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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2010 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Why is a mushroom considered a heterotroph?
  (1) It manufactures its own food.
  (2) It divides by mitosis.
  (3) It transforms light energy into chemical
      energy.
  (4) It obtains nutrients from its environment.
Answer: 4

2.
2 Three days after an organism eats some meat,
  many of the organic molecules originally
  contained in the meat would be found in newly
  formed molecules of
  (1) glucose             (3) starch
  (2) protein             (4) oxygen
Answer: 2

3.
3 Which body system is correctly paired with its
  function?
  (1) excretory—produces antibodies to fight
      disease-causing organisms
  (2) digestive—produces hormones for storage
      and insulation
  (3) circulatory—transports materials for energy
      release in body cells
  (4) respiratory—collects waste material for
      digestion
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which statement best explains why some cells in
  the reproductive system only respond to certain
  hormones?
  (1) These cells have different DNA than the
      cells in other body systems.
  (2) These cells have specific types of receptors
      on their membranes.
  (3) Reproductive system cells could be harmed
      if they made contact with hormones from
      other body systems.
  (4) Cells associated with the female reproductive system only respond to the hormone
      testosterone.
Answer: 2

5.
5 In the cell shown below, which lettered structure
  is responsible for the excretion of most cellular
  wastes?
(1) A   (3) C
(2) B   (4) D
Answer: 2

6.
6 What is the main function of a vacuole in a cell?
  (1) storage
  (2) coordination
  (3) synthesis of molecules
  (4) release of energy
Answer: 1

7.
7 If 15% of a DNA sample is made up of thymine, T,
  what percentage of the sample is made up of
  cytosine, C?
  (1) 15%                  (3) 70%
  (2) 35%                  (4) 85%
Answer: 2

8.
8 Global warming has been linked to a decrease in the
  (1) size of the polar ice caps
  (2) temperature of Earth
  (3) rate of species extinction
  (4) rate of carbon dioxide production
Answer: 1

9.
9 Several structures are labeled in the diagram of
  a puppy shown below.
Every cell in each of these structures contains
(1) equal amounts of ATP
(2) identical genetic information
(3) proteins that are all identical
(4) organelles for the synthesis of glucose
Answer: 2

10.
10 A characteristic that an organism exhibits during
   its lifetime will only affect the evolution of its
   species if the characteristic
   (1) results from isolation of the organism from
        the rest of the population
   (2) is due to a genetic code that is present in the
        gametes of the organism
   (3) decreases the number of genes in the body
        cells of the organism
   (4) causes a change in the environment
        surrounding the organism
Answer: 2

11.
11 Agriculturists have developed some varieties of
   vegetables from common wild mustard plants,
   which reproduce sexually. Which statement best
   explains the development of these different
   varieties of vegetables?
   (1) Different varieties can develop from a single
       species as a result of the recombination of
       genetic information.
   (2) Different species can develop from a single
       species as a result of the effect of similar
       environmental conditions.
   (3) Mutations will occur in the genes of a species
       only if the environment changes.
   (4) Variations in a species will increase when the
       rate of mitosis is decreased.
Answer: 1

12.
12 The diagram below represents a technique used
   in some molecular biology laboratories.
This technique is a type of
(1) chromatography
(2) gel electrophoresis
(3) direct harvesting
(4) genetic engineering
Answer: 4

13.
13 A species of bird known as Bird of Paradise has
   been observed in the jungles of New Guinea.
   The males shake their bodies and sometimes
   hang upside down to show off their bright colors
   and long feathers to attract females. Females
   usually mate with the “flashiest” males. These
   observations can be used to support the concept
   that
   (1) unusual courtship behaviors lead to extinction
   (2) some organisms are better adapted for asexual
       reproduction
   (3) homeostasis in an organism is influenced by
       physical characteristics
   (4) behaviors that lead to reproductive success
       have evolved
Answer: 4

14.
14 Which statement concerning the evolution of
   species A, B, C, D, and E is supported by the
   diagram below?
(1) Species B and C can be found in today’s environments.
(2) Species A and D evolved from E.
(3) Species A and C can still interbreed.
(4) Species A, B, and E all evolved from a common
    ancestor and all are successful today.
Answer: 1

