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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2008 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part. [35]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The chart below contains both autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms.

Organisms that carry out only heterotrophic nutrition are found in
(1) row A, only
(2) row B, only
(3) rows A and B
(4) rows A and C
Answer: 1

2. A stable pond ecosystem would not contain
(1) materials being cycled
(2) oxygen
(3) decomposers
(4) more consumers than producers
Answer: 4

3. Although all of the cells of a human develop from one fertilized egg, the human is born with many different types of cells. Which statement best explains this observation?
(1) Developing cells may express different parts of their identical genetic instructions.
(2) Mutations occur during development as a result of environmental conditions.
(3) All cells have different genetic material.
(4) Some cells develop before other cells.
Answer: 1


4. Humans require organ systems to carry out life processes. Single-celled organisms do not have organ systems and yet they are able to carry out life processes. This is because
(1) human organ systems lack the organelles found in single-celled organisms
(2) a human cell is more efficient than the cell of a single-celled organism
(3) it is not necessary for single-celled organisms to maintain homeostasis
(4) organelles present in single-celled organisms act in a manner similar to organ systems
Answer: 4

5. Certain poisons are toxic to organisms because they interfere with the function of enzymes in mitochondria. This results directly in the inability of the cell to
(1) store information
(2) build proteins
(3) release energy from nutrients
(4) dispose of metabolic wastes
Answer: 3

6. At warm temperatures, a certain bread mold can often be seen growing on bread as a dark-colored mass. The same bread mold growing on bread in a cooler environment is red in color. Which statement most accurately describes why this change in the color of the bread mold occurs?
(1) Gene expression can be modified by interactions with the environment.
(2) Every organism has a different set of coded instructions.
(3) The DNA was altered in response to an environmental condition.
(4) There is no replication of genetic material in the cooler environment.
Answer: 1

7. Asexually reproducing organisms pass on hereditary information as
(1) sequences of A, T, C, and G
(2) chains of complex amino acids
(3) folded protein molecules
(4) simple inorganic sugars
Answer: 1

8. Species of bacteria can evolve more quickly than species of mammals because bacteria have
(1) less competition
(2) more chromosomes
(3) lower mutation rates
(4) higher rates of reproduction
Answer: 4

9. The diagram below represents the synthesis of a portion of a complex molecule in an organism.

Which row in the chart could be used to identify the building blocks and product in the diagram?

Answer: 2

10. Which diagram best represents the relative locations of the structures in the list below?
A-chromosome
B-nucleus
C-cell
D-gene

Answer: 2

11. Which nuclear process is represented below?

(1) recombination
(2) fertilization
(3) replication
(4) mutation
Answer: 3

12. For centuries, certain animals have been crossed to produce offspring that have desirable qualities. Dogs have been mated to produce Labradors, beagles, and poodles. All of these dogs look and behave very differently from one another. This technique of producing organisms with specific qualities is known as
(1) gene replication
(2) natural selection
(3) random mutation
(4) selective breeding
Answer: 4

13. Certain insects resemble the bark of the trees on which they live. Which statement provides a possible biological explanation for this resemblance?
(1) The insects needed camouflage so they developed protective coloration.
(2) Natural selection played a role in the development of this protective coloration.
(3) The lack of mutations resulted in the protective coloration.
(4) The trees caused mutations in the insects that resulted in protective coloration.
Answer: 2

14. When is extinction of a species most likely to occur?
(1) when environmental conditions remain the same and the proportion of individuals within the species that lack adaptive traits increases
(2) when environmental conditions remain the same and the proportion of individuals within the species that possess adaptive traits increases
(3) when environmental conditions change and the adaptive traits of the species favor the survival and reproduction of some of its members
(4) when environmental conditions change and the members of the species lack adaptive traits to survive and reproduce
Answer: 4

15. In what way are photosynthesis and cellular respiration similar?
(1) They both occur in chloroplasts.
(2) They both require sunlight.
(3) They both involve organic and inorganic molecules.
(4) They both require oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.
Answer: 3

16. Which process will increase variations that could be inherited?
(1) mitotic cell division
(2) active transport
(3) recombination of genes
(4) synthesis of proteins
Answer: 3

17. Some cells involved in the process of reproduction are represented in the diagram below.
The process of meiosis formed
(1) cell 1, only
(2) cells 1 and 2
(3) cell 3, only
(4) cells 2 and 3
Answer: 2

