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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2005 Exam

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Part A
Answer all 30 questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. Researchers performing a well-designed experiment should base their conclusions on
(1) the hypothesis of the experiment
(2) data from repeated trials of the experiment
(3) a small sample size to insure a reliable outcome of the experiment
(4) results predicted before performing the experiment
2

2. In plants, simple sugars are least likely to be
(1) linked together to form proteins
(2) broken down into carbon dioxide and water
(3) used as a source of energy
(4) stored in the form of starch molecules
1

3. Which structures in diagram I and diagram II carry out a similar life function?

(1) 1 and C
(2) 2 and D
(3) 3 and A
(4) 4 and B
4


4. Plants inherit genes that enable them to produce chlorophyll, but this pigment is not produced unless the plants are exposed to light. This is an example of how the environment can
(1) cause mutations to occur
(2) influence the expression of a genetic trait
(3) result in the appearance of a new species
(4) affect one plant species, but not another
2

5. Synthesis of a detective protein may result from an alteration in
(1) vacuole shape
(2) the number of mitochondria
(3) a base sequence code
(4) cellular fat concentration
3

6. One variety of strawberry is resistant to a damaging fungus, but produces small fruit. Another strawberry variety produces large fruit, but is not resistant to the same fungus. The two desirable qualities may be combined in a new variety of strawberry plant by
(1) cloning
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) direct harvesting
(4) selective breeding
4

7. The largest amount of DNA in a plant cell is contained in
(1) a nucleus
(2) a chromosome
(3) a protein molecule
(4) an enzyme molecule
1

8. A product of genetic engineering technology is represented below.

Which substance was needed to join the insulin gene to the bacterial DNA as shown?
(1) a specific carbohydrate
(2) a specific enzyme
(3) hormones
(4) antibodies
2

9. Which factor could be the cause of the other three in an animal species?
(1) the inability of the species to adapt to changes
(2) a lack of genetic variability in the species
(3) extinction of the species
(4) a decrease in the survival rate of the species
2

10. Natural selection and its evolutionary consequences provide a scientific explanation for each of the following except
(1) the fossil record
(2) protein and DNA similarities between different organisms
(3) similar structures among different organisms
(4) a stable physical environment
4

11. Which factor contributed most to the extinction of many species?
(1) changes in the environment
(2) lethal mutations
(3) inability to evolve into simple organisms
(4) changes in migration patterns
1

12. Meiosis and fertilization are important for the survival of many species because these two processes result in
(1) large numbers of gametes
(2) increasingly complex multicellular organisms
(3) cloning of superior offspring
(4) genetic variability of offspring
4

13. Reproduction in humans usually requires
(1) the process of cloning
(2) mitotic cell division of gametes
(3) gametes with chromosomes that are not paired
(4) the external fertilization of sex cells
3

14. The human reproductive system is regulated by
(1) restriction enzymes
(2) antigens
(3) complex carbohydrates
(4) hormones
4

15. The organism represented below is multicellular, heterotrophic, and completely aquatic.

Which other characteristics could be used to describe this organism?
(1) carries out photosynthesis and needs oxygen
(2) deposits cellular wastes on land and decomposes dead organisms
(3) reproduces asexually and is a consumer
(4) reproduces in a water habitat and is a producer
3

16. Which statement describes asexual reproduction?
(1) Adaptive traits are usually passed from parent to offspring without genetic modification.
(2) Mutations are not passed from generation to generation.
(3) It always enables organisms to survive in changing environmental conditions.
(4) It is responsible for many new variations in offspring.
1

17. Which group contains only molecules that are each assembled from smaller organic compounds?
(1) proteins, water, DNA, fats
(2) proteins, starch, carbon dioxide, water
(3) proteins, DNA, fats, starch
(4) proteins, carbon dioxide, DNA, starch
3

18. Most mammals have adaptations for
(1) internal fertilization and internal development of the fetus
(2) internal fertilization and external development of the fetus
(3) external fertilization and external development of the fetus
(4) external fertilization and internal development of the fetus
1

