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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2012 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 One characteristic of all living things is that they
  (1) develop organ systems
  (2) produce identical offspring
  (3) maintain internal stability
  (4) synthesize only inorganic matter
Answer: 3

2.
2 The diagram below represents interactions
  between organisms in a stable ecosystem.
Which statement correctly describes organisms
in this ecosystem?
(1) Organisms in level B obtain their energy
    directly from the Sun.
(2) Organisms in level C obtain their nutrients
    directly from organisms in level D.
(3) Organisms in level A are herbivores.
(4) Organisms in level D are heterotrophic.
Answer: 4

3.
3 Due to overfishing, the number of fish in the
  ocean could drastically decrease. This will cause
  (1) an increase in the stability of the oceans
  (2) an increase in the salt content of the oceans
  (3) a decrease in the stability of the oceans
  (4) a decrease in the oxygen available in the oceans
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which substance can enter a cell by diffusion
  without having to be digested?
  (1) water                (3) starch
  (2) protein              (4) fat
Answer: 1

5.
5 A single-celled organism is represented below.
Structure X carries out a function most similar to
which structure in a human?
(1) lung                   (3) ovary
(2) brain                  (4) heart
Answer: 1

6.
6 Parrots are tropical birds. However, in some
  areas of New York City, some parrots have been
  able to survive outdoors year-round. These
  parrots survive, while most others cannot, due to
  (1) overproduction of offspring
  (2) extinction of previous species
  (3) asexual reproduction of parrots with a mutation
  (4) a variation that allows these parrots to live in
      colder climates
Answer: 4

7.
7 Changing one base in a gene could have the
  most direct effect on the
  (1) function of the membrane of a cell
  (2) sequence of building blocks of a protein
      found in a cell
  (3) number of mitochondria in a cell
  (4) type of carbohydrates synthesized by a cell
Answer: 2

8.
8 An alteration of genetic information is shown
  below.
      A-G-T-A-C-C-G-A-T → A-G-T-G-A-T
  This type of alteration of the genetic information
  is an example of
  (1) deletion                (3) substitution
  (2) insertion               (4) recombination
Answer: 1

9.
9 The table below shows adaptations in two organisms.
The presence of these adaptations is most likely the result of
(1) reproductive technology                                (3) asexual reproduction
(2) natural selection                                      (4) human interference
Answer: 2

10.
10 The diagram below represents an activity that occurs in the human body.
This diagram best illustrates
(1) active transport             (3) synthesis of nutrients
(2) maintenance of homeostasis   (4) differentiation
Answer: 2

11.
11 In which row in the chart below is a human action correctly paired with its environmental impact?

Answer: 3

12.
12 A laboratory technique is represented in the
   diagram below. Letter A represents a process.
Which specific chemicals are needed to successfully carry out the process shown at A?
(1) receptor molecules (3) enzymes
(2) carbohydrates          (4) starch molecules
Answer: 3

13.
13 The diagram below represents genetic material.
The expression of the section labeled X may be
modified by
(1) temperature, only
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) the environment
(4) pH, only
Answer: 3

14.
14 Characteristics that are harmful to a species tend
   to decrease in frequency from generation to
   generation because these characteristics usually
   (1) have a high survival value for the species
   (2) have a low survival value for the species
   (3) are inherited by more individuals
   (4) affect only the older members of the population
Answer: 2

15.
15 Which situation results in a characteristic that is
   inheritable?
   (1) A limb is lost when two marine organisms fight.
   (2) A puppy learns to beg for food by watching
       an older dog perform tricks.
   (3) A gene is inserted into a bacterium, allowing
       the organism to produce insulin.
   (4) A random mutation causes the immediate
       death of a microbe.
Answer: 3


16.
16 Which statement best describes bat populations
   in a stable ecosystem?
   (1) They are held in check by environmental
       factors.
   (2) They are producers that rely indirectly on
       other producers.
   (3) They are not limited by natural predators.
   (4) They are not dependent on other species.
Answer: 1