15.
15 The diagram below represents a process that
   occurs during human reproduction.
The process represented by the arrow will
ensure that the
(1) zygote contains a complete set of genetic
    information
(2) gametes contain a complete set of genetic
    information
(3) zygote contains half of the genetic information
(4) gametes contain half of the genetic information
Answer: 1


16.
16 Even though identical twins have the same
   genetic material, they may develop slightly
   different characteristics because
   (1) each twin receives different chromosomes
       from the egg
   (2) one twin may only have genes from the
       father
   (3) gene expression may be influenced by factors
       that switch genes on and off
   (4) a gene mutation may have occurred before
       the zygote divided
Answer: 3

17.
17 What normally happens immediately after fertilization in sexual reproduction?
   (1) specialization of cells to form a fetus from an
       egg
   (2) production of daughter cells having twice
       the number of chromosomes as the parent
       cell
   (3) production of daughter cells having half the
       number of chromosomes as the parent cell
   (4) division of cells resulting in the development
       of an embryo from a zygote
Answer: 4

18.
18 The human female reproductive system is
   represented in the diagram below.
Production of gametes and support of the fetus
normally occur in structures
(1) 1 and 2              (3) 3 and 5
(2) 2 and 4              (4) 4 and 5
Answer: 3

19.
19 Essential materials needed for development are
   transported to a human fetus through the
   (1) reproductive hormones
   (2) egg cell
   (3) placenta
   (4) ovaries
Answer: 3

20.
20 The failure to regulate the pH of the blood can
   affect the activity of
   (1) enzymes that clot blood
   (2) red blood cells that make antibodies
   (3) chlorophyll that carries oxygen in the blood
   (4) DNA that controls starch digestion in the
       blood
Answer: 1

21.
21 Young birds that have been raised in isolation
   from members of their species build nests
   characteristic of their species. This suggests that
   the nest-building behavior is
   (1) genetically inherited from parents
   (2) learned by watching members of their
       species
   (3) a disadvantage to the survival of the species
   (4) a direct result of the type of food the bird
       eats
Answer: 1

22.
22 Some people with spinal cord injuries do not
   sweat below the area of the injury. Without the
   ability to sweat, the human body temperature
   begins to rise. Which statement would best
   describe this situation?
   (1) Feedback mechanisms regulate blood sugar
       levels.
   (2) Gene mutations are increased.
   (3) Energy from ATP is not available.
   (4) Dynamic equilibrium is disrupted.
Answer: 4

23.
23 Decomposers are necessary in an ecosystem
   because they
   (1) produce food for plants by the process of
       photosynthesis
   (2) provide energy for plants by the process of
       decay
   (3) can rapidly reproduce and evolve
   (4) make inorganic materials available to plants
Answer: 4

24.
24 A manatee is a water-dwelling herbivore on the
   list of endangered species. If manatees were to
   become extinct, what would be the most likely
   result in the areas where they had lived?
   (1) The biodiversity of these areas would not be
        affected.
   (2) Certain producer organisms would become
        more abundant in these areas.
   (3) Other manatees would move into these areas
        and restore the population.
   (4) Predators in these areas would occupy higher
        levels on the energy pyramid.
Answer: 2

25.
25 A serious threat to biodiversity is
   (1) habitat destruction
   (2) maintenance of food chains
   (3) competition within a species
   (4) a stable population size
Answer: 1

26.
26 Which action will result in the greatest decrease
   in rain forest stability?
   (1) removing one species of plant for medicine
   (2) harvesting nuts from some trees
   (3) cutting down all the trees for lumber
   (4) powering all homes with wind energy
Answer: 3

27.
27 One way that humans could have a positive
   impact on local environments is to
   (1) generate waste products as a result of
       technological advances
   (2) use resources that are renewable
   (3) increase planting large areas of one crop
   (4) increase the use of pesticides
Answer: 2

