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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2011 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Which phrase is an example of autotrophic
  nutrition?
  (1) a cow eating grass in a field
  (2) a mushroom digesting a dead log
  (3) an apple tree making its own food
  (4) a tapeworm feeding in the body of a dog
Answer: 3

2.
2 The ability of estrogen to affect certain cells
  depends directly on
  (1) amino acids         (3) gametes
  (2) receptor molecules (4) nerve cells
Answer: 2

3.
3 By studying the chemicals in rare plants that
  grow only in rain forests, scientists hope to
  discover new life-saving medicines. Chances of
  finding such new medicines are reduced by
  (1) predation by carnivores
  (2) homeostasis in organisms
  (3) recycling of materials in food webs
  (4) loss of species due to human activities
Answer: 4


4.
4 When a species includes organisms with a wide
  variety of traits, it is most likely that this species
  will have
  (1) a high proportion of individuals immune to
      genetic diseases
  (2) a greater chance to survive if environmental
      conditions suddenly change
  (3) less success competing for resources
  (4) limitless supplies of important resources,
      such as food and water
Answer: 2

5.
5 Some diseases and their causes are listed below.
       A. Flu—influenza virus
       B. Lung cancer—smoking
       C. Cystic fibrosis—genes
       D. Dysentery—parasitic ameba
 Which disease would individuals have the
 greatest difficulty preventing in themselves?
 (1) A                      (3) C
 (2) B                      (4) D
Answer: 3

6.
6 The diagram below represents the banding
  pattern for human chromosome 11, with some of
  the bands labeled.
The bands represent
(1) proteins          (3) starches
(2) genes             (4) enzymes
Answer: 2

7.
7 A liver cell can make enzymes that a heart cell
  can not make because liver cells
  (1) digest large, complex molecules
  (2) contain more DNA than heart cells
  (3) use different genes than the heart cells use
  (4) remove carbon dioxide from blood
Answer: 3

8.
8 As male children get older, some begin to
  closely resemble their fathers and have no
  resemblance to their mothers. Which statement
  best explains this observation?
  (1) Several sperm fertilized the egg, so the fertilized
      egg contained more genes from their father.
  (2) More genes are inherited from the sperm
      cell of their father than from the egg cell of
      their mother, so most traits will be like those
      of their father.
  (3) More genes from their father are expressed
      in traits that can be seen, and more genes
      from their mother are expressed in traits that
      cannot be seen, such as blood type or
      enzyme function.
  (4) Genes from their father are stronger than
      genes from their mother, so the genes from
      their mother are not expressed.
Answer: 3

9.
9 Which row in the chart below contains a cell structure paired with its primary function?

Answer: 1

10.
10 Which sequence represents the levels of biological organization from smallest to largest?
   (1) organism → cell → tissue → organelle → organ system → organ
   (2) organ system → organ → organism → cell → tissue → organelle
   (3) organelle → organ system → cell → organism → tissue → organ
   (4) organelle → cell → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
Answer: 4

11.
11 The diagram below represents division of a cell that produces two daughter cells.
Which statement most likely describes the daughter cells produced?
(1) The daughter cells will pass on only half of the genetic information they received from the original cell.
(2) The daughter cells will each produce offspring that will have the same genetic information as the
    original cell.
(3) The daughter cells will each undergo the same mutations as the original cell after reproduction has
    occurred.
(4) The daughter cells will not pass on any of the genes that they received from the original cell.
Answer: 2

12.
12 Which concept is best represented in the diagram below?
(1) random mutations        (3) genetic engineering
(2) ecological succession   (4) direct harvesting
Answer: 2

13.
13 The cells that make up leaves on a tree are
   genetically identical, yet the leaves often have
   different shapes and sizes, as shown in the
   diagram below.
Which statement best explains this difference in
leaf appearance?
(1) The leaves at the top of the tree get more
    sunlight, causing the genes in their cells to
    be expressed differently.
(2) The genes in the cells of leaves at the top of
    the tree are destroyed by sunlight, causing
    the leaves to stop growing.
(3) The leaves near the bottom of the tree have
    more genes related to leaf size, causing them
    to grow larger.
(4) The genes in the cells of leaves near the
    bottom of the tree increase in number,
    causing them to grow even larger.
Answer: 1