17.
17 Which characteristic of a geographic region
   would have the greatest influence on the type of
   ecosystem that forms in that region?
   (1) ratio of autotrophs to heterotrophs
   (2) concentration of atmospheric oxygen
   (3) number of food chains
   (4) climatic conditions
Answer: 4

18.
18 A scientist claimed that he had cloned a guinea
   pig to produce two offspring, a male and a
   female. The claim is not valid because
   (1) guinea pigs can reproduce both sexually and
       asexually
   (2) the two offspring are not identical copies of
       the original guinea pig
   (3) each of the offspring had half the genetic
       information of the original guinea pig
   (4) none of the genetic information came from
       the original guinea pig
Answer: 2

19.
19 The major function of the placenta is to
   (1) cushion the fetus so it won’t be hurt when
       the mother moves
   (2) exchange food, oxygen, and waste between
       mother and fetus
   (3) store food for the fetus
   (4) support the egg for the process of fertilization
Answer: 2

20.
20 During the process of photosynthesis, energy
   from the Sun is converted into
   (1) chemical energy in the bonds of inorganic
       molecules
   (2) chemical energy in the bonds of organic
       molecules
   (3) enzymes used to produce inorganic molecules
   (4) enzymes used to produce organic molecules
Answer: 2

21.
21 A pesticide that kills an insect by interfering with
   the production of proteins in the insect would
   most directly affect the activity of
   (1) ribosomes               (3) chloroplasts
   (2) minerals                (4) mitochondria
Answer: 1

22.
22 When two different bird species temporarily
   occupy the same niche, they would most likely
   (1) change their nesting behaviors
   (2) not affect one another
   (3) interbreed to form a new species
   (4) compete with one another
Answer: 4

23.
23 Which group would most likely be represented
   in a food chain?
   (1) biotic factors
   (2) abiotic factors
   (3) inorganic compounds
   (4) finite resources
Answer: 1

24.
24 Which statement describes a similarity between
   all enzymes, antibodies, and hormones?
   (1) Their chemical structure is critical to their
        ability to function.
   (2) Their ability to replicate identical copies
        ensures continuation of the species.
   (3) They work better at 100°C than 37°C.
   (4) They are made by and carried by the blood.
Answer: 1

25.
25 The diagram below represents a cycling of
   materials.
Which row in the chart below shows the
substances represented by X and Y?

Answer: 3

26.
26 Over a long period of time, the stages represented
   in the diagram below were each present in a
   particular ecosystem.
After a forest fire, what is the most likely order
in which these stages appeared?
(1) D → C → A → B          (3) A → B → C → D
(2) B → D → C → A          (4) B → C → D → A
Answer: 2

27.
27 A ski resort installed a wind turbine similar to
   those represented below to supply some of its
   energy needs.
This turbine was most likely installed because
wind power is
(1) renewable and does substantial damage to
    the atmosphere
(2) renewable and does minimal damage to the
    atmosphere
(3) nonrenewable and does substantial damage
    to the atmosphere
(4) nonrenewable and does minimal damage to
    the atmosphere
Answer: 2

28.
28 Which activity would reduce biodiversity in a
   forest ecosystem?
   (1) adding plants that are naturally resistant to
       insects
   (2) protecting wildflowers from logging activities
   (3) replacing harvested trees with young trees
       that are naturally found in the forest
   (4) clearing a large area and planting one species
       of hardwood tree that can be used for lumber
Answer: 4

29.
29 An increase in the amount of ultraviolet light
   entering the atmosphere through holes in the
   ozone layer will most likely
   (1) reduce the rate of photosynthesis in fungi
   (2) result in rapid recycling of finite resources
   (3) prevent animal migration
   (4) cause an increase in the rate of certain mutations
Answer: 4

