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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2009 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Which statement best describes one of the
  stages represented in the diagram below?
(1) The mature forest will most likely be stable
    over a long period of time.
(2) If all the weeds and grasses are destroyed,
    the number of carnivores will increase.
(3) As the population of the shrubs increases, it
    will be held in check by the mature forest
    community.
(4) The young forest community will invade and
    take over the mature forest community.
Answer: 1

2.
2 Which organ system in humans is most directly
  involved in the transport of oxygen?
  (1) digestive             (3) excretory
  (2) nervous               (4) circulatory
Answer: 4

3.
3 Which cell structure contains information needed
  for protein synthesis?

Answer: 1


4.
4 The human liver contains many specialized cells
  that secrete bile. Only these cells produce bile
  because
  (1) different cells use different parts of the
      genetic information they contain
  (2) cells can eliminate the genetic codes that
      they do not need
  (3) all other cells in the body lack the genes
      needed for the production of bile
  (4) these cells mutated during embryonic
      development
Answer: 1

5.
5 Although identical twins inherit exact copies of
  the same genes, the twins may look and act
  differently from each other because
  (1) a mutation took place in the gametes that
      produced the twins
  (2) the expression of genes may be modified by
      environmental factors
  (3) the expression of genes may be different in
      males and females
  (4) a mutation took place in the zygote that
      produced the twins
Answer: 2

6.
6 Which hormone does not directly regulate
  human reproductive cycles?
  (1) testosterone        (3) insulin
  (2) estrogen            (4) progesterone
Answer: 3

7.
7 Owls periodically expel a mass of undigested
  material known as a pellet. A student obtained
  several owl pellets from the same location and
  examined the animal remains in the pellets. He
  then recorded the number of different prey
  animal remains in the pellets. The student was
  most likely studying the
  (1) evolution of the owl
  (2) social structure of the local owl population
  (3) role of the owl in the local ecosystem
  (4) life cycle of the owl
Answer: 3

8.
8 Which sequence best represents the relationship between DNA and the traits of an organism?

Answer: 1

9.
9 A sequence of events associated with ecosystem stability is represented below.
             sexual reproduction → genetic variation → biodiversity → ecosystem stability
 The arrows in this sequence should be read as
 (1) leads to                                               (3) prevents
 (2) reduces                                                (4) simplifies
Answer: 1

10.
10 In some people, the lack of a particular enzyme causes a disease. Scientists are attempting to use bacteria
   to produce this enzyme for the treatment of people with the disease. Which row in the chart below best
   describes the sequence of steps the scientists would most likely follow?

Answer: 3

11.
11 What will most likely occur as a result of changes
   in the frequency of a gene in a particular
   population?
   (1) ecological succession
   (2) biological evolution
   (3) global warming
   (4) resource depletion
Answer: 2

12.
12 The puppies shown in the photograph below are
   all from the same litter.
The differences seen within this group of
puppies are most likely due to
(1) overproduction and selective breeding
(2) mutations and elimination of genes
(3) evolution and asexual reproduction
(4) sorting and recombination of genes
Answer: 4

13.
13 Carbon dioxide makes up less than 1 percent of
   Earth’s atmosphere, and oxygen makes up about
   20 percent. These percentages are maintained
   most directly by
   (1) respiration and photosynthesis
   (2) the ozone shield
   (3) synthesis and digestion
   (4) energy recycling in ecosystems
Answer: 1

14.
14 Which sequence represents the order of some
   events in human development?
   (1) zygote → sperm → tissues → egg
   (2) fetus → tissues → zygote → egg
   (3) zygote → tissues → organs → fetus
   (4) sperm → zygote → organs → tissues
Answer: 3

15.
15 A variety of plant produces small white fruit. A
   stem was removed from this organism and planted
   in a garden. If this stem grows into a new plant,
   it would most likely produce
   (1) large red fruit, only
   (2) large pink fruit, only
   (3) small white fruit, only
   (4) small red and small white fruit on the same
       plant
Answer: 3


16.
16 A mutation that can be inherited by offspring
   would result from
   (1) random breakage of chromosomes in the
       nucleus of liver cells
   (2) a base substitution in gametes during meiosis
   (3) abnormal lung cells produced by toxins in
       smoke
   (4) ultraviolet radiation damage to skin cells
Answer: 2

17.
17 The diagram below represents a process that
   occurs in organisms.
Which row in the chart indicates what A and B
in the boxes could represent?