18. Kangaroos are mammals that lack a placenta. Therefore, they must have an alternate way of supplying the developing embryo with
(1) nutrients
(2) carbon dioxide
(3) enzymes
(4) genetic information
Answer: 1

19. Which substance is the most direct source of the energy that an animal cell uses for the synthesis of materials?
(1) ATP
(2) glucose
(3) DNA
(4) starch
Answer: 1

20. To increase chances for a successful organ transplant, the person receiving the organ should be given special medications. The purpose of these medications is to
(1) increase the immune response in the person receiving the transplant
(2) decrease the immune response in the person receiving the transplant
(3) decrease mutations in the person receiving the transplant
(4) increase mutations in the person receiving the transplant
Answer: 2

21. The diagram below represents the cloning of a carrot plant.
Compared to each cell of the original carrot plant, each cell of the new plant will have
(1) the same number of chromosomes and the same types of genes
(2) the same number of chromosomes, but different types of genes
(3) half the number of chromosomes and the same types of genes
(4) half the number of chromosomes, but different types of genes
Answer: 1

22. The development of an embryo is represented in the diagram below.


These changes in the form of the embryo are a direct result of
(1) uncontrolled cell division and mutations
(2) differentiation and growth
(3) antibodies and antigens inherited from the father
(4) meiosis and fertilization
Answer: 2

23. The diagram below represents an event that occurs in the blood.


Which statement best describes this event?
(1) Cell A is a white blood cell releasing antigens to destroy bacteria.
(2) Cell A is a cancer cell produced by the immune system and it is helping to prevent disease.
(3) Cell A is a white blood cell engulfing disease-causing organisms.
(4) Cell A is protecting bacteria so they can reproduce without being destroyed by predators.
Answer: 3

24. In an ecosystem, the growth and survival of organisms are dependent on the availability of the energy from the Sun. This energy is available to organisms in the ecosystem because
(1) producers have the ability to store energy from light in organic molecules
(2) consumers have the ability to transfer chemical energy stored in bonds to plants
(3) all organisms in a food web have the ability to use light energy
(4) all organisms in a food web feed on autotrophs
Answer: 1

25. Which factor has the greatest influence on the type of ecosystem that will form in a particular geographic area?
(1) genetic variations in the animals
(2) climate conditions
(3) number of carnivores
(4) percentage of nitrogen gas in the atmosphere
Answer: 2

26. Farming reduces the natural biodiversity of an area, yet farms are necessary to feed the worlds human population. This situation is an example of
(1) poor land use
(2) a trade-off
(3) conservation
(4) a technological fix
Answer: 2

27. A food chain is represented below.
Grass →  Cricket → Frog → Owl
This food chain contains
(1) 4 consumers and no producers
(2) 1 predator, 1 parasite, and 2 producers
(3) 2 carnivores and 2 herbivores
(4) 2 predators, 1 herbivore, and 1 producer
Answer: 4

28. A volcanic eruption destroyed a forest, covering the soil with volcanic ash. For many years, only small plants could grow. Slowly, soil formed in which shrubs and trees could grow. These changes are an example of
(1) manipulation of genes
(2) evolution of a species
(3) ecological succession
(4) equilibrium
Answer: 3

29. A major reason that humans can have such a significant impact on an ecological community is that humans
(1) can modify their environment through technology
(2) reproduce faster than most other species
(3) are able to increase the amount of finite resources available
(4) remove large amounts of carbon dioxide from the air
Answer: 1

30. Rabbits are herbivores that are not native to Australia. Their numbers have increased steadily since being introduced into Australia by European settlers. One likely reason the rabbit population was able to grow so large is that the rabbits
(1) were able to prey on native herbivores
(2) reproduced more slowly than the native animals
(3) successfully competed with native herbivores for food
(4) could interbreed with the native animals
Answer: 3



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part. [12] 

Directions (31-42): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31. Which laboratory procedure is represented in the diagram below?