28.
28 Which statement provides evidence that evolution
   is still occurring at the present time?
   (1) The extinction rate of species has decreased
        in the last 50 years.
   (2) Many bird species and some butterfly
        species make annual migrations.
   (3) New varieties of plant species appear more
        frequently in regions undergoing climatic
        change.
   (4) Through cloning, the genetic makeup of
        organisms can be predicted.
Answer: 3

29.
29 The diagram below represents the various stages of ecological succession in New York State.
If the ecosystem is not altered, which stage would be the most stable?
(1) grass                                                 (3) pine forest
(2) shrub                                                 (4) hardwood forest
Answer: 4

30.
30 Because of an attractive tax rebate, a homeowner decides to replace an oil furnace heating system with
   expensive solar panels. The trade-offs involved in making this decision include
   (1) high cost of solar panels, reduced fuel costs, and lower taxes
   (2) low cost of solar panels, increased fuel costs, and higher taxes
   (3) increased use of fuel, more stable ecosystems, and less availability of solar radiation
   (4) more air pollution, increased use of solar energy, and greater production of oil
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 A clear plastic ruler is placed across the middle of the field of view of a compound light microscope. A row
   of cells can be seen under low-power magnification (100×).
What is the average length of a single cell in micrometers (μm)?
(1) 10 μm                                                  (3) 200 μm
(2) 100 μm                                                 (4) 2000 μm
Answer: 3

32.
32 The graph below represents the populations of two different species in an ecosystem over a period of
   several years.
Which statement is a possible explanation for the changes shown?
(1) Species A is better adapted to this environment.
(2) Species A is a predator of species B.
(3) Species B is better adapted to this environment.
(4) Species B is a parasite that has benefited species A.
Answer: 3

33.
33 A mineral supplement designed to prevent the flu was given to two groups of people during a scientific
   study. Dosages of the supplement were measured in milligrams per day, as shown in the table below.
After 10 weeks, neither group reported a case of the flu. Which procedure would have made the outcome
of this study more valid?
(1) test only one group with 200 mg of the supplement
(2) test the supplement on both groups for 5 weeks instead of 10 weeks
(3) test a third group that receives 150 mg of the supplement
(4) test a third group that does not receive the supplement
Answer: 4

34.
34 The diagram below shows a normal gene sequence and three mutated sequences of a segment of DNA.
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the cause of each type of mutation?

Answer: 1

35.
   Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the
energy pyramid below and on your knowledge of biology.
35 Which level includes organisms that receive their
   energy from level B?
   (1) A                    (3) C
   (2) B                    (4) D
Answer: 1

36.
36 Which level includes organisms that get their
   energy exclusively from a source other than the
   organisms in this ecosystem?
   (1) A                     (3) C
   (2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 4

37.
37 The chart below compares the size of three
   structures: a gene, a nucleus, and a chromosome.
Based on this information, structure A would
most likely be a
(1) chromosome that is part of structure C
(2) chromosome that contains structures B and C
(3) nucleus that contains both structure B and
    structure A
(4) gene that is part of structure B
Answer: 4

38.
38 The diagram below shows molecules represented
   by X both outside and inside of a cell.
A process that would result in the movement of
these molecules out of the cell requires the use of
(1) DNA                   (3) antigens
(2) ATP                   (4) antibodies
Answer: 2

39.
39 Which statement most accurately predicts what
   would happen in the aquarium shown below if it
   were tightly covered and maintained in natural
   light for one month?
(1) The water temperature would rapidly
    decrease.
(2) The process of respiration in the snail would
    decrease.
(3) The rate of reproduction of the fish would be
    affected.
(4) The organisms would probably survive
    because materials would cycle.
Answer: 4

40.
40 The data table below shows an effect of secondhand smoke on the birth weight of babies born to husbands
   and wives living together during pregnancy.
Based on these data, a reasonable conclusion that can be drawn about secondhand smoke during pregnancy
is that secondhand smoke
(1) is unable to pass from the mother to the fetus         (3) causes mutations in cells of the ovaries
(2) slows the growth of the fetus                          (4) blocks the receptors on antibody cells
Answer: 2