14.
14 Selective breeding is a technique that is used to
   (1) give all organisms a chance to reproduce
   (2) produce organisms from extinct species
   (3) produce offspring with certain desirable
       traits
   (4) keep farm crops free of all mutations
Answer: 3

15.
15 On hot, dry days, guard cells often close
   microscopic openings in plant leaves, conserving
   water. This is an example of
   (1) environmental factors causing gene mutation
       in plants
   (2) finite resources acting as selecting agents for
       evolution
   (3) a feedback mechanism for maintaining
       homeostasis
   (4) differentiation in plants as a result of stimuli
Answer: 3


16.
16 The diagram below represents a portion of a
   DNA molecule.
The letters represent different types of
(1) sugar molecules       (3) enzymes
(2) molecular bases       (4) proteins
Answer: 2

17.
17 Cotton plants produce seeds that contain
   high-quality protein. This protein could be used
   as a food source except that the seeds are
   poisonous to humans. Recently, scientists have
   inserted a section of DNA into the cotton plants
   that makes the cotton seeds nonpoisonous. The
   technique for this procedure is known as
   (1) gene manipulation (3) reproduction
   (2) cloning               (4) direct harvesting
Answer: 1

18.
18 Which mutation in a fruit fly could be passed on
   to its offspring?
   (1) a mutation in a cell of an eye that changes
        the color of the eye
   (2) a mutation in a leg cell that causes the leg to
        be shorter
   (3) a mutation in a sperm cell that changes the
        shape of the wing
   (4) a mutation in a cell of the digestive tract that
        produces a different enzyme
Answer: 3

19.
19 Which process initially provides the link
   between an abiotic factor and the energy needs
   of an entire ecosystem?
   (1) respiration          (3) decomposition
   (2) photosynthesis       (4) predation
Answer: 2

20.
20 Buffalo grass is a species of plant found on the
   grazing prairies of Wyoming. It is a tough grass
   that has silicates (compounds containing
   oxygen and silicon) that reinforce its leaves. For
   hundreds of years, this grass has survived in an
   adverse environment. Which statement best
   explains the presence of this grass today?
   (1) There are no variations in this grass species
       that help it to survive in an adverse
       environment.
   (2) Silicates are necessary for photosynthesis.
   (3) The current species has no mutations.
   (4) The silicates in the grass have given the
       species an advantage in its environment.
Answer: 4

21.
21 The bud shown in the diagram below was
   produced by asexual reproduction.
Which process is responsible for the formation
of the bud?
(1) fertilization       (3) mitosis
(2) recombination       (4) meiosis
Answer: 3

22.
22 The temporary storage of energy in ATP
   molecules is part of which process?
   (1) cell division         (3) protein synthesis
   (2) cellular respiration (4) DNA replication
Answer: 2

23.
23 A function of white blood cells is to
   (1) transport oxygen to body cells
   (2) produce hormones that regulate cell
       communication
   (3) carry glucose to body cells
   (4) protect the body against pathogens
Answer: 4

24.
24 Competition for biotic resources can be illustrated
   by organisms fighting for a limited amount of
   (1) air to breathe         (3) mates for breeding
   (2) water to drink         (4) space for nesting
Answer: 3

25.
25 Many biological catalysts, hormones, and
   receptor molecules are similar in that, in order
   to function properly, they must
   (1) interact with each other at a high pH
   (2) interact with molecules that can alter their
       specific bonding patterns
   (3) contain amino acid chains that fold into a
       specific shape
   (4) contain identical DNA base sequences
Answer: 3

26.
26 If only one type of tree is planted in an
   abandoned field, the ecosystem will
   (1) evolve quickly and become extinct
   (2) be unable to reach dynamic equilibrium
   (3) contain little genetic variability
   (4) be unable to cycle materials
Answer: 3