Answer: 3

18.
18 Some organs of the human body are represented
   in the diagram below.
Which statement best describes the functions of
these organs?
(1) B pumps blood to A for gas exchange.
(2) A and B both produce carbon dioxide, which
    provides nutrients for other body parts.
(3) A releases antibodies in response to an
    infection in B.
(4) The removal of wastes from both A and B
    involves the use of energy from ATP.
Answer: 4

19.
19 Salmonella bacteria can cause humans to have
   stomach cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, and fever.
   The effect these bacteria have on humans
   indicates that Salmonella bacteria are
   (1) predators
   (2) pathogenic organisms
   (3) parasitic fungi
   (4) decomposers
Answer: 2

20.
20 The virus that causes AIDS is damaging to the
   body because it
   (1) targets cells that fight invading microbes
   (2) attacks specific red blood cells
   (3) causes an abnormally high insulin level
   (4) prevents the normal transmission of nerve
       impulses
Answer: 1

21.
21 In the leaf of a plant, guard cells help to
   (1) destroy atmospheric pollutants when they
       enter the plant
   (2) regulate oxygen and carbon dioxide levels
   (3) transport excess glucose to the roots
   (4) block harmful ultraviolet rays that can
       disrupt chlorophyll production
Answer: 2

22.
22 An antibiotic is effective in killing 95% of a
   population of bacteria that reproduce by the
   process shown below.
Which statement best describes future generations of these bacteria?
(1) They will be produced by asexual reproduction
    and will be more resistant to the antibiotic.
(2) They will be produced by sexual reproduction
    and will be more resistant to the antibiotic.
(3) They will be produced by asexual reproduction
    and will be just as susceptible to the antibiotic.
(4) They will be produced by sexual reproduction
    and will be just as susceptible to the antibiotic.
Answer: 1

23.
23 The size of plant populations can be influenced
   by the
   (1) molecular structure of available oxygen
   (2) size of the cells of decomposers
   (3) number of chemical bonds in a glucose molecule
   (4) type of minerals present in the soil
Answer: 4

24.
24 Competition between two species occurs when
   (1) mold grows on a tree that has fallen in the
       forest
   (2) chipmunks and squirrels eat sunflower seeds
       in a garden
   (3) a crow feeds on the remains of a rabbit killed
       on the road
   (4) a lion stalks, kills, and eats an antelope
Answer: 2

25.
25 A food chain is illustrated below.
The arrows represented as               most likely
indicate
(1) energy released into the environment as heat
(2) oxygen produced by respiration
(3) the absorption of energy that has been
    synthesized
(4) the transport of glucose away from the organism
Answer: 1

26.
26 If several species of carnivores are removed from
   an ecosystem, the most likely effect on the
   ecosystem will be
   (1) an increase in the kinds of autotrophs
   (2) a decrease in the number of abiotic factors
   (3) a decrease in stability among populations
   (4) an increase in the rate of succession
Answer: 3

27.
27 Some people make compost piles consisting of
   weeds and other plant materials. When the
   compost has decomposed, it can be used as
   fertilizer. The production and use of compost is
   an example of
   (1) the introduction of natural predators
   (2) the use of fossil fuels
   (3) the deforestation of an area
   (4) the recycling of nutrients
Answer: 4

28.
28 Which statement best describes a chromosome?
   (1) It is a gene that has thousands of different
       forms.
   (2) It has genetic information contained in DNA.
   (3) It is a reproductive cell that influences more
       than one trait.
   (4) It contains hundreds of genetically identical
       DNA molecules.
Answer: 2

29.
29 The graph below shows how the level of carbon
   dioxide in the atmosphere has changed over the
   last 150,000 years.
Which environmental factor has been most
recently affected by these changes in carbon
dioxide level?
(1) light intensity
(2) types of decomposers
(3) size of consumers
(4) atmospheric temperature
Answer: 4

30.
30 One reason why people should be aware of the
   impact of their actions on the environment is that
   (1) ecosystems are never able to recover once
       they have been adversely affected
   (2) the depletion of finite resources cannot be
       reversed
   (3) there is a decreased need for new technology
   (4) there is a decreased need for substances
       produced by natural processes
Answer: 2