41.
41 A limiting factor unique to a field planted with corn year after year is most likely
   (1) temperature                                             (3) water
   (2) sunlight                                                (4) soil nutrients
Answer: 4

42.
      Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           After the Aswan High Dam was built on the Nile River, the rate of parasitic blood-fluke
        infection doubled in the human population near the dam. As a result of building the dam,
        the flow of the Nile changed. This changed the habitat, which resulted in an increase in its
        population of a certain aquatic snail. The snails, which were infected, released larvae of the
        fluke. These larvae then infected humans.
42 This situation best illustrates that
   (1) the influence of humans on a natural system is always negative in the long term
   (2) the influence of humans on a natural system can have unpredictable negative impacts
   (3) human alteration of an ecosystem does not need to be studied to avoid ecological disaster
   (4) human alteration of an ecosystem will cause pollution and loss of finite resources
Answer: 2

43.
43 The role of the snail may be described as a
   (1) host                                      (3) producer
   (2) parasite                                  (4) decomposer
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44 – 55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding
the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions
in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

44.
44 The table below shows the abundance of some greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Identify the most abundant greenhouse gas and state one human activity that is a source
of this gas. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying CO2 or carbon dioxide and stating one human activity that is a
       source of this gas. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — driving cars
             — respiration
             — burning fossil fuels
             — deforestation


45.
45 The United States government does not allow travelers from foreign countries to bring
   plants, fruits, vegetables, animals, or other living organisms into this country. State one
   biological reason for keeping these out of the United States. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Organisms may contain parasites or diseases, which could spread to organisms in our
               country.
             — The imported organisms may compete better than domestic species.
             — Some introduced species may compete with native species for food and habitat.
             — no natural predators


46.
   Base your answers to questions 46 through 49 on the information and data table below
and on your knowledge of biology.
           Birds colliding with aircraft either on the ground or in the air create
         problems for the Air Force. An organization known as BASH (Bird
         Aircraft Strike Hazard) studied the impact of birds colliding with aircraft.
         In 2001, there were 3854 bird collisions reported at a total cost to the Air
         Force of over 31 million dollars in damage—approximately eight
         thousand dollars per collision. August, September, and October were the
         busiest months with 1442 collisions. Nearly 50% of all these collisions
         occurred in the airfield environment, an environment that can most
         easily be controlled.
           The top five species of birds involved in these collisions are listed in
         the data table below.
Directions (46–47): Using the information in the data table, construct a bar graph on
the grid, following the directions below.
46 Mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Number of Collisions.” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Number of Collisions.”


47.
47 Construct vertical bars to represent the data. Shade in each bar. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for constructing vertical bars to represent the data.
Note: Allow credit if the correct data are clearly represented, even if the bars are not shaded.
      Make no assumptions about the origin unless it is labeled.


48.
48 Is the problem with birds and aircraft limited to birds living on or near airport grounds?
   Support your answer using information from the passage. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit for “No” and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
         limited to:
            — The passage states that only about 50% occur in the airfield environment.


49.
49 State one possible reason that the greatest number of bird collisions occurs during
   August, September, and October. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
   Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Migration occurs during these months.
            — Birds feed in this area at this time.


50.
   Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
                             The Control of Transpiration
             Plants normally lose water from openings (stomates) in their leaves.
          The water loss typically occurs during daylight hours when plants are
          exposed to the Sun. This water loss, known as transpiration, is both
          beneficial and harmful to plants.
             Scientists believe wind and high temperatures increase the rate of
          transpiration, but the size of each stomate opening can be regulated.
          Reducing the size of the openings during drought conditions may help
          reduce the dehydration and wilting that would otherwise occur.
             A leaf may lose more than its own weight in water each day.
          Transpiration also lowers the internal temperature of the leaf as water
          evaporates. On hot days, temperatures in the leaves may be from 3° to
          15°C cooler than the outside air. With stomates open, vital gases may
          be exchanged between the leaf tissues and the outside environment.
             Researchers have also found many plants that use another response
          when leaf temperatures rise. Special molecules known as heat shock
          proteins are produced by plant cells and help to hold enzymes in their
          functional shapes.
 50 State one way transpiration is beneficial to plants. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Transpiration helps plants cool off on hot days.
             — While transpiration is occurring, the stomates are open, allowing the exchange of
               important gases.