30.
30 Many scientists suggest that billions of years ago,
   life on Earth began with
   (1) simple, single-celled organisms
   (2) simple, multicellular organisms
   (3) complex, single-celled organisms
   (4) complex, multicellular organisms
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
    Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the
information below and on your knowledge of biology.
      Diabetes is a condition characterized by
  elevated blood sugar levels. One form of
  diabetes occurs when insulin fails to properly
  regulate blood sugar levels. Complications from
  diabetes can include nerve cell damage and
  poor blood flow, especially in the feet and legs.
  In individuals with diabetes, wounds usually
  take longer than normal to heal.
 31 The failure of a cell to react in a normal manner to
    insulin is most likely the result of a problem with
    (1) vacuoles                 (3) mitochondria
    (2) receptors                (4) sugars
Answer: 2

32.
32 One reason for the change in wound healing
   time in a diabetic is that
   (1) elevated hormone levels block the synthesis
       of glucose in immune cells
   (2) nerve damage increases absorption of
       glucose by healthy cells
   (3) poor circulation reduces the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the cells
   (4) decreased enzyme production slows protein
       synthesis in pancreatic cells
Answer: 3

33.
33 The diagram below represents a series of events
   that occur in living cells.
Which molecule is indicated by X?
(1) glucose              (3) carbon dioxide
(2) ATP                  (4) protein
Answer: 2

34.
    Base your answers to questions 34 and 35 on the
diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The letters in the diagram indicate structures present
in a human male.
34 Which structure produces the male hormone
   responsible for characteristics such as muscle
   development, deep voice, and gamete production?
   (1) A                     (3) E
   (2) B                     (4) D
Answer: 3

35.
35 What change would occur immediately if both
   structures labeled B were damaged or blocked?
   (1) Structure A would decrease in size.
   (2) The blood supply to structure E would
       decrease.
   (3) Gametes would no longer be transported to
       structure C.
   (4) Structure D would be able to deliver more
       gametes.
Answer: 3

36.
36 Which term refers to the ecological niche of
   many bacteria and fungi in an ecosystem?
   (1) decomposer           (3) producer
   (2) herbivore            (4) scavenger
Answer: 1

37.
37 The diagram below represents a model of a biological process that occurs in humans at normal body
   temperature, 37°C.
Increasing body temperature to 40°C would interfere most directly with the rate of function of structure
(1) A                                                  (3) C
(2) B                                                  (4) D
Answer: 1

38.
    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents the reproductive cycle of a squirrel species with 40 chromosomes in each zygote.
38 A process that could be represented by A is
   (1) fertilization                             (3) mitosis
   (2) meiosis                                   (4) mutation
Answer: 3

39.
39 A liver cell in this species of squirrel would have
   (1) 20 chromosomes                                    (3) 60 chromosomes
   (2) 40 chromosomes                                    (4) 80 chromosomes
Answer: 2

40.
40 A sample of body cells and samples of sex cells received from four members of a species are screened for
   the presence of a specific gene mutation. The results of the gene-testing procedure conducted on the cells
   are shown in the table below.
Which species member would be unlikely to pass the gene mutation on to its offspring?
(1) 1                                                 (3) 3
(2) 2                                                 (4) 4
Answer: 4

41.
    Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents an energy pyramid for an ecosystem in the Australian outback.
41 Wombats are classified as herbivores because they can
   (1) get energy from the Sun                             (3) get nutrition from the grasses and sedges
   (2) provide energy for the kookaburras                  (4) provide nutrition for the kangaroos
Answer: 3

42.
42 Which two organisms could have a predator-prey relationship?
   (1) kookaburras and gum trees                           (3) dingos and kangaroo grasses
   (2) kangaroos and silky mice                            (4) wedge-tailed eagles and wombats
Answer: 4

43.
43 Dingos are an introduced species in Australia that are outcompeting many native species. Which of the 
current environmental problems most likely resulted directly from the introduction of dingos to Australia?
   (1) vanishing of kangaroo grasses                          (3) forests overrun with koalas
   (2) near extinction of wallabies                           (4) increase in the kookaburra population
Answer: 2