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [11]
   Directions (31–41): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 The diagram below represents the process used in 1996 to clone the first mammal, a sheep named Dolly.
Which statement concerning Dolly is correct?
(1) Gametes from sheep A and sheep B were united to produce Dolly.
(2) The chromosome makeup of Dolly is identical to that of sheep A.
(3) Both Dolly and sheep C have identical DNA.
(4) Dolly contains genes from sheep B and sheep C.
Answer: 2

32.
32 The diagram below represents a cell.
Which statement concerning ATP and activity
within the cell is correct?
(1) The absorption of ATP occurs at structure A.
(2) The synthesis of ATP occurs within structure B.
(3) ATP is produced most efficiently by structure C.
(4) The template for ATP is found in structure D.
Answer: 3

33.
33 The diagram below illustrates some functions of
   the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland secretes
   substances that, in turn, cause other glands to
   secrete different substances.
Which statement best describes events shown in
the diagram?
(1) Secretions provide the energy needed for
    metabolism.
(2) The raw materials for the synthesis of
    secretions come from nitrogen.
(3) The secretions of all glands speed blood
    circulation in the body.
(4) Secretions help the body to respond to
    changes from the normal state
Answer: 4

34.
34 A pond ecosystem is shown in the diagram
   below.
Which statement describes an interaction that
helps maintain the dynamic equilibrium of this
ecosystem?
(1) The frogs make energy available to this
    ecosystem through the process of photosynthesis.
(2) The algae directly provide food for both the
    rotifers and the catfish.
(3) The green-backed heron provides energy for
    the mosquito larvae.
(4) The catfish population helps control the
    populations of water boatman and water
    fleas.
Answer: 4

35.
35 The diagram below represents a portion of a cell
   membrane.
Which structure may function in the recognition
of chemical signals?
(1) A                  (3) C
(2) B                  (4) D
Answer: 2

36.
36 Some evolutionary pathways are represented in
   the diagram below.
An inference that can be made from information
in the diagram is that
(1) many of the descendants of organism B
    became extinct
(2) organism B was probably much larger than
    any of the other organisms represented
(3) most of the descendants of organism B
    successfully adapted to their environment
    and have survived to the present time
(4) the letters above organism B represent members of a single large population with much
    biodiversity
Answer: 1

37.
37 Which species in the chart below is most likely to
   have the fastest rate of evolution?
(1) A   (3) C
(2) B   (4) D
Answer: 4

38.
    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the
diagram below that represents an energy pyramid in a
meadow ecosystem and on your knowledge of biology.
38 Which species would have the largest amount of
   available energy in this ecosystem?
   (1) A                      (3) C
   (2) B                      (4) E
Answer: 1

39.
39 Which two organisms are carnivores?
   (1) A and B            (3) B and D
   (2) A and E            (4) C and E
Answer: 4

40.
40 The kit fox and red fox species are closely related. The kit fox lives in the desert, while the red fox inhabits
   forests. Ear size and fur color are two differences that can be observed between the species. An illustration
   of these two species is shown below.
Which statement best explains how the differences between these two species came about?
(1) Different adaptations developed because the kit fox preferred hotter environments than the red fox.
(2) As the foxes adapted to different environments, differences in appearance evolved.
(3) The foxes evolved differently to prevent overpopulation of the forest habitat.
(4) The foxes evolved differently because their ancestors were trying to avoid competition.
Answer: 2

41.
41 An ecosystem is represented below.
The organisms represented as   are found in the area shown due to which factor?
(1) pH                                              (3) light intensity
(2) sediment                                        (4) colder temperature
Answer: 3


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [14]
    Directions (42–51): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding the
choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

42.
42 The graphs below show dissolved oxygen content, sewage waste content, and fish
   populations in a lake between 1950 and 1970.
State what happened to the amount of dissolved oxygen and the number of fish species
as the amount of sewage waste increased. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — both decreased


43.
   Base your answers to questions 43 through 46 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           Yeast cells carry out the process of cellular respiration as shown in the
         equation below.
An investigation was carried out to determine the effect of temperature on 
the rate of cellular respiration in yeast. Five experimental groups,
each containing five fermentation tubes, were set up. The
fermentation tubes all contained the same amounts of water, glucose, and
yeast. Each group of five tubes was placed in a water bath at a
different temperature. After 30 minutes, the amount of gas produced (D)
in each fermentation tube was measured in milliliters. The average for
each group was calculated. A sample setup and the data collected are
shown below.
Directions (43 and 44): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph
on the grid below, following the directions below.
 43 Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each labeled axis.