27.
27 Which organisms directly help to reduce
   overpopulation in a deer herd?
   (1) parasites and predators
   (2) parasites and scavengers
   (3) decomposers and predators
   (4) decomposers and consumers
Answer: 1

28.
28 In the human body, oxygen is absorbed by the
   lungs and nutrients are absorbed by the small
   intestine. In a single-celled organism, this
   absorption directly involves the
   (1) nucleus               (3) cell membrane
   (2) chloroplasts          (4) chromosomes
Answer: 3

29.
29 An earthworm lives and reproduces in the soil. It
   aerates the soil and adds organic material to it.
   The earthworm is a source of food for other
   organisms. All of these statements together best
   describe
   (1) a habitat
   (2) autotrophic nutrition
   (3) an ecological niche
   (4) competition
Answer: 3

30.
30 Depletion of nonrenewable resources is often a
   result of
   (1) environmental laws
   (2) human population growth
   (3) reforestation
   (4) recycling
Answer: 2


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 The bar graph below shows the height of a plant at
   the end of each week of a five-week growth period.
Which statement represents a valid conclusion
based on the information in the graph?
(1) The plant was given water during the first
    three weeks, only.
(2) The plant will grow faster during the sixth
    week than it did during the fifth week.
(3) The plant grew fastest during the first three
    weeks, and then it grew slower.
(4) The plant grew slowest during the first three
    weeks, and then it grew faster.
Answer: 3

32.
32 A diagram frequently used in ecological studies
   is shown below.
This diagram can be used to represent the
(1) dependency of animal survival on physical
    conditions in an ecosystem
(2) loss of energy from various groups of
    organisms in an ecosystem
(3) competition among species in an ecosystem
(4) mechanisms that maintain homeostasis in
    the plants in an ecosystem
Answer: 2

33.
33 A biologist formulates a hypothesis, performs
   experiments to test his hypothesis, makes careful
   observations, and keeps accurate records of his
   findings. In order to complete this process, the
   biologist should
   (1) adjust the data to support the hypothesis
   (2) eliminate data that do not support the
       hypothesis
   (3) write a research paper explaining his
       theories before performing his experiments,
       in order to gain funding sources
   (4) evaluate the findings and, if necessary, alter
       the hypothesis based on his findings, and test
       the new hypothesis
Answer: 4

34.
    Base your answer to question 34 on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of biology.
34 Structure X most likely functions in the
   (1) transport of chemical messenger molecules
       into the cell nucleus
   (2) extraction of energy from nutrients
   (3) separation of cell contents from the outside
       environment
   (4) digestion of large molecules
Answer: 1

35.
35 The arrows in the diagram below represent the
   movement of materials.
This movement of materials indicated by the
arrows is most directly involved in the processes of
(1) respiration and replication
(2) photosynthesis and excretion
(3) digestion and recycling
(4) circulation and coordination
Answer: 2

36.
36 When using a compound light microscope, the
   most common reason for staining a specimen
   being observed is to
   (1) keep the organism from moving around
   (2) make the view more colorful
   (3) determine the effects of chemicals on the
       organism
   (4) reveal details that are otherwise not easily seen
Answer: 4

37.
    Base your answers to questions 37 through 39 on
the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
37 Failure of structure A to function properly
   would most directly disrupt
   (1) autotrophic nutrition
   (2) chromosome replication
   (3) cellular communication
   (4) biological evolution
Answer: 3

38.
38 Structure B represents
   (1) cells, only
   (2) cells and tissues, only
   (3) an organ with cells and tissues
   (4) a complete system with organs, tissues, and
       cells
Answer: 3

39.
39 Structure C is part of which body system?
   (1) digestive             (3) circulatory
   (2) reproductive          (4) nervous
Answer: 2

40.
40 Thrips are insects that feed on the pollen and flowers of certain plants. The size of a thrip population
   depends on the number of flowers available. Which graph best represents changes in a population of thrips
   if winter was longer than usual and the summer was too cool and dry for many flowers to bloom?