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
             Daphnia (water fleas) are sensitive to many changes in pond ecosystems. For this
         reason they are often used in bioassays, tests in which organisms are exposed to various
         levels of a chemical to determine what levels are safe. The results of these tests determine
         whether or not the chemical being tested will affect other pond organisms.
             An experiment was designed to determine the toxicity of different salt solutions on
         cultures of daphnia. Five fish tanks were each filled with the same amount of water
         containing different concentrations of salt. Ten daphnia were placed into each tank. After
         48 hours, the number of daphnia that had survived and the number of daphnia that had
         died in each tank were recorded and the percent mortality was calculated. The results of
         the experiment are shown in the data table below.
Directions (44–46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next
page, following the directions below.
 44 Label the x-axis. Be sure to include units. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for Salt Concentration (g/L).
Note: Do not allow credit for a response without the units label, g/L.


45.
45 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each axis.


46.
46 Plot the data for mortality on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for mortality and connecting the points.


47.
47 Which salt concentration was most toxic to the daphnia in this experiment?
   (1) 1.25 g/L                                             (3) 5.0 g/L
   (2) 2.5 g/L                                              (4) 10.0 g/L
Answer: 4

48.
48 Which salt concentration is most likely closest to the concentration of salt found in the natural environment
   of this species of daphnia? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 2.5 g/L and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — No daphnia died at this concentration of salt.
   — The most daphnia lived.


49.
Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                      Beware of Dust Mites
Quietly lurking within our mattresses, under our beds, and
inside sofas and carpets are creatures too small to be seen without 
a microscope. Dust mites are arthropods closely related to
spiders, scorpions, and ticks. They feed on the dead skin cells
regularly shed by humans and their animal pets. The average
human sheds about 10 grams of dead skin a week. Cats and
dogs create even more dander for dust mites to eat. The mites
also eat pollen, fungi, and bacteria. They do not drink water but
absorb it from the air.
    Dust mites do not carry diseases and are harmless to most
people. It’s their bathroom habits that make some of us itch and
sneeze. Many people develop severe allergies to dust mite feces
(wastes). If you lie on a rug where dust mites live, you might
develop itchy red bumps on your skin. Breathe in dust containing their feces and you might
have more serious symptoms, such as difficulty breathing or a severe asthma attack.
    Dust mites thrive in warm, humid environments — eating and nesting in dust-collecting
bedding, fabric, and carpet. Think about this! A typical mattress can contain anywhere from
100,000 to 10 million dust mites. Nearly 100,000 dust mites can live in one square yard of
carpet.
    During a process called sensitization, a person’s immune system mistakenly identifies
the inhaled dust mite waste as an invader. The next time the person is exposed to the dust
mite waste, the immune system launches an allergic reaction.
49 The immune system of an individual who is allergic to dust mite waste produces
   (1) specialized chemicals that mark dust mite waste for destruction
   (2) viruses that combat dust mites
   (3) white blood cells that attack human skin cells
   (4) white blood cells that attack the skin cells of cats and dogs
Answer: 1

50.
50 An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system
   (1) does not respond to pathogens
   (2) maintains homeostasis
   (3) responds to usually harmless environmental substances
   (4) undergoes rapid, uncontrolled cell division
Answer: 3

51.
51 State one way, other than using a pesticide, that an individual could decrease the number of dust mites
   present in his home. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — do not have a cat or a dog
   — lower the amount of moisture in the air in the home
   — do not have carpet on the floor
   — vacuum often
   — clean or remove dust often
   — wash bedding frequently


52.
52 A small village that is heavily infested with mosquitoes was sprayed with an insecticide once a week for
   several months. Changes in the size of the mosquito population are shown in the graph below.
State one way that the population of mosquitoes present 7 months after spraying differs genetically from
the population of mosquitoes present before the spraying began. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Seven months later, there is a higher frequency in the population of the gene for resistance
     to the insecticide.
   — Most of the mosquitoes will have the variation that protects them from the pesticide.
   — More have the gene that makes them immune to the effect of the pesticide.
   — More mosquitoes have the gene that allows them to survive.


