundance of small seeds in regions A, B, C, and D?

Answer: 1

83.
83 Explain why researchers would most likely observe the large ground finch in regions A and D on the island
   and not in regions B and C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Large ground finches prefer large seeds.
            — Regions B and C lack the preferred food source of large ground finches, which is large
              seeds.
            — Large ground finches have large edge-crushing bills, which are best for eating the large
              seeds found only in regions A and D.


84.
84 A bird count was done on the island and the small tree finch was found in all regions. State one possible
   reason why the small tree finch is able to inhabit the entire island. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The small tree finch eats mainly animal food (insects), and insects are found in all four
              regions on the island.
            — Insects are found in all regions.


85.
85 Several days after a litter of three purebred puppies was born, a breeder noticed one extra puppy in the
   litter. The diagram below shows the results of electrophoresis of DNA fragments from all of the dogs. The
   puppies are labeled 1, 2, 5, and 6. The parent dogs are labeled 3 and 4.
Identify which puppy might have been placed into this litter by mistake. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 2 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It has no bands from either parent.
            — All of the puppies have bands from each parent, except for puppy 2.
            — It has bands not found in either parent dog.



  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents January 2015


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