Answer: 1

41.
41 The percent of DNA that species A has in common with species B, C, D, and E are shown in the graph
   below.
Which statement is a valid conclusion that can be drawn from this graph?
(1) Species A is closely related to species B, but is not related to species E.
(2) Fewer mutations have occurred in species B and C than in species A.
(3) Species A and E have the greatest similarity in protein structure.
(4) Environment influences the rate of evolution.
Answer: 3

42.
  Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
           …Corals come in about 1,500 known species—from soft swaying fans to stony varieties
        with hard skeletons that form reef bases. They are made up of polyps, tiny animals that live
        in colonies and feed at night on microscopic plants and creatures. The coral’s surface is the
        living part, with color infused by single-celled algae called zooxanthellae that live in polyp
        tissue. The algae act like solar panels, passing energy to the coral as they photosynthesize
        while feeding on the coral’s waste.
           Extremely sensitive, corals survive in a narrow range of temperature, sunlight and
        salinity. An uncommonly severe El Niño in 1998 raised ocean temperatures and changed
        currents, causing bleaching that devastated reefs worldwide. Scientists say parts of the
        Indian Ocean lost up to 90 percent of corals. The bleaching struck reefs around the Persian
        Gulf, East Africa, Southeast Asia and the Caribbean. Some recovered. Many died. …
                                                                Source: Associated Press, December 2001
42 The relationship between the polyps and the zooxanthellae can best be described as
   (1) negative for both                                   (3) positive for both
   (2) neutral for both                                    (4) negative for one and positive for the other
Answer: 3

43.
43 The passage contains information concerning
   (1) limiting factors                          (3) bacteria
   (2) reproductive methods                      (4) competition
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on your separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided.

44.
44 State one way insect pests in an apple orchard can be controlled without using chemical pesticides. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — increase the number of natural predators of the insect pest
   — use a biological control
   — use flypaper/traps


45.
45 The tranquilizer thalidomide was once prescribed for pregnant women. When this drug was used between
   the third and sixth week after fertilization, serious deformities in the fetus occurred as the fetus developed.
   State why thalidomide would have a greater effect on development when used between weeks 3 and 6 than
   when used in late pregnancy. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Most organs begin to develop between weeks 3 and 6, whereas, in late pregnancy, these
     organs are fully formed.
   — In late pregnancy, major organs would already have been formed and less damage would have occurred.


46.
46 Draw an arrow to indicate one part of the plant cell below that would not be found in an animal cell. The
   tip of the arrow must touch the part being identified. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for an arrow indicating one of the three correct plant parts, shown below.

Note: If more than one arrow is drawn, all arrows must be correct to receive credit.


47.
    Base your answers to questions 47 and 48 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of
biology.
           Body weight is considered to be a risk factor for diseases such as diabetes and high blood
         pressure. The Body Mass Index (BMI) chart can be used as a guide to determine if a
         person’s body weight puts them at risk for such diseases. A portion of this chart is shown
         below.
47 The BMI for a person who is 5 feet 9 inches tall and weighs 170 pounds is between
   (1) 24 and 25                                           (3) 27 and 28
   (2) 25 and 26                                           (4) 29 and 30
Answer: 2

48.
48 Is the person described in question 47 at risk for diseases such as diabetes or high blood pressure? Support
   your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The BMI indicates the person is overweight and is therefore at risk for these diseases.
   — There is a slight risk because the BMI places the person in the overweight range, but not in
     the obese range.
   — yes, because the BMI is over 25


49.
49 The diagram below represents a food web.
Which species would most likely be a decomposer?
(1) A                                              (3) C
(2) B                                              (4) D
Answer: 2

50.
Base your answers to questions 50 and 51 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
        Plants of the snow lotus species, Saussurea laniceps, are used in Tibet and China to
      produce traditional medicines. These plants bloom just once, at the end of a seven-year life
      span. Collectors remove the taller blooming plants, which they consider to have the best
      medicinal value. Some scientists are concerned that the continual selection and removal of
      the tall plants from natural ecosystems may result in a change in the average height of the
      snow lotus in future populations.
50 The removal of the taller plants is an example of
   (1) genetic engineering                             (3) selective breeding
   (2) direct harvesting                               (4) asexual reproduction
Answer: 2