(1) placing a coverslip over a specimen
(2) removing a coverslip from a slide
(3) adding stain to a slide without removing the coverslip
(4) reducing the size of air bubbles under a coverslip
Answer: 3

32. In the United States, there has been relatively little experimentation involving the insertion of genes from other species into human DNA. One reason for the lack of these experiments is that
(1) the subunits of human DNA are different from the DNA subunits of other species
(2) there are many ethical questions to be answered before inserting foreign genes into human DNA
(3) inserting foreign DNA into human DNA would require using techniques completely different from those used to insert foreign DNA into the DNA of other mammals
(4) human DNA always promotes human survival, so there is no need to alter it
Answer: 2

33. The development of an experimental research plan should not include a
(1) list of safety precautions for the experiment
(2) list of equipment needed for conducting the experiment
(3)procedure for the use of technologies needed for the experiment
(4) conclusion based on data expected to be collected in the experiment
Answer: 4

34. A student performed an experiment to demonstrate that a plant needs chlorophyll for photosynthesis. He used plants that had green leaves with white areas. After exposing the plants to sunlight, he removed a leaf from each plant and processed the leaves to remove the chlorophyll. He then tested each leaf for the presence of starch. Starch was found in the area of the leaf that was green, and no starch was found in the area of the leaf that was white. He concluded that chlorophyll is necessary for photosynthesis.
Which statement represents an assumption the student had to make in order to draw this conclusion?
(1) Starch is synthesized from the glucose produced in the green areas of the leaf.
(2) Starch is converted to chlorophyll in the green areas of the leaf.
(3) The white areas of the leaf do not have cells.
(4) The green areas of the leaf are heterotrophic.
Answer: 1

35. The diagram below represents an interaction between parts of an organism.


The diagram below represents an interaction between parts of an organism. 
The term chemicals in this diagram represents
(1) starch molecules
(2) DNA molecules
(3) hormone molecules
(4) receptor molecules
Answer: 3

36. The diagram below represents two cells, X and Y.


Which statement is correct concerning the structure labeled A?
(1) It aids in the removal of metabolic wastes in both cell X and cell Y.
(2) It is involved in cell communication in cell X, but not in cell Y.
(3) It prevents the absorption of CO2 in cell X and O2 in cell Y.
(4) It represents the cell wall in cell X and the cell membrane in cell Y.
Answer: 1

37. The graph below provides information about the reproductive rates of four species of bacteria, A, B, C , and D, at different temperatures.

Which statement is a valid conclusion based on the information in the graph?
(1) Changes in temperature cause bacteria to adapt to form new species.
(2) Increasing temperatures speed up bacterial reproduction.
(3) Bacteria can survive only at temperatures between 0°C and 100°C.
(4) Individual species reproduce within a specific range of temperatures.
Answer: 4

38. The diagram below shows some of the steps in protein synthesis.

The section of DNA being used to make the strand of mRNA is known as a
(1) carbohydrate
(2) gene
(3) ribosome
(4) chromosome
Answer: 2

39. An energy pyramid is shown below.

Which graph best represents the relative energy content of the levels of this pyramid?
Answer: 4

40. The diagram below represents four different species of bacteria.

Which statement is correct concerning the chances of survival for these species if there is a change in the environment?
(1) Species A has the best chance of survival because it has the most genetic diversity.
(2) Species C has the best chance of survival because it has no gene mutations.
(3) Neither species B nor species D will survive because they compete for the same resources.
(4) None of the species will survive because bacteria reproduce asexually.
Answer: 1

41. The diagram below represents possible evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms.


Which statement is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from the diagram?
(1) Snails appeared on Earth before corals.
(2) Sponges were the last new species to appear on Earth.
(3) Earthworms and sea stars have a common ancestor.
(4) Insects are more complex than mammals.
Answer: 3

42. On which day did the population represented in the graph below reach the carrying capacity of the ecosystem?


Answer: 2



Part B- 2
Answer all questions in this part. [13]

Directions (43-55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

Base your answers to questions 43 through 47 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Directions (43 and 44): Using the information given, construct a bar graph on the grid , following the directions below.


Each year, a New York State power agency provides its customers with information about some of the fuel sources used in generating electricity. The table below applies to the period of 2002-2003.

43. Mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Percentage of Electricity Generated." [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Percentage of Electricity Generated."


44. Construct verticals bars to represent the data.Shade in each  bar. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for constructing vertical bars to  represent  the data.


45. Identify one fuel source in the table that is considered a fossil fuel. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for coal or oil.


46. Identity one fuel source in the table that is classified as a renewable resource. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for hydro (water) or solar (Sun).


47. State one specific environmental problem that can result from burning coal to generate electricity. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Burning coal can produce air pollution or acid rain or global warming.
Note: Do not allow credit for ozone layer destruction or just pollution.



Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the diagram below that shows some interactions between several organisms located in a meadow environment and on your knowledge of biology.