19. Which process provides the initial energy to support all the levels in the energy pyramid shown below?


(1) circulation
(2) photosynthesis
(3) active transport
(4) digestion
2

20. The diagram below represents a series of reactions that can occur in an organism.

This diagram best illustrates the relationship between
(1) enzymes and synthesis
(2) amino acids and glucose
(3) antigens and immunity
(4) ribosomes and sugars
1

21. The interaction between guard cells and a leaf opening would not be involved in
(1) diffusion of carbon dioxide
(2) maintaining homeostasis
(3) heterotrophic nutrition
(4) feedback mechanisms
3

22. The green aquatic plant represented in the diagram below was exposed to light for several hours.

Which gas would most likely be found in the greatest amount in the bubbles?
(1) oxygen
(2) nitrogen
(3) ozone
(4) carbon dioxide
1

23. The production of energy-rich ATP molecules is the direct result of
(1) recycling light energy to be used in the process of photosynthesis
(2) releasing the stored energy of organic compounds by the process of respiration
(3) breaking down starch by the process of digestion
(4) copying coded information during the process of protein synthesis
2

24. Water from nearby rivers or lakes is usually used to cool down the reactors in nuclear power plants. The release of this heated water back into the river or lake would most likely result in
(1) an increase in the sewage content in the water
(2) a change in the biodiversity in the water
(3) a change in the number of mutations in plants growing near the water
(4) a decrease in the amount of sunlight necessary for photosynthesis in the water
2

25. Which statement best describes the fruit fly population in the part of the curve labeled X in the graph shown below?

(1) The fruit fly population has reached the number of organisms the habitat can support.
(2) The fruit fly population can no longer mate and produce fertile offspring.
(3) The fruit fly population has an average life span of 36 days.
(4) The fruit fly population is no longer able to adapt to the changing environmental conditions.
1

26. Lichens and mosses are the first organisms to grow in an area. Over time, grasses and shrubs will grow where these organisms have been. The grasses and shrubs are able to grow in the area because the lichens and mosses
(1) synthesize food needed by producers in the area
(2) are at the beginning of every food chain in a community
(3) make the environment suitable for complex plants
(4) provide the enzymes needed for plant growth
3

27. The negative effect humans have on the stability of the environment is most directly linked to an increase in
(1) recycling activities by humans
(2) supply of finite resources
(3) predation and disease
(4) human population size
4

28. The ecological niches of three bird species are shown in the diagram below.

What is the advantage of each bird species having a different niche?
(1) As the birds feed higher in the tree, available energy increases.
(2) More abiotic resources are available for each bird.
(3) Predators are less likely to feed on birds in a variety of locations.
(4) There is less competition for food.
4

29. Which diagram best illustrates the relationship between humans(H) and ecosystems(E)?

2

30. The diagram below represents processes involved in human reproduction.


2



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part. [8]

Directions (31-38): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31. An experimental setup is shown below.


Which hypothesis would most likely be tested using this setup?
(1) Light is needed for the process of reproduction.
(2) Glucose is not synthesized by plants in the dark.
(3) Protein synthesis takes place in leaves.
(4) Plants need fertilizers for proper growth.
2

32. An investigation was carried out and the results are shown below. Substance X resulted from a metabolic process that produces ATP in yeast (a single-celled fungus).

Which statement best describes substance X?
(1) It is oxygen released by protein synthesis.
(2) It is glucose that was produced in photosynthesis.
(3) It is starch that was produced during digestion.
(4) It is carbon dioxide released by respiration.
4

33. A process that occurs in the human body is represented in the diagram below.


Which statement is most closely associated with the diagram?
(1) Small molecules are obtained from large molecules during digestion.
(2) Certain molecules are replicated by means of a template.
(3) Receptor molecules play an important role in communication between cells.
(4) Energy from nutrients is utilized for waste disposal.
3

34. Which information concerning a desert is provided by the quotation below?
“The desert is arid, with less than 25 cm of rain per year. The plants are spaced far apart, or are grouped around water sources. Most of the animals are active at night.”
(1) daily temperature range and types of autotrophs
(2) time of rainy season and type of food used by heterotrophs
(3) identity of a limiting factor and behavior of heterotrophs
(4) type of nutrition in animals and distribution of autotrophs
3