53.
53 The diagram below shows a branching “tree” representing the evolution of ten different groups of
   organisms alive today.
Identify the group of organisms that is most closely related to the Arthropoda group. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for Annelida and supporting the answer.
            — They are closer to each other on the branch (tree).
            — Arthropoda and Annelida share a specific common ancestor that the other organisms don’t
              share.


54.
    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of
biology. The graph contains information about an ecosystem.
             The graph below shows the carrying capacities of an ecosystem for three different
         species, 1, 2, and 3, that inhabit an area and the actual population sizes of these three
         different species in the area.
54 Identify which species population would most likely have the greatest competition among its members.
   Support your answer using information from the graph. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 2 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — The population size is greater than the size of the population that the ecosystem can
              support.
            — Because it is above its carrying capacity, the ecosystem cannot supply enough food for
              survival, so members of the species compete for limited food.


55.
55 Explain how an ecosystem can have three different carrying capacities. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Each species has different life requirements, and the type and number of resources in an
              ecosystem will influence the population sizes of species living there.
            — Each species has different requirements, which affect how many organisms can be
              supported by the ecosystem.
            — Different species occupy different niches.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
56.
Base your answers to questions 56 through 60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            A chemical known as fertex affects external fertilization of sea urchin eggs. An experiment was 
        set up using three tanks to investigate the effect of fertex. Each tank had a
        different concentration of fertex: 1%, 2%, and 3%. Ten sea urchin eggs and 2 mL of sea
        urchin sperm were added to each of the three tanks. A fourth tank was set up as a control.
   56 State one way the contents of the control tank would differ from the contents of the three experimental
      tanks. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The control tank would not contain any fertex, while the experimental tank would contain
              fertex.
            — The control tank would have no fertex.


57.
57 Identify two factors that must be kept the same in all four tanks. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — amount of water
            — temperature of water
            — salinity of water
            — amount of light
            — time sperm and eggs remain in water
            — size of tanks
            — amount of sperm
            — the number of eggs


58.
58 State one way to improve the validity of the experimental results. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — increase the sample size
            — repeat the experiment
            — have more tanks for each concentration


59.
59 Identify the independent variable in the experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — amount of fertex
            — percent of fertex
            — concentration of fertex
        Note: Do not allow credit for just “fertex” without a quantifier.


60.
60 State one example of the type of data that should be collected during the experiment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — percent of fertilization in each tank over time
            — number of eggs fertilized at end of experiment
            — number of sea urchins that develop/grow in each tank
        Note: The type of data must be measurable.


61.
  Base your answer to question 61–63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
61–63 In order to enroll in most schools, students must be vaccinated against certain viral diseases, such as
      mumps. Even with these vaccinations, many students still suffer from other diseases. Discuss how a
      vaccination works and why some students still become infected with other diseases. In your answer, be
      sure to:
      • identify what is present in a vaccine that stimulates an immune response [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying what is present in a vaccine that stimulates an immune response.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — dead/weakened virus/germ
            — antigens
            — small pieces of the virus/viral coat
        Note: Do not allow credit for “a little bit of the disease” or “a small amount of the virus.”


62.
• describe how a vaccine protects against disease [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing how a vaccine protects against disease. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — It causes an immune response, so that your body can respond quicker next time you are
              exposed to the same pathogen/organism.
            — It causes the body to produce antibodies that fight the disease.


63.
• state why a student vaccinated against mumps can still be infected by the pathogens that cause other
  diseases, such as chicken pox [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating why a student vaccinated against mumps can still be infected by the
       pathogens that cause other diseases, such as chicken pox. Acceptable responses include, but are
       not limited to:
            — Vaccines protect only against specific diseases.
            — Antibodies are specific.