48. A rapid decrease in the frog population results in a change in the hawk population. State how the hawk population may change. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The hawk population will decrease because there will be fewer snakes since there are fewer frogs for them to eat.
— The hawk population will increase because there will be more grasshoppers for the shrews to eat and more shrews for the hawks to eat.


49. Identify one cell structure found in a producer in this meadow ecosystem that is not  found in the carnivores. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— chloroplast
—  cell wall


50. Individuals of some species, such as earthworms, have both male and female sex organs. In many cases, however, these individuals do not fertilize their own eggs.
State one genetic advantage of an earthworm mating with another earthworm for the production of offspring. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Mating with another earthworm allows for variety in the species.
— better chances of survival due to variation or genetic recombination



Base your answers to questions 51 and 52 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram represents six insect species.


51.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— 5. a. has white or clear or light wings
— 5. b. has shaded or black or dark wings
Note: Allow credit for any response that shows a distinction in wing shading.


52. Use the key to identify the drawings oi species A, B, C, and D. Place the letter of each species on the line located below the drawing of the species. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW



Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Proteins on the surface of a human cell and on a bird influenza virus are represented in the diagram below.

53. In the space below, draw a change in the bird influenza virus that would allow it to infect this human cell. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW


54. Explain how this change in the virus could come about. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
—  mutation
— mutagenic agent that led to a new protein


55. Identify the relationship that exists between a virus and a human when the virus infects the human. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— parasite/host (parasitic)
— pathogen/host (pathogenic)




Part C
Answer all questions in this part.  [17]
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Insulin is a hormone that has an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis in humans.
56. Identify the structure in the human body that is the usual source of insulin. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for pancreas or Islets of Langerhans.


57. Identify a substance in the blood, other than insulin, that could change in concentration and indicate a person is not secreting insulin in normal amounts. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
—  sugar
—  glucose
—  ketones



Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

The hedgehog, a small mammal native to Africa and Europe, has been introduced to the United States as an exotic pet species. Scientists have found that hedgehogs can transfer pathogens to humans and domestic animals. Foot-and-mouth viruses, Salmonella, and certain fungi are known pathogens carried by hedgehogs. As more and more of these exotic animals are brought into this country, the risk of infection increases in the human population.
58. State one negative effect of importing exotic species to the United States. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow l credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— They can transfer pathogens to humans and domestic animals.
— Imported species may displace native species.
— increased competition for food and/or habitat for native species


59. State one way the human immune system might respond to an invading pathogen associated with handling a hedgehog. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— make antibodies
— White blood cells will engulf and destroy pathogens.



Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

The last known wolf native to the Adirondack Mountains of New York State was killed over a century ago. Several environmental groups have recently proposed reintroducing the wolf to the Adirondacks. These groups claim there is sufficient prey to support a wolf population in this area. These prey include beaver, deer, and moose. Opponents of this proposal state that the Adirondacks already have a dominant predator, the Eastern coyote.
60. State one effect the reintroduction of the wolf may have on the coyote population within the Adirondacks. Explain why it would have this effect. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The coyote population will decrease, as the wolf will be a competitor for the same prey as the coyote.
— The coyote population will be unaffected because there is sufficient prey for both the wolf and the coyote.


61. Explain why the coyote is considered a limiting factor in the Adirondack Mountains. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The coyotes control the growth of certain prey populations.


62. State one ecological reason why some individuals might support the reintroduction of wolves to the Adirondacks. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The wolf was once a natural part of this ecosystem.
— to control the deer population.
— There is adequate prey to support the wolf population.
— It would increase biodiversity.


63. You have been assigned to design an experiment to determine the effects of light on the growth of tomato plants. In your experimental design be sure to:
• state one hypothesis to be tested [1]
• identify the independent variable in the experiment [1]
• describe the type of data to be collected [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating the hypothesis to be tested. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Tomato plants exposed to 16 hours of light will grow faster than those exposed to 8 hours of light.
— Light affects plant growth.
— A brighter light will cause the tomato plants to grow larger.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the independent variable in the experiment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— the amount of light
— light
— the intensity of the light
• Allow 1 credit for describing the type of data to be collected. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— height of plants
— number of leaves
— size of leaves
— mass of the plants
— amount of growth
Note: The type of data must be measurable.


