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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2013 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Fish absorb oxygen through the gills, earthworms absorb oxygen through the skin, amebas
  take in oxygen through the cell membranes, and
  cows inhale oxygen through the nasal passages
  into their lungs. This statement demonstrates
  that living things
  (1) rely on similar or the same processes, but
      accomplish them in different ways
  (2) rely on different processes and accomplish
      them in different ways
  (3) rely on different processes, but perform
      them in the same or related ways
  (4) have no relationship to one another, and are
      all independent individuals
Answer: 1

2.
2 In New York State, small farms that were
  abandoned many years ago have become
  hardwood forests. This is an example of
  (1) local deforestation
  (2) biotechnology
  (3) ecological succession
  (4) habitat loss
Answer: 3

3.
3 Goats have been genetically modified to
  produce an anticlotting protein in their milk.
  The protein is extracted from the milk and given
  to people who have inherited a disorder that
  causes their bodies to produce blood clots,
  which can be fatal. A benefit of the technology
  used to produce this protein is that it
  (1) can be used to overcome the effects of a
      harmful mutation
  (2) can provide people with a new kind of
      nutrient-rich milk
  (3) will result in healthier goats with more
      nutritious milk for their offspring
  (4) will reduce blood clots in other farm animals
      that are modified in this way
Answer: 1


4.
4 The diagram below represents factors that affect
  New York State ecosystems.
An increase in human activity at X would most
likely result in
(1) a decrease in rainfall in the area
(2) a decrease in available carbon dioxide
(3) an increase in air pollution in the area
(4) an increase in the supply of fossil fuels
Answer: 3

5.
5 Which graph correctly represents the pattern of
  human population growth over the past 5000
  years?

Answer: 4

6.
6 The fossil record of ancient life forms provides
  scientific evidence of
  (1) direct harvesting
  (2) selective breeding
  (3) gene manipulation
  (4) evolutionary changes
Answer: 4

7.
7 Spider plants can reproduce both sexually and
  asexually. The diagram below represents a spider
  plant reproducing asexually by a method known
  as vegetative propagation.
Which statement best describes the relationship
between the parent plant and the offspring in
the diagram?
(1) The cells of the offspring contain half the
    amount of DNA as the cells of the parent
    plant.
(2) The parent plant provides genetic material
    to the offspring through its gametes.
(3) The cells of the offspring have the same
    genetic content as the cells of the parent
    plant.
(4) The cells of the parent plant have more
    genetic diversity, compared to the cells of
    the offspring.
Answer: 3

8.
8 The processes of deletion, insertion, and
  substitution can alter genes in a skin cell. The
  altered genes will most likely be passed on to
  (1) sperm cells
  (2) egg cells
  (3) every cell that develops from that skin cell
  (4) only a few of the cells that develop from that
      skin cell
Answer: 3

9.
9 Before starch can enter a cell, it must be
  (1) absorbed by simple sugars
  (2) diffused into simple sugars
  (3) digested to form simple sugars
  (4) actively transported by simple sugars
Answer: 3

10.
10 In a cell, protein synthesis is the primary
   function of
   (1) ribosomes          (3) chloroplasts
   (2) mitochondria       (4) vacuoles
Answer: 1

11.
11 In a multicellular organism, organs carry out a
   variety of life functions. In a single-celled
   organism, these functions are performed by
   (1) tissues               (3) organ systems
   (2) organelles            (4) organs
Answer: 2

12.
12 Chlorophyll gives plants their green color.
   Chlorophyll is produced only when plants are
   exposed to light, so plants kept in darkness have
   no chlorophyll and appear white. The best
   explanation for this is that
   (1) chlorophyll is not needed by green plants at
       night
   (2) darkness mutates the chlorophyll genes,
       causing them to produce a white color
   (3) light is required for chlorophyll genes to be
       expressed
   (4) genetic information in cells is not influenced
       by the outside environment
Answer: 3

13.
13 In order for the human body to maintain
   homeostasis, the breakdown of glucose to
   release energy must be followed by the
   (1) production of oxygen
   (2) division of the cell
   (3) removal of wastes
   (4) production of receptor molecules
Answer: 3

14.
14 In the past, humans developed varieties of dogs,
   such as the German shepherd and the bearded
   collie, using
   (1) selective breeding for particular traits
   (2) recombination of genes during mitosis
   (3) mutations present only in body cells
   (4) natural selection of favorable traits
Answer: 1