64.
64 Recently, the bison population in Yellowstone National Park declined significantly. This was due in part
   to a particularly harsh winter. State one reason why a harsh winter would have this negative effect on
   the bison population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The young and old bison are more likely to perish during a harsh winter.
            — More energy is used by the bison to keep warm.
            — Less food is available.


65.
65 People who live in rural areas often use septic tanks for the storage of sewage. These people often flush
   a product containing harmless bacteria down the toilet once a month. These bacteria break down the
   sewage before it enters the environment. State one ecologically sound reason for this action. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It helps recycle molecules from the organic wastes.
            — They prevent the buildup of human sewage.
            — It prevents contamination of the water supply.


66.
  Base your answer to question 66–68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                         Officials OK Insect Release To Control Invasive Vine
            The U.S. federal government has approved the release of a non-indigenous [nonnative]
        insect on Guam and in the Northern Marianas to control the rapid spread of a vine that is
        covering forests like a blanket, the Saipan Tribune reports.
            The U.S. Department of Agriculture has given the green light to breed and release the
        Heteropsylla spinulosa insect, which eats the Mimosa dilotricha [diplotricha] vine. The fastspreading 
        plant is found in many Pacific Islands, but is particularly widespread in the
        Northern Marianas and on Guam. It usually kills the trees and shrubs that it covers.
            Officials will collect the insect from Pohnpei, in the Federated States of Micronesia,
        Palau and Australia.
                                      Source: “Officials OK Insect Release To Control Invasive Vine,” 4/2/08,
                                                                                    www.saipantribune.com
66–68 Discuss the advantages of using the insect to control the rapid spread of the Mimosa diplotricha vine
      on Guam and the Northern Marianas. In your answer, be sure to:
      • state one possible way the Mimosa diplotricha vine kills trees and shrubs [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one possible way the Mimosa diplotricha vine kills trees and shrubs.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It kills trees and shrubs because it covers them like a blanket, cutting down on the amount
              of sunlight to these plants.
            — It cuts down on photosynthesis.
            — It outcompetes the trees for water or other nutrients.
            — The vine may have roots that attach to trees and shrubs and absorb nutrients from them.


67.
• identify one location from which the Heteropsylla spinulosa insect will be collected [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one location from which the Heteropsylla spinulosa insect will be
       collected. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Pohnpei
            — Palau
            — Australia
            — Micronesia


68.
• explain why releasing the insect might be safer than spraying chemicals to kill the vine [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining why releasing the insect might be safer than spraying chemicals to kill
       the vine. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The chemicals may be harmful to people.
            — The chemicals may affect other plants or animals negatively.
            — Using insects does not add chemicals to the environment.


69.
  Base your answer to question 69–72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                       Chickens as Drug Factories
            Scientists in Scotland have successfully produced five generations of chickens that lay
        eggs containing certain protein-based drugs. The scientists changed the DNA of the
        chickens so that two drugs, one used to treat skin cancer and the other used to treat
        multiple sclerosis, were present in the egg whites. Cows, sheep, and goats have already
        been altered to produce protein-based drugs in their milk. Chickens are considered good
        “drug factories” because they are inexpensive to care for, they grow fast, and their chicks
        inherit the special drug-producing ability.
69–72 Explain why scientists altered the DNA of the chickens instead of altering a protein already present in
      the chickens. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify the technique used to alter the DNA [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying the technique used to alter the DNA. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — genetic engineering
            — genetic manipulation
            — gene splicing
            — forming recombinant DNA
Note: Do not allow credit for biotechnology. It is a field of science, not a technique.


70.
• state one reason why the scientists altered the DNA of the chickens instead of altering a protein
  already present in the chickens [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why the scientists altered the DNA of the chickens instead of
       altering a protein already present in the chickens. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — DNA carries the code for making the proteins.
            — DNA can replicate and the code will be passed on to offspring.
            — Proteins cannot be used to pass on traits.
            — so the chicks will inherit the drug-producing ability


71.
• state one advantage of using chickens for this procedure [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one advantage of using chickens for this procedure. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — They grow fast.
            — They need less room than bigger animals.
            — Chickens are less expensive.
            — Baby chicks inherit the drug-producing ability.