44.
44 Plot the data from the data table. Surround each point with a small circle, and connect
   the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
4 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
      Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 43 and 44:
Note: Allow credit if the points are plotted correctly but not circled.
      Make no assumption about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0).


45.
45 The maximum rate of cellular respiration in yeast occurred at which temperature?
   (1) 5°C
   (2) 20°C
   (3) 40°C
   (4) 60°C
Answer:
3


46.
46 Compared to the other tubes at the end of 30 minutes, the tubes in group 3 contained the
   (1) smallest amount of CO2
   (2) smallest amount of glucose
   (3) smallest amount of ethyl alcohol
   (4) same amounts of glucose, ethyl alcohol, and CO2
Answer:
2


47.
   Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            An ecologist made some observations in a forest ecosystem over a
         period of several days. Some of the data collected are shown in the
         table below.
47 On the diagram below, complete the food web by placing the names of all the
   organisms in the correct locations. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit.
   Example of a 1-credit response:


48.
48 Identify one producer recorded by the ecologist in the data table. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — maple tree
       — tree
       — oak


49.
49 Which statement describes how one biotic factor of the forest uses one of the abiotic
   factors listed in the data table?
   (1) Trees absorb water as a raw material for photosynthesis.
   (2) Insects eat and digest the leaves of trees.
   (3) Erosion of sedimentary rock adds phosphorous to the soil.
   (4) Fungi release oxygen from the trees back into the air.
Answer:
1


50.
50 Fill in all of the blanks in parts 2 and 3 of the dichotomous key below, so that it
   contains information that could be used to identify the four animals shown below. [2]
Dichotomous Key
1.   a. Legs present………………………………………………… Go to 2
     b. Legs not present…………………………………………….. Go to 3

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
0 [2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for correctly completing 2a and b and 1 credit for correctly
      completing 3a and b.
      Example of a 2-credit response:
                                     Dichotomous Key
      1. a. Legs present………………………………………………....Go to 2
        b. Legs not present…………………………………………….Go to 3
      2. a. Four legs……………………………………………………IV (Dog)
        b. Eight legs………………………………………………......II (Spider)
      3. a. Fins present …………………………………………….....III (Fish)
        b. Fins not present or segments present………………….I (Earthworm)


51.
51 The human female reproductive system is represented in the diagram below.
Complete boxes 1 through 4 in the chart below using the information from the
diagram. [4]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[4] Allow a maximum of 4 credits, 1 credit for each correct response in the chart.
   Example of a 4-credit response:



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (52–59): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

52.
52 Humans have many interactions with the environment. Briefly describe how human
   activities can affect the environment of organisms living 50 years from now.
   In your answer, be sure to:
   • identify one human activity that could release chemicals harmful to the environment
     [1]
   • identify the chemical released by the activity [1]
   • state one effect the release of this chemical would most likely have on future
     ecosystems [1]
   • state one way in which humans can reduce the production of this chemical to lessen
     its effect on future ecosystems [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
2 [4] Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
      • Allow 1 credit for identifying one human activity that could release chemicals harmful to the
        environment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — burning fossil fuels
          — dumping toxic wastes
      • Allow 1 credit for identifying the chemical released by that activity. Acceptable responses include,
        but are not limited to:
          — CO2 /sulfur dioxide/nitrogen gases
          — heavy metals
      Note: Do not allow credit for pollution.
      • Allow 1 credit for stating one effect the release of this chemical would most likely have on
        future ecosystems. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — may increase global warming/acid rain
          — cause mutations
      • Allow 1 credit for stating one way in which humans can reduce the production of this chemical to
        lessen its effect on future ecosystems. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — use alternative fuels (solar or wind or water)
          — increase/enforce legislation that regulates the disposal of toxic wastes


53.
53 Plants respond to their environment in many different ways. Design an experiment to
   test the effects of one environmental factor, chosen from the list below, on plant
   growth.
                                  Acidity of precipitation
                                  Temperature
                                  Amount of water
   In your answer, be sure to:
   • identify the environmental factor you chose
   • state one hypothesis the experiment would test [1]
   • state how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental
     group [1]
   • state two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control
     groups [1]
   • identify the independent variable in the experiment [1]
   • label the columns on the data table below for the collection of data in your
     experiment [1]
   Environmental factor: _______