51.
51 State one way that the removal of the taller snow lotus plants from ecosystems interferes with the process
   of natural selection. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — It results in a smaller gene pool.
   — It reduces the variety available for selection within populations.
   — Tall varieties would not have a chance to reproduce.
   — removes genes for tallness from the population


52.
Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
        A biology class conducted an experiment to determine the rate of respiration of yeast in
      bread dough at various temperatures.
        Bread dough will rise due to the production of carbon dioxide by the yeast present in the
      dough.
        An equal amount of dough was placed in the bottom of each of five graduated cylinders.
      Each cylinder was then placed in a different water bath to maintain a particular
      temperature. A diagram of the setup is shown below.
The amount of expansion of the dough in each cylinder was measured after 15 minutes.
The results are shown in the data table below.
Directions (52–53): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the
directions below.
 52 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the axis labeled “Temperature of Water Bath (°C).” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the “Temperature of Water
Bath (°C)” axis.


53.
53 Plot the data from the data table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 52 and 53:
Note: Allow credit if the points are plotted correctly but not circled.
      Do not assume the intersection of the x-axis and y-axis is the origin (0,0) unless it is labeled.
      An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


54.
54 At which temperature did yeast cells produce the least amount of gas in 15 minutes? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 90°C or an answer consistent with the student’s graph for questions 52 and 53.


55.
55 Identify the independent variable in this investigation. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for temperature.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
56.
   Base your answer to question 56–59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Many people have a sensitivity to peanuts. The symptoms can include watery, itchy eyes
          and difficulty breathing. This allergic reaction can be mild, severe, or fatal.
56–59 Discuss why an individual can have a sensitivity to peanuts. In your answer, be sure to:
    • identify the human system that is responsible for this sensitivity to peanuts [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the human system that is responsible for this sensitivity to peanuts as
       the immune system.
        Note: Do not accept circulatory system.


57.
• identify the specific type of molecule that triggers an allergic reaction [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the specific type of molecule that triggers an allergic reaction.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — antigen
            — protein
            — allergen


58.
• state one reason why a person could be allergic to peanuts, but not be allergic to walnuts [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why a person could be allergic to peanuts, but not be allergic to
       walnuts. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — One type of antibody only reacts with (fits) one type of antigen.
            — Antibody reactions are specific.
            — Walnuts and peanuts have different proteins.
            — Walnuts and peanuts are made up of different chemicals.


59.
• describe how this reaction is similar to the rejection of a transplanted organ [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing how this reaction is similar to the rejection of a transplanted organ.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Transplanted organs also have antigens that will stimulate antibodies that will attack the organ.
            — They both stimulate immune responses.


60.
60 State one way the decision of high school students to drive to school rather than ride a bus to school can
   have a negative environmental impact on future generations. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Global warming is impacted when more carbon dioxide is produced by many cars driven by
              the same number of students that could be transported by a few buses.
            — The exhaust from additional cars may lead to air pollution that will affect the environment for
              years.
        Note: The student’s response must include a negative environmental impact. Stating “depleting
              fossil fuels” alone is not an acceptable answer.


61.
  Base your answers to questions 61 through 64 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
           Dandelions are weeds that are very common in many grassy areas of New York State.
        Dandelion flowers first open up in a bright-yellow stage, and later turn a fluffy white when
        they are ready to release their seeds. The seeds are carried by the wind, and can sometimes
        travel great distances before landing and growing into new plants. The stems of dandelions
        are usually very long, typically about 20–30 centimeters (cm), and stand high above the
        surrounding grass.
           A science teacher in Niagara County discovered an area in her lawn where nearly every
        dandelion had a stem less than 1 cm long. These short dandelions were replacing large
        amounts of grass in the lawn surrounding her house. They were growing much more
        thickly than the taller dandelions in other nearby areas. The short dandelions appeared to
        be growing very successfully in one area of her lawn, but did not appear to have spread to
        other areas of her lawn. The science teacher noticed that every time she mowed her lawn,
        the short dandelions were left untouched by the mower blades, and that their numbers
        were steadily increasing.
61 State one possible cause of the genetic variation in dandelion height. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — mutation
            — changes in DNA
            — recombination/recombining of genes