72.
• state one reason why some people might not support this method of drug production [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why some people may not support this method of drug
       production. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — We don’t know the long-term effects of these drugs on the chickens.
            — Some people think products from genetically modified organisms could be harmful.
            — People with egg allergies might not be able to use these drugs.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
73 Certain chemicals, such as cytochrome C, are found within cells of all living organisms. The biochemical
   structure of cytochrome C in ground finches and in tree finches is very similar. This suggests that tree
   finches and ground finches have
   (1) identical DNA                                      (3) evolved at the same time
   (2) a common ancestor                                  (4) the same nesting site
Answer: 2

74.
74 The diagram below represents the results of a laboratory procedure.
This procedure is used to
(1) separate molecules in a liquid mixture           (3) detect glucose in a solution
(2) determine the rate of photosynthesis in plants   (4) examine the gene sequences of organisms
Answer: 1

75.
Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
75 Which species of finch has an edge-crushing bill that can also probe into plants for food?
   (1) cactus finch                                          (3) warbler finch
   (2) sharp-billed ground finch                             (4) large ground finch
Answer: 1

76.
76 One finch that would most likely compete with the warbler finch for food is the
   (1) woodpecker finch                                    (3) sharp-billed ground finch
   (2) cactus finch                                        (4) vegetarian finch
Answer: 1

77.
77 The large ground finch, sharp-billed ground finch, and small tree finch inhabit the same island. If the insect
   population decreases, which finch would most likely be affected? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for small tree finch and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but
are not limited to:
   — The small tree finch eats animals, whereas the other two birds are plant eaters.
   — It is the only one that eats mainly animal food.
   — The small tree finch eats animals.
   — Since the other two species eat plant food, not animal food, a decreased insect population
     will not affect them.


78.
Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
         An artificial cell filled with a glucose solution was placed in a beaker of water, as
      represented below. The beaker was left undisturbed for 20 minutes.
78 In the diagram below, draw in the expected location of the glucose molecules after 20 minutes. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for drawing the expected location of the glucose molecules after 20 minutes.
Note: The actual number of glucose molecules is not important, as long as some glucose is located
      both inside and outside the cell.


79.
79 If both glucose and starch were added to the artificial cell, where would the starch be located after
   20 minutes? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — All of the starch molecules would be in the artificial cell.
   — The starch would not move out of the cell.
   — The starch would stay in the cell.


80.
80 State one advantage of using a stain to study frog skin cells with a microscope. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — A stain makes some organelles more visible.
   — easier to see cell parts


81.
81 An experiment was designed to test whether students could squeeze a clothespin more times in 1 minute
   after resting or after exercising. What would be a hypothesis for the experiment?
   (1) Do students squeeze clothespins more often in 1 minute after exercising?
   (2) Can most students squeeze a clothespin more times after they rest?
   (3) Ten students who exercise before squeezing a clothespin squeezed it more times in 1 minute than ten
       students who rested first.
   (4) Students who rest before squeezing a clothespin will squeeze it fewer times in 1 minute than
       students who exercise beforehand.
Answer: 4

82.
82 DNA samples can be separated according to size using the technique of
   (1) chromatography                                     (3) replication
   (2) electrophoresis                                    (4) dissection
Answer: 2

83.
83 Complete the missing amino acid sequences for plant species A in the table below. [1]
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your
knowledge of biology.

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for the correct amino acid sequences for species A.


84.
84 Complete the missing mRNA base sequences for plant species B in the table below. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for the correct mRNA base sequences for species B.


85.
85 Based on the information provided in the completed table, which plant species is most closely related to
   the endangered species? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for A and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — It is most closely related to the endangered species because their amino acid sequences are
     identical.
   — It is most closely related to the endangered species because the DNA sequences are the
     most similar.



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