15.
15 In an organism, a muscle cell has the same DNA
   as a nerve cell, yet the cells perform different
   functions. This is possible because
   (1) different mutations occur in each cell type,
       changing the genetic instructions
   (2) temperature variations within the body alter
       DNA
   (3) proteins in each cell type change the
       structure of DNA
   (4) different parts of the genetic instructions are
       used in each type of cell
Answer: 4


16.
16 Which sequence best represents sexual
   reproduction?
   (1) mitosis → gametes → zygote → fertilization
   (2) gametes → meiosis → mitosis → fertilization
   (3) fertilization → gametes → meiosis → zygote
   (4) meiosis → gametes → fertilization → zygote
Answer: 4

17.
17 The reproductive system of a male mammal
   provides
   (1) support for the internal development of the
       embryo
   (2) materials through the placenta
   (3) a means for the delivery of gametes
   (4) the ovaries for gamete production
Answer: 3

18.
18 The energy used to obtain, transfer, and
   transport materials within an organism comes
   directly from
   (1) ATP                  (3) sunlight
   (2) DNA                  (4) starch
Answer: 1

19.
19 The failure of the human body to effectively
   maintain dynamic equilibrium can result in
   (1) reproductive success
   (2) gene manipulation
   (3) differentiation
   (4) disease
Answer: 4

20.
20 Melanoma is a type of cancer in which abnormal
   skin cells divide uncontrollably. Some
   chemotherapy drugs, which stop the growth of
   the cancer, directly interfere with the process of
   (1) meiosis                (3) mitosis
   (2) coordination           (4) recombination
Answer: 3

21.
21 Riding a bicycle requires balance and constant
   adjustment and monitoring by the rider in order
   to continue cycling. Successfully riding a bicycle
   most directly results from the ability to
   (1) sexually reproduce
   (2) grow and develop
   (3) detect and respond to change
   (4) metabolize food for energy
Answer: 3

22.
22 The first successful transplant of insulinproducing cells from a living donor pancreas was
   completed in April 2000 in Japan. This enabled
   the body of the recipient to
   (1) regulate fat concentration by a feedback
       mechanism
   (2) provide protection against an infectious
       disease
   (3) slow down the heart rate after a period of
       activity ends
   (4) maintain blood sugar levels throughout the
       day
Answer: 4

23.
23 A study was done on three different fish species
   living in a pond in New York State. The
   influence of temperature on the growth rates of
   the fish populations is shown in the graph below.
        The Influence of Temperature on
        Growth Rates of Fish Populations
In this pond where these fish live, temperature
is a
(1) limiting factor
(2) hereditary factor
(3) source of ATP
(4) source of solar energy
Answer: 1

24.
24 A 6-year-old child ate a peanut butter sandwich
   at snack time in school. Five minutes later, her
   throat became swollen and she collapsed. This
   allergic reaction occurred because her body
   (1) recognized an antigen in peanut butter and
       produced antibiotics against it
   (2) digested the white blood cells that can
       recognize an antigen in peanut butter
   (3) did not recognize an antigen in peanut
       butter and could not produce antibodies
       against it
   (4) recognized an antigen in peanut butter and
       produced an immune response
Answer: 4

25.
25 Which type of organism helps to reduce
   atmospheric carbon dioxide?
   (1) carnivores          (3) decomposers
   (2) producers           (4) herbivores
Answer: 2

26.
26 Which statement best describes an ecosystem
   maintaining a state of approximate equilibrium?
   (1) Nutrients from decayed organisms are
       recycled in a forest ecosystem.
   (2) All the frog species in a South American rain
       forest become extinct.
   (3) A mutation spreads through a species of
       bacterium, making them unable to decompose
       wastes.
   (4) Mice are released into a field ecosystem as
       food for a declining predator population.
Answer: 1

27.
27 In some parts of the world, forests are being cut
   down and burned to clear land for new homes
   and new farmland. A negative effect of these
   activities might be
   (1) an increase in global warming
   (2) destruction of the ozone shield
   (3) a decrease in the average temperature of the
       atmosphere
   (4) an increase in biodiversity of the deforested
       areas
Answer: 1

28.
28 The photograph below shows two penguins of
   the same species displaying different feather
   color patterns.
The newly discovered all-black penguin had only
black feathers since emerging from the egg. The
sudden appearance of this characteristic was
most likely due to
(1) a change in environmental conditions
(2) deposition of oil on the feathers due to
    pollution
(3) a random change in the sequences of bases
    in DNA
(4) a change in the diet of the penguin chick
Answer: 3

29.
29 The diagram below represents different stages of an ecosystem over a period of time.
Which stage of the ecosystem has the greatest long-term stability?
(1) A                                                    (3) C
(2) B                                                    (4) D
Answer: 4