62.
62 State one possible explanation for the fact that the short dandelions had not yet spread to other areas of her
   lawn. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The seeds from plants with shorter stems are less likely to be carried by the wind.
            — The short dandelions do not have an adaptation needed for survival in other areas of the lawn.
            — The seeds from the shorter dandelions did not land there.


63.
63 State one possible reason why the amount of grass was decreasing, while the number of short dandelions
   was increasing in the lawn of the science teacher. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The dandelions out-compete the grass for the same limited resources.
            — The dandelions are better adapted for survival.
            — The dandelions shade the grass.


64.
64 State one possible advantage the short dandelions may have over the tall dandelions in this yard. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Short dandelions are less likely to be cut down by a lawnmower.
            — Short dandelions will be left to reproduce.


65.
  Base your answers to questions 65 and 66 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           The New York State Department of Health issues health advisories on eating specific
        fish. Some of these fish contain toxic chemicals that were passed through the food chain and
        accumulate in the tissues of these fish. The advisories include general advice on fish caught
        in specific bodies of water. The advisory tells people how to minimize their exposure to
        toxins in these fish in order to reduce health risks associated with them.
65 Different species of fish are found in different positions in a food chain, depending on what they eat.
   Explain how the position of a fish in a food chain would affect the amount of toxins present in the tissues
   of the fish. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Organisms higher up in the food chain have a high concentration of toxins because they eat
              more of the organisms lower in the food chain and build up the concentration in their tissue.
            — Predators have a high concentration because they eat organisms that have already accumulated
              toxins.


66.
66 State one action that could be taken to reduce the amount of toxins present in the environment inhabited
   by these fish. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — pass laws to force individuals/companies to stop polluting
            — reduce runoff of environmental hazards from farms, roadways, or parking lots
            — remove the toxins from the environment
            — develop nontoxic alternatives to these chemicals


67.
Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
        The diagram below represents some stages in the life cycle of humans. The numbers in
      the diagram represent various processes in the cycle.
67 State how processes 1 and 2 affect the amount of genetic information provided by a parent to its offspring. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — These processes reduce the amount of genetic information from each parent by half.
            — Each parent only contributes half of the genetic information that is contained in his or her
              own cells.
            — Each egg (or each sperm) will carry only half of the genetic information contained in the
              parent’s body cells.


68.
68 State how process 3 affects the amount of genetic information an offspring receives. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — This process ensures that offspring will have all the genetic information needed.
            — Fertilization restores the full number of chromosomes characteristic of the species.
            — When the sperm and egg combine, the zygote will contain a full set of chromosomes.


69.
69 Suggest one way that doctors or patients can help to reduce the chances of bacteria becoming resistant to
   an antibiotic. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Doctors should prescribe antibiotics only for bacterial infections.
            — Patients should not use antibiotics without the advice of a doctor.
            — Patients should use the antibiotic for the prescribed number of days, and not stop taking it
              when they feel better.
            — Do not use antibiotics for viral infections.


70.
  Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           In the 198os, global deforestation was estimated at 17 to 20 million hectares per year, an
        area the size of Great Britain. Today, the area affected by deforestation has decreased
        significantly in some regions of the world through the use of sustainable forest
        management. However, there are still regions of the world affected by wide-scale
        deforestation, because of the short-term economic benefits. The harmful effects of
        deforestation on regional and worldwide climate and ecology continue as forest areas are
        destroyed.
70 State one short-term economic benefit of deforestation. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — obtain more farmland
            — more lumber available for sale
            — decrease the cost of lumber
            — space to build larger communities
            — increased profit
            — more jobs available


71.
71 Explain how deforestation decreases biodiversity. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — organisms lose habitats
            — many different species are removed
            — some species may become extinct


72.
72 Explain how wide-scale deforestation may contribute to global warming. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — With fewer plants to absorb carbon dioxide, the carbon dioxide remains in the atmosphere,
              contributing to the greenhouse effect that causes global warming.
            — If the trees are burned, carbon dioxide will be added to the atmosphere.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on your separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow directions given in the question and record your answer in the spaces provided.