35. A sperm cell from an organism is represented in the diagram below.

Which statement regarding this sperm cell is not correct?
(1) The acrosome contains half the normal number of chromosomes.
(2) Energy to move the flagellum originates in the middle piece.
(3) The head may contain a mutation.
(4) This cell can unite with another cell resulting in the production of a new organism.
1

36. Which statement describes the ecosystem represented in the diagram below?

(1) This ecosystem would be the first stage in ecological succession.
(2) This ecosystem would most likely lack decomposers.
(3) All of the organisms in this ecosystem are producers.
(4) All of the organisms in this ecosystem depend on the activities of biological catalysts.
4

37. According to the diagram below, which three species lived on Earth during the same time period?


(1) robustus, africanus, afarensis
(2) habilis, erectus, afarensis
(3) habilis, robustus, boisei
(4) africanus, boisei, erectus
3

38. The diagram below illustrates the process of cell division. What is the significance of anaphase in this process?

(1) Anaphase usually ensures that each daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell.
(2) Anaphase usually ensures that each daughter cell has twice as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
(3) In anaphase, the cell splits in half.
(4) In anaphase, the DNA is being replicated.
1



Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [17]

Directions (39-55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question.

39. Sexually produced offspring often resemble, but are not identical to, either of their parents. Explain why they resemble their parents but are not identical to either parent. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why sexually produced offspring resemble, but are not identical to, either parent. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Offspring receive only half their genes (or DNA or chromosomes or genetic information) from each parent.
— They receive some genes from each parent.


40. The types of human cells shown below are different from one another, even though they all originated from the same fertilized egg and contain the same genetic information.

Explain why these genetically identical cells can differ in structure and function. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why these genetically identical cells can differ in structure and function. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Different parts of genetic information are used in different cells.
— Different cells are influenced by their environments in the body.


41. Oak trees in the northeastern United States have survived for hundreds of years, in spite of attacks by native insects. Recently, the gypsy moth, which has a caterpillar stage that eats leaves, was imported from Europe. The gypsy moth now has become quite common in New England ecosystems. As a result, many oak trees are being damaged more seriously than ever before.
State one biological reason that this imported insect is a more serious problem for the trees than other insects that have been present in the area for hundreds of years. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one biological reason that this imported insect is a more serious problem for the trees than other insects that have been present in the area for hundreds of years. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The gypsy moth has no natural enemies in this area.
— The insect probably has no natural enemies in its new environment, allowing it to overpopulate and become a greater pest than it predators had kept its numbers in check.
— Oak trees have adapted to the pests that have been in their environment for a long time, but have not yet adapted to this new pest organism.


42. Certain insects are kept under control by sterilizing the males with x rays so that sperm production stops. Explain how this technique reduces the survival of this insect species. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how sterilizing male insects with x rays reduces the survival of this insect species. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— If sperm production stops, then eggs cannot be fertilized.
— It reduces genetic variation by limiting the number of males that can produce offspring.
— Without reproduction no species can survive.



Base your answers to questions 43 through 45 on the information and table below and on your knowledge of biology.

The variety of organisms known as plankton contributes to the unique nutritional relationships in an ocean ecosystem. Phytoplankton include algae and other floating organisms that perform photosynthesis. Plankton that cannot produce food are known as zooplankton. Some nutritional relationships involving these organisms and several others are shown in the table below.

43. Humans are currently overfishing codfish in the North Atlantic. Explain why this could endanger both the shark population and the squid population in this community. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why overfishing codfish in the North Atlantic could endanger both the shark population and the squid population in this community. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Both of these animals depend on codfish as a source of food.


44. According to the table, which organism can be classified as both an herbivore and a carnivore? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for small fish.


45.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW



Base your answers to questions 46 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

The effect of temperature on the action of pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme present in stomach fluid, was tested. In this investigation, 20 milliliters of stomach fluid and 10 grams of protein were placed in each of five test tubes. The tubes were then kept at different temperatures. After 24 hours, the contents of each tube were tested to determine the amount of protein that had been digested. The results are shown in the table below.