30.
30 The diagram below represents the same field of mice hunted by a hawk over a period of three months.
The overall changes in the population of mice can be explained best by
(1) natural selection                                    (3) reproduction
(2) succession                                           (4) mouse extinction
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 Testosterone directly affects the
   (1) formation of a zygote
   (2) changes within an ovary
   (3) production of sperm cells
   (4) development of a placenta
Answer: 3

32.
    Base your answers to questions 32 through 34 on
the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents a food web in an ecosystem.
32 If the population of hawks in this area increases,
   their prey populations might decrease. Later,
   with fewer prey, the hawk population might
   decrease. The prey populations might then
   increase. This is an example of
   (1) an ecosystem that is completely out of balance
   (2) how ecosystems maintain stability over time
   (3) interaction between biotic and abiotic factors
       within an ecosystem
   (4) ecological succession in an ecosystem

Answer: 2

33.
33 Missing from the diagram of this ecosystem are
   the
   (1) biotic factors and decomposers
   (2) abiotic factors and decomposers
   (3) autotrophs, only
   (4) heterotrophs, only
Answer: 2

34.
34 Which row in the chart below best identifies the
   relationship between the mice and the wheat?
     Row      Role of Mice     Role of Wheat
      (1)     producer         consumer
      (2)     predator         host
      (3)     host             predator
      (4)     consumer         producer
Answer: 4

35.
35 The diagram below represents a sequence of
   events that occurs in living things.
Letter X represents
(1) inorganic molecules (3) biological catalysts
(2) organic molecules   (4) simple sugars
Answer: 2

36.
36 In the cells of the human body, oxygen molecules
   are used directly in a process that
   (1) releases energy
   (2) digests fats
   (3) synthesizes carbohydrate molecules
   (4) alters the genetic traits of the cell
Answer: 1

37.
37 Which statement explains the importance of maintaining a constant internal environment to ensure
   proper enzyme functioning?
   (1) Changes in pH and temperature will cause the enzyme reaction rate to be too fast.
   (2) Temperature and pH determine amino acid sequences in enzymes.
   (3) Changes in pH will change the genetic instructions of enzymes.
   (4) Increasing the temperature and pH can alter the specific shape of enzymes.
Answer: 4

38.
    Base your answers to questions 38 through 41 on the information below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             The Galapagos pink land iguana, Conolophus marthae (C. marthae), is native to only
         one of the Galapagos Islands. Its entire range is currently limited to Wolf Volcano on
         Isabella Island. The iguana was first discovered on this island in 1986. Genetic studies of
         the animal began sometime later, and it was identified as a species separate from other
         iguana populations on the Galapagos in 2009. Its population might have been as high as 100
         in 1986, but now there might be as few as 10 of the animals left alive.
             Other evidence indicates that this species could have diverged from another line of
         iguanas about 5.7 million years ago. After that, the other line of iguanas diverged into two
         other species, C. pallidus and C. subcristatus.
 38 In the future, the current population of about ten pink land iguanas will probably
    (1) migrate to new islands in the Galapagos in order to survive
    (2) soon become extinct, because they have little genetic diversity
    (3) undergo evolution by natural selection and survive
    (4) soon become extinct, because they have too much genetic diversity
Answer: 2

39.
39 The testing that revealed that these iguanas are a separate species from the other iguanas
   present in the Galapagos most likely included
   (1) genetic engineering
   (2) cloning studies
   (3) DNA analysis
   (4) the use of paper chromatography
Answer: 3

40.
40 One likely reason for the existence of these pink land iguanas today is that their ancestors
   (1) had the same variations as other iguanas but, after a long period of changing environmental conditions,
       mutated to the pink form when the environment eventually stabilized
   (2) had variations not present in other iguanas that allowed them to live in a particular environment more
       successfully than the other iguanas
   (3) lived on several other islands long ago, but migrated to Isabella Island around 1980 to have the
       environment to themselves, without predators to harm them
   (4) found that they were less visible to predators if they made themselves pink to blend in with the plants
       growing around them
Answer: 2

41.
41 Which evolutionary tree best represents the information about the pink land iguana provided in the
   passage?

Answer: 1

42.
42 The diagram below represents specialized cells in the surface of the leaf of a green plant.
The main function of these cells is to
(1) change the size of the stomate to regulate water loss
(2) close the stomate to keep dust and dirt out of the leaf
(3) directly provide leaf cells with the water involved in photosynthesis
(4) allow newly formed glucose to be released from the leaf
Answer: 1

43.
43 Which diagram correctly represents a step in the normal process of human reproduction?