51.
51 Identify two of the “vital gases” that are exchanged between leaf tissues and the
   outside environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — oxygen
             — water vapor
             — carbon dioxide


52.
52 Identify the specific leaf structures that regulate the opening and closing of stomates.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for guard cells.


53.
53 Explain why it is important for plants to “hold enzymes in their functional shapes.” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — If the shape of an enzyme changes, it may not function or it may function differently.
             — Key activities may slow down or stop.
             — The shape of an enzyme determines its function.


54.
54 The graph below shows the growth of a population of coyotes in a wilderness area.
State one possible cause for the population decrease at X. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — disease
             — harsh winter
             — food supply decreased
             — predators
         Note: Do not accept “death” or “they died” without a corresponding cause.


55.
55 The information in the chart below represents the sex chromosome arrangement in
   humans and birds. Sex chromosomes contain genes involved in sex determination.
In humans, it is the male gamete that is responsible for determining the sex of the
offspring. Identify which type of gamete determines the sex of the offspring in birds.
Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for female or egg or zw and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
             — Female gametes have one of two different types of sex chromosomes.
             — The egg may contain one of two different types of sex chromosomes.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–64): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
    Base your answer to question 56 on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.
                                 Help for Aging Memories
            As aging occurs, the ability to form memories begins to decrease.
          Research has shown that an increase in the production of a certain
          molecule, BDNF, seems to restore the processes involved in storing
          memories. BDNF is found in the central nervous system and seems to
          be important in maintaining nerve cell health. Researchers are testing a
          new drug that seems to increase the production of BDNF.
 56 Design an experiment to test the effectiveness of the new drug to increase the production
    of BDNF in the brains of rats. In your answer, be sure to:
    • state the hypothesis your experiment will test [1]
    • describe how the control group will be treated differently from the experimental
       group [1]
    • identify two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control
       groups [1]
    • identify the dependent variable in your experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating the hypothesis the experiment will test. Acceptable responses
  include, but are not limited to:
   — Rats that are given the drug will show an increase in BDNF in their brains.
   — The drug affects memory formation in rats.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis that is written in the form of a question.
• Allow 1 credit for describing how the control group will be treated differently from the
  experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The control group will not get the drug; the experimental group will.
   — The control group will get a placebo.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental
  and control groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Both groups should have the same number of rats.
   — rats of the same age
   — kept in same conditions
   — given the same food
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the dependent variable in the experiment.
   — amount of BDNF found in their nerve tissue
   — ability to form/store memories


57.
   Base your answers to questions 57 through 59 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           Rabbits eat plants and in turn are eaten by predators such as foxes
         and wolves. A population of rabbits is found in which a few have a
         genetic trait that gives them much better than average leg strength.
 57 Predict how the frequency of the trait for above average leg strength would be expected
    to change in the population over time. Explain your prediction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The above average leg-strength trait would increase in frequency because the rabbits
               with the stronger legs would be more likely to get away from predators.


58.
58 State what is likely to happen to the rabbits in the population that do not have the trait
   for above average leg strength. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The rabbits that do not have the stronger leg-strength trait will start to decrease in
               number.
             — They might be eaten by predators.
         Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 57.


59.
59 It was later discovered that the rabbits born with the trait for above average leg
   strength also inherited the trait for poor eyesight. Taking into account this new
   information, explain how your predictions would change. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — The frequency of the trait for above average leg strength might actually decrease because
               the poor eyesight might be more of a disadvantage than the leg strength is an advantage.
             — Now it seems that the frequency will more likely decrease because they will not see well
               enough to get away.
             — The frequency of the trait for above average leg strength will remain the same because
               the advantage will be canceled out by a disadvantage.