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[5] Allow a maximum of 5 credits, allocated as follows:
   • Allow 1 credit for stating the hypothesis the experiment would test. Acceptable responses
     include, but are not limited to:
       — Acid rain will cause a decrease in the number of seeds that germinate.
   Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.
   • Allow 1 credit for stating how the control group would be treated differently from the
     experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — The control group would be watered with water at pH 7, while the experimental groups
         would be watered with water at pH less than 7.
   • Allow 1 credit for stating two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and the
     control group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — same soil
       — same temperature
       — same type of plants (seeds)
       — fertilizer use
       — amount of water
   • Allow 1 credit for identifying the independent variable in the experiment. Acceptable responses
     include, but are not limited to:
       — pH of water
   • Allow 1 credit for correctly labeling the columns on the data table.
   Example of a 1-credit response:


54.
  Base your answer to question 54 on the article below and on your knowledge of biology.
                       Power plan calls for windmills off beach
         The Associated Press
           Several dozen windmills taller than the Statue of Liberty will crop
        up off Long Island — the first source of off-shore wind power outside
        of Europe, officials said.
           The Long Island Power Authority [LIPA] expects to choose a
        company to build and operate between 35 and 40 windmills in the
        Atlantic Ocean off Jones Beach, The New York Times reported
        Sunday [May 2, 2004]. Cost and completion date are unknown.
           Energy generated by the windmills would constitute about 2 percent of LIPAʼs total power use. They are expected to produce 100 to
        140 megawatts, enough to power 30,000 homes....
           But some Long Island residents oppose the windmills, which they
        fear will create noise, interfere with fishing, and mar ocean views....
                                Source: “Democrat and Chronicle”, Rochester, NY 5/3/04
54 State two ways that the use of windmills to produce energy would be beneficial to the
   environment. [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two ways that the use of these windmills to
    produce energy would be beneficial to the environment. Acceptable responses include, but are
    not limited to:
       — no air pollution from windmills
       — burn less oil/coal
       — Wind is a renewable resource.


55.
55 Importing a foreign species, either intentionally or by accident, can alter the balance
   of an ecosystem. State one specific example of an imported species that has altered the
   balance of an ecosystem and explain how it has disrupted the balance in that
   ecosystem. [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
5 [2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for stating one specific example of an imported species that
      has altered the balance of an ecosystem and 1 credit for explaining how it has disrupted the
      balance in that ecosystem.
      Examples of 2-credit responses:
          — Zebra mussels outcompete native species for food, causing native species to decline in
            numbers.
          — Purple loosestrife has crowded out native plants, leaving many native animals with much less
            available food, since they cannot eat the purple loosestrife.
          — Rabbits in Australia ate much of the vegetation that previously fed many Australian animals.
            Populations of many native species were reduced drastically, disrupting the ecosystems
            there.
          — Gypsy moths from Europe have overpopulated in parts of the U.S., eating nearly all the
            leaves of many trees, causing some of the trees to die, and leaving little food for other
            native species.
          — Kudzu from Asia has grown over native plants in the southern U.S., blocking the light and
            crowding the roots of native plants, causing them to die.


56.
   Base your answers to questions 56 through 59 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                    Avian (Bird) Flu
            Avian flu virus H5N1 has been a major concern recently. Most
         humans have not been exposed to this strain of the virus, so they have
         not produced the necessary protective substances. A vaccine has been
         developed and is being made in large quantities. However, much more
         time is needed to manufacture enough vaccine to protect most of the
         human population of the world.
            Most flu virus strains affect the upper respiratory tract, resulting in
         a runny nose and sore throat. However, the H5N1 virus seems to go
         deeper into the lungs and causes severe pneumonia, which may be fatal
         for people infected by this virus.
            So far, this virus has not been known to spread directly from one
         human to another. As long as H5N1 does not change to another strain
         that can be transferred from one human to another, a worldwide
         epidemic of the virus probably will not occur.
 56 State one difference between the effect on the human body of the usual forms of flu
    virus and the effect of H5N1. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Most flu viruses cause a runny nose and sore throat, while the H5N1 virus can cause
             pneumonia.
           — The avian flu goes deeper into the lungs and can cause severe pneumonia.
           — The avian flu has a more severe effect on humans than most other flu viruses.