46. The dependent variable in this investigation is the
(1) size of the test tube
(2) time of digestion
(3) amount of stomach fluid
(4) amount of protein digested
4


Directions (47-48): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below, following the directions below.

The effect of temperature on the action of pepsin, a protein-digesting enzyme present in stomach fluid, was tested. In this investigation, 20 milliliters of stomach fluid and 10 grams of protein were placed in each of five test tubes. The tubes were then kept at different temperatures. After 24 hours, the contents of each tube were tested to determine the amount of protein that had been digested. The results are shown in the table below.

47. Mark an appropriate scale on each axis.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each axis.
Note: Make no assumption about the origin unless it is labeled.


48.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data correctly (based on the student’s scaled axes), surrounding each point with a small circle and connecting the points. Allow credit even if the points are not circled.


49. If a sixth test tube identical to the other tubes was kept at a temperature of 30°C for 24 hours, the amount of protein digested would most likely be
(1) less than 1.0 gram
(2) between 1.0 and 4.0 grams
(3) between 4.0 and 9.0 grams
(4) more than 9.0 grams
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
3


50. This investigation was repeated using 10 grams of starch instead of protein in each test tube. The contents of each tube were tested to determine the amount of starch that had been digested. The test results showed that no starch digestion occurred. Explain why no starch was digested. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why no starch was digested. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The enzyme in stomach fluid will not digest starch.
— The enzyme in stomach fluid is specific for protein digestion.



Base your answers to questions 51 through 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

Research indicates that many plants prevent the growth of other plants in their habitat by releasing natural herbicides (chemicals that kill plants). These substances are known as allelochemicals and include substances such as quinine, caffeine, and digitalis. Experiments have confirmed that chemicals in the bark and roots of black walnut trees are toxic, and when released into the soil they limit the growth of crop plants such as tomatoes, potatoes, and apples. Allelochemicals can alter growth and enzyme action, injure the outer cover of a seed so the seed dies, or stimulate seed growth at inappropriate times of the year. Studies on allelochemical effects help explain the observation that almost nothing grows under a black walnut tree even though light and moisture levels are adequate for growth.
51. Which phrase best predicts the relative numbers of different plant species in regions A, B, and C in the diagram shown below?

(1) greater in C than B
(2) greater in A than C
(3) greater in A than B
(4) greater in B than C
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1


52. The release of allelochemicals into the soil under a black walnut tree will result in
(1) a decrease in biodiversity and a competitive advantage for the tree
(2) an increase in biodiversity and a competitive advantage for the tree
(3) a decrease in biodiversity and a competitive disadvantage for the tree
(4) an increase in biodiversity and a competitive disadvantage for the tree
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1


53. A set of axes is shown below.

When using this set of axes to show the effect of black walnut allelochemicals on the number of plants, which labels would be appropriate for axis X and axis Y?
(1) X — Number of Plants
Y — Distance from Walnut Tree Trunk (meters)
(2) X — Distance from Walnut Tree Trunk (meters)
Y — Number of Plants
(3) X — Number of Plants
Y — Time (days)
(4) X — Time (days)
Y — Number of Plants
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
2


54. Explain why stimulation of seed growth by allelochemicals at inappropriate times of the year is considered a disadvantage. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why stimulation of seed growth by allelochemicals at inappropriate times of the year is considered a disadvantage. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— If seed germination is stimulated in the fall season for seeds that normally germinate in the spring, the growing season will not be long enough for the plants to mature.
— If the seed grows at the wrong time, growing conditions may not be right.


55. State one possible use of allelochemicals in agriculture. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one possible use of allelochemicals in agriculture. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Allelochemicals may be used as a new method to control weeds.
— Allelochemicals can stimulate seed germination.




Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [17]
56. Many people become infected with the chicken pox virus during childhood. After recovering from chicken pox, these people are usually immune to the disease for the rest of their lives. However, they may still be infected by viruses that cause other diseases, such as measles. Discuss the immune response to the chicken pox virus. In your answer, be sure to include:
• the role of antigens in the immune response [1]
• the role of white blood cells in the body’s response to the virus [1]
• an explanation of why recovery from an infection with the chicken pox virus will not protect a person from getting a different disease, such as measles [1]
• an explanation of why a chicken pox vaccination usually does not cause a person to become ill with chicken pox [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for discussing the immune response to the chicken pox virus, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating the role of antigens in the immune response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Antigens stimulate the immune response.
— Antigens on the chicken pox virus are recognized by the person’s immune system and it responds by producing antibodies.
• Allow 1 credit for stating the role of white blood cells in the body’s response to the virus. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— White blood cells attack and destroy the virus.
— White blood cells are able to recognize foreign antigens.
— White blood cells make antibodies against the virus.
• Allow 1 credit for explaining why recovery from an infection with the chicken pox virus will not protect a person from getting a different disease, such as measles. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— These antibodies are specific for the chicken pox virus.
— The antibodies the body makes against the chicken pox antigens (or virus) have specific shapes that work only against the antigens on the chicken pox virus, not the measles virus, because their antigens are shaped differently.
• Allow 1 credit for explaining why a chicken pox vaccination usually does not cause a person to become ill with chicken pox. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A vaccine contains weakened virus.
— A vaccine usually consists of a dead or weakened form of the disease organism that stimulates the production of antibodies without causing the disease.


57. The diagram below illustrates the result of growing a garlic bulb in a cup of distilled water over five days.
Design an experiment consisting of a control and three different experimental groups to test the prediction, “Garlic grows better as the salt concentration of the solution in which it is grown increases.” In your answer, be sure to:
• describe the control to be used in the experiment [1]
• describe the difference between the three experimental groups [1]
• state one type of measurement that should be made to determine if the prediction is accurate [1]
• describe one example of experimental results that would support the prediction [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for designing an experiment to test the prediction “Garlic grows better as the salt concentration of the solution in which it is grown increases,” allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for describing the control as a garlic bulb grown in (distilled) water.
• Allow 1 credit for describing the difference between the three experimental groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Each experimental group would have a different concentration of salt solution.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one type of measurement that should be made to determine if the prediction is accurate. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— the length of the leaf in each group
— the length of the roots in each group
— the number of roots in each group
• Allow 1 credit for describing one example of experimental results that would support the prediction. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— There is an increase in the length of the leaves as the salt concentration increases.
— There is an increase in the length of the roots as the salt concentration increases.
— More salt results in more roots.


58. For over 100 years scientists have monitored the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere in relation to changes in the atmospheric temperature. The graphs below show the data collected for these two factors.
Discuss the overall relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and changes in atmospheric temperature and the effect of these factors on ecosystems. Your answer must include:
• a statement identifying the overall relationship between the concentration of carbon dioxide and changes in atmospheric temperature [1]
one way in which humans have contributed to the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide [1]
one specific negative effect the continued rise in temperature would be likely to have on an ecosystem [1]
one example of how humans are trying to reduce the problem of global warming [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits for discussing the overall relationship between carbon dioxide concentration and changes in atmospheric temperature and the effect of these factors on ecosystems, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for indicating that as CO2 increases, the atmospheric temperature increases.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one way in which humans have contributed to the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— deforestation
— combustion
— increasing human population
Note: Do not allow credit for pollution unless a specific source of pollution is mentioned.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one specific negative effect the continued rise in temperature would be likely to have on an ecosystem. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Increased ocean temperatures will destroy fish.
— Polar ice could melt and flood land.
— may cause extinction of organisms
— may cause change in population numbers
• Allow 1 credit for stating one example of how humans are trying to reduce the problem of global warming. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— plant more trees
— reduce the use of fossi1 fuels
— use alternative energy sources
— carpool
— recycling



Base your answers to questions 59 through 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

A student uses a covered aquarium to study the interactions of biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem. The aquarium contains sand, various water plants, algae, small fish, snails, and decomposers. The water contains dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide, as well as tiny amounts of minerals and salts.
59. Explain how oxygen is cycled between organisms in this ecosystem. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each part of the cycle explaining how oxygen is cycled between organisms in this ecosystem. Acceptable 2-credit responses include, but are not limited to:
— It is given off by plants and used by animals (plants and/or decomposers).
— Oxygen is given off as a result of photosynthesis and used for respiration.