60.
    Base your answer to question 60 on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             Bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment is becoming an increasing
          problem for the medical community. It is estimated that 70% of
          bacteria that cause infections in hospitals are resistant to at least one of
          the drugs used for treatment. Dangerous strains of tuberculosis (TB)
          have emerged that are resistant to several major antibiotic drugs. While
          drug-resistant TB is generally treatable, it requires much longer
          treatments with several antibiotics that are very expensive.
 60 Explain the loss of effectiveness of antibiotic drugs. In your explanation, be sure to:
    • identify the genetic event that resulted in the original antibiotic resistance in some
      strains of bacteria [1]
    • explain how the overuse of antibiotics can increase bacterial resistance [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the genetic event that resulted in the original antibiotic resistance
           in some strains of bacteria. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — mutation
             — a change in the DNA code
         • Allow 1 credit for explaining how the overuse of antibiotics can increase bacterial resistance.
           Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — Antibiotics kill only nonresistant strains. Resistant bacteria survive and reproduce.
             — Overuse of antibiotics selects for resistant strains of bacteria.


61.
   Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
             The average life expectancy of humans in the United States
          increased from 63.3 years in 1943 to 77.6 years in 2003. This, combined
          with other factors, has led to an increase in population.
 61 State one factor that contributed to the increase in life expectancy in the United States.
    [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — better medical treatments
           — better sanitation


62.
62 State one way the increase in population affects other species. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Human requirements for space, food, and resources often harm other species.
           — As humans build more homes/roads/malls, animal habitats are destroyed.
           — Increased population increases competition with other species for limited resources.


63.
63 The diagram below represents a cell found in some complex organisms. The enlarged
   section represents an organelle, labeled X, found in this cell.
Describe the function of organelle X and explain how it is important to the survival of
the cell. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify organelle X [1]
• state the process that this organelle performs [1]
• identify the two raw materials that are needed for this process to occur [1]
• identify one molecule produced by this organelle and explain why it is important to
  the organism [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 5 credits, allocated as follows:
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying organelle X as a mitochondrion.
         • Allow 1 credit for stating the process this organelle performs. Acceptable responses include, but
           are not limited to:
             — respiration
             — aerobic respiration
             — releases energy
         Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to the first bullet.
         • Allow 1 credit for identifying the two raw materials needed for this process to occur.
           Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — sugar/glucose
             — oxygen (O2)
         Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to the first bullet.
         • Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for identifying one molecule produced by this organelle
           and 1 credit for explaining why it is important to the organism. Acceptable responses include,
           but are not limited to:
             — ATP – This molecule makes energy available for life functions.
             — Water – This molecule is important for chemical reactions.
             — CO2 – This is a waste product that needs to be removed to maintain homeostasis.
         Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to the first bullet.


64.
  Base your answer to question 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                        The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
          The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska is the last
        great wilderness in America. Many migratory animals stop there to feed
        and rest. This region also supports an abundance of wildlife, including
        various types of vegetation, herbivores such as musk oxen and reindeer,
        and carnivores such as polar bears and wolves.
64 Wolves often hunt reindeer for food. State the effect on the size of the wolf population
   if the amount of vegetation were to drop suddenly. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — As the amount of vegetation decreases, the number of wolves will also decrease. The
               wolves will eventually starve because the animals they eat (herbivores) have less food.
             — The wolves will decrease because they have less food.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (65–77): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

65.
65 The amino acid sequences of three species shown below were determined in an
   investigation of evolutionary relationships.
        Species A: Val      His      Leu      Ser      Pro      Val     Glu
        Species B: Val      His      Leu      Cys      Pro      Val     Glu
        Species C: Val      His      Thr      Ser      Pro      Glu     Glu
  Based on these data, which two species are most closely related? Support your answer.
  [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for species A and B and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — They are most closely related because there is only one difference in the sequence.
            — They have the most in common.