57.
57 Identify the type of substance produced by the human body that protects against
   antigens, such as the flu virus. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for antibodies.


58.
58 State what is in a vaccine that makes the vaccine effective. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — A vaccine contains dead or weakened pathogens.


59.
59 Identify one event that could result in the virus changing to a form able to spread from
   human to human. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — mutation



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (60–72): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice,
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

60.
60 The data table below shows the number of amino acid differences in the hemoglobin
   molecules of several species compared with amino acids in the hemoglobin of humans.
Based on the information in the data table, write the names of the organisms from the
table in their correct positions on the evolutionary tree below. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. All organisms must be in the correct positions as shown below.


61.
61 Explain why comparing the vein patterns of several leaves is a less reliable means of
   determining the evolutionary relationship between two plants than using gel electrophoresis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — Chemical similarities are more reliable than structural similarities.
       — Electrophoresis shows chemical similarities, which are more reliable.
       — Many unrelated plants have a similar vein pattern.


62.
   Base your answer to question 62 on the information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           An enzyme and soluble starch were added to a test tube of water and
         kept at room temperature for 24 hours. Then, 10 drops of glucose
         indicator solution were added to the test tube, and the test tube was
         heated in a hot water bath for 2 minutes.
62 The test was performed in order to
   (1) measure the quantity of fat that is converted to starch
   (2) determine if digestion took place
   (3) evaporate the water from the test tube
   (4) cause the enzyme to bond to the water
Answer:
2


63.
63 A chromatography setup is shown below.
Identify one error in the setup. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — The pigment spot is below the surface of the solvent.
       — The level of the solvent is too high.


64.
   Base your answers to questions 64 through 66 on the information and data table below
and on your knowledge of biology.
           During a laboratory activity, a group of students obtained the data
         shown below.
64 Which procedure would increase the validity of the conclusions drawn from the results
   of this experiment?
   (1) increasing the number of times the activity is repeated
   (2) changing the temperature in the room
   (3) decreasing the number of students participating in the activity
   (4) eliminating the rest period before the resting pulse rate is taken
Answer:
1


65.
65 Calculate the group average for the resting pulse rate. [1]
                     beats/min
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 73.
   Note: Allow credit for an acceptable response written in the data table if no response is written
         in the answer space.


66.
66 A change in pulse rate is related to other changes in the body. Write the name of one
   organ that is affected when a person runs a mile and describe one change that occurs
   in this organ. [1]
  Organ: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for writing the name of one organ that is affected when a person runs a mile and
    for describing one change that occurs in this organ. Acceptable responses include, but are not
    limited to:
       — Heart — beats faster
       — Lungs — take in oxygen faster
       — Muscles — use energy faster or use more ATP


67.
   Base your answers to questions 67 through 69 on the information and diagram below
and on your knowledge of biology.
           A wet mount of red onion cells as seen with a compound light microscope is shown below.
67 Which diagram best illustrates the technique that would most likely be used to add salt
   to these cells?

Answer:
2


68.
68 In the space below, sketch what cell A would look like after the addition of the salt. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a sketch showing that the cell membrane shrinks.
   Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit if the cell is drawn correctly but not shaded.


69.
69 Which substance would most likely be used to return the cells to their original condition?
   (1) starch indicator
   (2) dialysis tubing
   (3) glucose indicator solution
   (4) distilled water
Answer:
4


70.
70 DNA electrophoresis is used to study evolutionary relationships of species. The
   diagram below shows the results of DNA electrophoresis for four different animal
   species.
Which species has the most DNA in common with species A?
(1) X and Y, only
(2) Y, only
(3) Z, only
(4) X, Y, and Z
Answer:
3


71.
    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the diagram below that shows variations
in the beaks of finches in the Galapagos Islands and on your knowledge of biology.
71 The diversity of species seen on the Galapagos Islands is mostly due to
   (1) gene manipulation by scientists
   (2) gene changes resulting from mitotic cell division
   (3) natural selection
   (4) selective breeding
Answer:
3


72.
72 State one reason why large ground finches and large tree finches can coexist on the
   same island. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — Large ground finches eat mainly plant food and large tree finches eat mainly animal food.
       — They do not compete for the same resources, so both can survive.
       — They occupy different niches.



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