64. In some land plants, guard cells are found only on the lower surfaces of the leaves. In some water plants, guard cells are found only on the upper surfaces of the leaves. Explain how guard cells in both land and water plants help maintain homeostasis. In your answer be sure to:
• identify one function regulated by the guard cells in leaves [1]
• explain how guard cells carry out this function [1]
• give one possible evolutionary advantage of the position of the guard cells on the leaves of land plants [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for identifying one function regulated by the guard cells in leaves. Acceptable responses include but are not limited to: — gas exchange
— respiration
— photosynthesis
• Allow 1 credit for explaining how guard cells carry out this function. Acceptable responses include but are not limited to:
— Guard cells change shape.
— Guard cells change the size of the leaf openings.
• Allow 1 credit for giving one possible evolutionary advantage of the position of guard cells on the leaves of land plants. Acceptable responses include but are not limited to:
— prevents excess evaporation of water on sunny days
— prevents the entrance of some pollutants



Base your answers to questions 65 and 66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Scientists are increasingly concerned about the possible effects of damage to the ozone layer.
65. Damage to the ozone layer has resulted in mutations in skin cells that lead to cancer. Will the mutations that caused the skin cancers be passed on to offspring? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— No, mutations in body cells are not transmitted to offspring.
— No, only mutations in gametes are transmitted to offspring.


66. State two specific ways in which an ocean ecosystem will change (other than fewer photosynthetic organisms) if populations of photosynthetic organisms die off as a result of damage to the ozone layer. [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— decrease in consumers/biodiversity
— decrease in oxygen
— decrease in available energy
— increase in carbon dioxide


67. Lawn wastes, such as grass clippings and leaves, were once collected with household trash and dumped into landfills. Identify one way that this practice was harmful to the environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— doesn’t allow for recycling of nutrients in the lawn
— takes up landfill space




Part D
Answer all questions in this part.[13]
Directions (68-80): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice, that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

68. In preparation for an electrophoresis procedure, enzymes are added to DNA in order to
(1) convert the DNA into gel
(2) cut the DNA into fragments
(3) change the color of the DNA
(4) produce longer sections of DNA
Answer: 2

69. Paper chromatography is a laboratory technique that is used to
(1) separate different molecules from one another
(2) stain cell organelles
(3) indicate the pH of a substance
(4) compare relative cell sizes
Answer: 1

70. A marathon runner frequently experiences muscle cramps while running. If he stops running and rests, the cramps eventually go away. The cramping in the muscles most likely results from
(1) lack of adequate oxygen supply to the muscle
(2) the runner running too slowly
(3) the runner warming up before running
(4) increased glucose production in the muscle
Answer: 1


Base your answers to questions 71 through 73 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

A series of investigations was performed on four different plant species. The results of these investigations are recorded in the data table below.

71. Based on these data, which two plant species appear to be most closely related? Support your answer. [1]
Plant species_______ and_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
A and C-most characteristics in common
A and C-same type of chlorophyll present


72. What additional information could be gathered to support your answer to question 71? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— structure of protein molecules
— types of enzymes present
— DNA sequences
— other physical characteristics


73. State one reason why scientists might want to know if two plant species are closely related. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Two related plants may produce similar substances that could be used for medicines.
— A related plant may provide a cheaper source of a substance.
— If a plant becomes extinct, a related plant may provide an alternative source of a substance.



Base your answers to questions 74 and 75 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.


74. Based on its preferred food, species B would be classified as a
(1) decomposer
(2) producer
(3) carnivore
(4) parasite
Answer: 3

75. Which two species would meet likely be able to live in the same habitat without competing with each other for food?
(1) A and C
(2) B and C
(3) B and D
(4) C and E
Answer: 2


Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the experimental setup shown below.


76. On the diagram below, draw in the expected locations of the molecules after a period of one hour. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for drawing all the •s inside the membrane only, and drawing some of the Xs inside and some outside the membrane.
Example of a 1-credit response:


Note: The starch indicator does not have to be evenly distributed


77. When starch indicator is used, what observation would indicate the presence of starch? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A blue-black color would indicate the presence of starch.
— A color change would occur.


78. State one reason why some molecules can pass through a certain membrane, but other molecules cannot. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
—  Some molecules are too large to pass through the membrane.
—  Some molecules are not soluble.
—  the permeability of the membrane


79. A plant cell in a microscopic field of view is represented below.

 The width (ω) of this plant cell is closest to
(1) 200 μm
(2) 800 μm
(3) 1200 μm
(4) 1600 μm
Answer: 2

80. The diagram below represents a plant cell in tap water as seen with a compound light microscope.

Which diagram best represents the appearance of the cell after it has been placed in a 15% salt solution for two minutes?

Answer: 3


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