66.
66 A student carried out a lab activity where she was asked to squeeze a clothespin as many
   times as she could in one minute and record that number. She immediately tried the
   same activity again, thinking she could do better the second time, but the number was
   lower. She immediately tried again, but the number was lower still.
   State one reason why she continued to get lower numbers, even though she tried to
   increase the number of squeezes several times. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — As she continued to use her hand, her muscles became fatigued.
            — Wastes built up.
            — ATP was used up.


67.
67 A laboratory setup using an artificial cell made from dialysis tubing is shown in the
   diagram below.
Identify the process that would most likely be responsible for the movement of glucose
from inside the artificial cell to the solution outside of the cell. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for diffusion or passive transport.


68.
   Base your answers to questions 68 through 71 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            Scientists attempted to determine the evolutionary relationships
         between three different plant species, A, B, and C. In order to do this,
         they examined the stems and DNA of these species. Diagram 1 represents a microscopic view of the cross sections of the stems of these
         three species. DNA was extracted from all three species and analyzed
         using gel electrophoresis. The results are shown in diagram 2. Based on
         the data they collected, they drew diagram 3 to represent the possible
         evolutionary relationships.
68 State why the evolutionary relationships shown in diagram 3 are not supported by the
   data provided by the stem cross sections in diagram 1. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — According to diagram 3, C should look different from A and B.
             — The stem cross sections show that A, B, and C have similar stem structure, indicating that
               they are most likely closely related. Diagram 3 shows that only A and B are closely
               related.


69.
69 Explain how the DNA banding pattern in diagram 2 supports the evolutionary
   relationships between the species shown in diagram 3. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             — A and B have the most bands in common.


70.
70 This technique used to analyze DNA involves the
   (1) synthesis of new DNA strands from subunits
   (2) separation of DNA fragments on the basis of size
   (3) production of genetically engineered DNA molecules
   (4) removal of defective genes from DNA
Answer:
2


71.
71 Explain why information obtained through DNA analysis is a more reliable indicator of
   evolutionary relationships than observations of stem cross sections with a microscope.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — DNA analysis is more reliable since the more similar the DNA, the closer the
     relationship.
   — Organisms can have similar features, but the DNA coding for these features can be very
     different.
   — DNA analysis might reveal the actual genetic makeup.


72.
   Base your answers to questions 72 through 74 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            A wet-mount slide of red onion cells is studied using a compound
         light microscope. A drawing of one of the cells as seen under high
         power is shown below.
72 On the diagram below, label the location of each of the cell structures listed. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for labeling the locations of the cell wall and the cell membrane and cytoplasm on
the diagram.
Note: All three must be correctly labeled to receive this credit.


73.
73 Describe the proper way to add a saltwater solution to the cells without removing the
   coverslip. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Place saltwater solution on one side of the coverslip. Then draw the saltwater solution
     under the coverslip by placing a piece of paper towel on the opposite side.
   — Place a drop of saltwater solution on one side of a coverslip and a paper towel on the
     other side.


74.
74 In the space below, sketch how the cell would look after the saltwater solution is added
   to it. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for showing that the membrane has pulled away from the cell wall.
Note: Allow credit if the cell is correctly drawn but not shaded.


75.
75 A student added an enzyme to a test tube containing a sample of DNA. After a period
   of time, analysis of the DNA sample indicated it was now broken into three segments.
   The purpose of the enzyme was most likely to
   (1) cut the DNA at a specific location
   (2) move the DNA to a different organism
   (3) copy the DNA for protein synthesis
   (4) alter the DNA sequence in the segment
Answer:
1


76.
    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology. The diagram shows the heads of four different species of Galapagos Islands
finches.
76 The four different types of beaks shown are most likely the result of
   (1) gene manipulation
   (2) natural selection
   (3) unchanging environmental conditions
   (4) patterns of behavior learned from parents
Answer:
2


77.
77 Scientists observed that when two closely related species of predatory birds live in
   different areas, they seek prey early in the morning. However, when their territories
   overlap, one species hunts at night and the other hunts in the morning. When these
   two species live in the same area, they apparently modify their
   (1) habitat
   (2) niche
   (3) ecosystem
   (4) biodiversity
Answer:
2



  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents June 2010 Exam


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