73.
73 A model cell setup is represented in the “Initial State” diagram below.
Which diagram indicates the areas where each of these substances would be located after 20 minutes? [1]

Answer: 3

74.
74 Which factor most likely contributed to the evolution of Galapagos Islands finches with different beak
   shapes?
   (1)   similar climates on the different islands
   (2)   competition between the finches for food
   (3)   cloning experiments carried out by native people on the islands
   (4)   increased rate of asexual reproduction
Answer: 2

75.
Base your answer to question 75 on the finch diversity diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
75 Warbler finches are classified as
   (1) producers                       (3) carnivores
   (2) herbivores                      (4) decomposers
Answer: 3

76.
   Base your answers to questions 76 through 78 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
Letters A through E represent different species of organisms. The arrows represent long periods of geologic
time.
76 Which species would most likely show the greatest similarities in their amino acid sequences?
   (1) A and E                                              (3) B and D
   (2) A and B                                              (4) C and E
Answer: 2

77.
77 Which species is the common ancestor to all of the other species? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for A.


78.
78 Identify one species that was not able to adapt to its environment. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for species C or D or E and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — Species C, because it became extinct.
            — D, because it is no longer alive.
            — Species E does not continue to the present.


79.
    Base your answers to questions 79 through 81 on the information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology. The diagram represents some of the steps in a procedure used in a specific laboratory
activity.
            Samples of DNA from an eye-color gene of four individuals, W, X, Y, and Z, were cut
         into pieces using a type of chemical. The results of this procedure are shown below.
79 Identify the specific type of chemical used to cut the DNA in this procedure. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — enzymes
            — restriction enzymes
            — biological catalyst


80.
80 Which two individuals have DNA base patterns for this gene that are the most similar? Support your
   answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for W and Z and for supporting the answer.
            — because 4 of the 5 bands are identical
            — They have the greatest number of matching bands.


81.
81 The diagram represents the results of the procedure known as
   (1) cloning                                             (3) gel electrophoresis
   (2) chromatography                                      (4) protein sequencing
Answer: 3

82.
   Base your answer to question 82 on the results of an experiment using plant pigments represented below
and on your knowledge of biology.
82 Which phrase could be used to describe this technique?
   (1)   the use of chromatography to separate molecules in a mixture
   (2)   the use of cut leaves to observe certain colors
   (3)   using indicators to determine pH
   (4)   using dichotomous keys to identify plants
Answer: 1

83.
  Base your answers to questions 83 and 84 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          A student checked her pulse rate three times during one day. When she first woke up,
        her pulse rate was 54 beats per minute (bpm). As she walked to her first-period class, it was
        71 bpm. Later, she recorded 98 bpm after playing in a basketball game.
83 State one reason for the change in her pulse rate throughout the day. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — When the student was sleeping, her activity was minimal and her pulse rate was slow. When
              she was walking, she used more energy, resulting in an increased pulse rate.
            — Pulse rate varies with activity level.
            — Her body was maintaining homeostasis.
            — Her heart beats faster when she is more active.


84.
84 State one way a change in pulse rate helps to meet the needs of the body. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Increased pulse rate increases the availability of food and oxygen to cells.
            — The pulse rate is an indication of the activity level of the body. Additional food and oxygen is
              provided to body cells with an increase in pulse rate.
            — increases the removal of wastes from cells


85.
85 The diagram below shows a student heating some test tubes with chemicals in them during a laboratory
   activity.
Explain why putting stoppers in the test tubes could be dangerous. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The stoppers would pop out of the heated tubes and possibly injure someone.
            — The test tubes may explode.



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