60. Describe one specific way the fish population changes the amount of one specific abiotic factor (other than oxygen) in this ecosystem. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing one specific way the fish population changes the amount of one specific abiotic factor (other than oxygen) in this ecosystem. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Fish release CO2.
— Fish release nitrogenous waste products.


61. Identify one source of food for the decomposers in this ecosystem. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one source of food for the decomposers in this ecosystem. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— dead animals(plants)
— wastes of the organisms


62. Describe one specific way the use of this food by the decomposers benefits the other organisms in the aquarium. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing one specific way the use of this food by the decomposers would benefit the other organisms in the aquarium. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Decomposers return basic materials such as nitrates and carbon dioxide to the ecosystem for reuse by other organisms.
— Decomposers recycle nutrients.




Part D
Answer all questions in this part. [13]

Directions (63-75): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question.

Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Letters A through L represent different species of organisms. The arrows represent long periods of geologic time.


63. Which two species are the most closely related?
(1) J and L
(2) G and L
(3) F and H
(4) F and G
4

64. Which species was best adapted to changes that occurred in its environment over the longest period of time?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) J
2

65. Which two species would most likely show the greatest similarity of DNA and proteins?
(1) B and J
(2) G and I
(3) J and K
(4) F and L
1


66. When a person exercises, changes occur in muscle cells as they release more energy. Explain how increased blood flow helps these muscle cells release more energy. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how increased blood How helps muscle cells release more energy. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— supplies additional oxygen
— supplies additional nutrients
— eliminates wastes faster


67. State one factor that influences which molecules can pass through the cell membrane of human cell. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one factor that influences which molecules can pass through the cell membrane of a human cell. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— molecule size
— concentration of molecules
— pore size
— carrier proteins
— molecule charge/shape


68. An indicator for a protein is added to a solution that contains protein and to a solution that does not contain protein. State one way, other than the presence or absence of protein, that the two solutions may differ after the indicator has been added to both. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way, other than the presence or absence of protein, that the two solutions may differ after the indicator has been added to both. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The two solutions may be different colors after the indicator is added.
— One solution will produce a visible reaction; the other will not.



Base your answers to questions 69 through 72 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

The four wells represented in the diagram were each injected with fragments that were prepared from DNA samples using identical techniques.

69. This laboratory procedure is known as
(1) cloning
(2) gel electrophoresis
(3) chromatography
(4) use of a dichotomous key
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
2


70. The arrow represents the direction of the movement of the DNA fragments. What is responsible for the movement of the DNA in this process? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating what is responsible for the movement of the DNA fragments. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— electric current
— attraction of negative fragments to positive pole
— charges on the DNA


71. The four samples of DNA were taken from four different individuals. Explain how this is evident from the results shown in the diagram. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how it is evident from the results shown in the diagram that the samples were taken from four different individuals. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The bands are in different positions in each column.
— different banding patterns
— different number of bands


72. Identify the substance that was used to treat the DNA to produce the fragments that were put into the wells. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the substance as enzymes or restriction enzymes or enzymes that cut DNA.



73. A student prepared a wet-mount slide of some red onion cells and then added some salt water to the slide. The student observed the slide using a compound light microscope. Diagram A is typical of what the student observed after adding salt water. Complete diagram B to show how the contents of the red onion cells should appear it the cell were then rinsed with distilled water for several minutes. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for showing a shaded area that is larger than the shaded area in diagram A.


74. In members of a bird species living on a remote island, the greatest number of beak variations in the population would most likely be found when
(1) there is a high level of competition for limited resources
(2) homeostasis is limited by a severe climate
(3) they have a large and varied food supply
(4) they are prey for a large number of predators
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
3


75. The different tools used during the beaks of finches lab represented
(1) feeding adaptations in finches
(2) nest construction adaptations
(3) variations in seed size
(4) variations in ecosystems
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
1



  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents June 2005 Exam


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