Answer: 2


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.   [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
    Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below,
following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. [1]
Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
The data table shows the number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in New York State from 1991 to 2003.
                                    Number of Breeding Pairs of
                          Bald Eagles in New York State from 1991 to 2003
                                Year          Number of Breeding Pairs
                               1991                       15
                               1993                       20
                               1995                       25
                               1997                       35
                               1999                       45
                               2001                       65
                               2003                       75

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis.


45.
45 Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Example of a 2-credit graph for questions 44 and 45:
         Number of Breeding Pairs of Bald Eagles
           in New York State from 1991 to 2003
Note: Allow credit if points are correctly plotted, but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


46.
46 State one possible reason for the increase in the number of breeding pairs of bald eagles in New York State.
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — decreased pesticide use
   — decreased human impact on their environment
   — more food available
   — They were protected by laws.
   — Breeding programs were established.


47.
47 In which time period did New York State see the largest increase in breeding pairs of bald eagles?
   (1) 1991–1993                                            (3) 1995–1997
   (2) 1993–1995                                            (4) 1999–2001
Answer: 4

48.
   Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph
shows the size of a population over time.
                                              Population Size
48 State one reason for the changes in population size represented by line A between years 5 and 10. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Populations grow until they exceed the limits of the environment, and then they die off
     until they fall below environmental limits.
   — Changes in available food cause changes in population size.
   — Parasites/disease/starvation causes population sizes to vary.
   — Variations in predator populations will cause changes in prey populations.
   — competition
   — seasonal/environmental changes
Note: Do not allow credit for carrying capacity that does not address a reason for the changes in
      population size.


49.
49 Which term best identifies line B in the graph?
   (1) niche of the species in the environment       (3) carrying capacity of the environment
   (2) biodiversity in the environment               (4) number of populations in the environment
Answer: 3

50.
    Base your answers to questions 50 through 52 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge
of biology.
              A student conducts an experiment to determine how the amount of light affects the rate
         of oxygen production in a plant. The graph represents the rate of oxygen produced for one
         trial, X, in the experiment. By the end of the experiment, the plant had not reached
         maximum oxygen production.
                                            Relationship of Light to
                                             Oxygen Production
50 If a student supplies more light than was received during trial X, a bar placed on the graph to represent the
   results would most likely be
   (1) shorter than bar X and placed to the left of bar X
   (2) shorter than bar X and placed to the right of bar X
   (3) taller than bar X and placed to the left of bar X
   (4) taller than bar X and placed to the right of bar X
Answer: 4

51.
51 The diagram below represents a cell from the plant being used in the study. Draw an arrow to a cell
   structure directly responsible for oxygen production in this cell. The tip of the arrow must touch the cell
   structure. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit for any line, with or without an arrowhead, that touches a chloroplast.
      If more than one arrow is drawn, all arrows must be correct to receive credit.


52.
52 Identify the biochemical process occurring in this cell that produces the oxygen. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for photosynthesis or autotrophic nutrition or photolysis.


53.
  Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Botulinum toxin is a protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It
        causes a serious form of food poisoning in humans. In a very dilute form, it is also commonly
        used to eliminate some signs of aging, such as wrinkles. It does this by preventing nerves
        from releasing a chemical messenger called acetylcholine into the synapse (space between
        a nerve cell and a muscle cell). The toxin affects the process that causes the muscle cell to
        contract and form wrinkles.
53 The diagram below represents a process that is involved in the formation of wrinkles. Complete the
   diagram by drawing an appropriate structure on the muscle cell membrane that would allow the nerve cell
   to communicate with the muscle cell. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit.
Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Acceptable responses include a receptor drawn on the muscle cell membrane that has a
      shape that acetylcholine could fit into.


54.
    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the scatter-plot graph below and on your knowledge of
biology. The graph shows changes in the percentage of vancomycin-resistant bacteria in a population between
the years 1983 and 2001.
                                             Resistance to Vancomycin
54 Explain why the percentage of resistant bacteria increased over time. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The resistant bacteria survived, reproduced, and passed on the gene for resistance.
   — More of the resistant ones survived and reproduced.


55.
55 State what scientists might do to successfully combat bacteria that are resistant to vancomycin. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Find a new chemical to fight the bacteria.
   — They might develop new antibiotics.
   — They can genetically engineer new antibiotics.
   — They might develop vaccines against disease-causing bacteria.
   — Use different antibiotics.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
56 When insects are accidentally transported from one country to a new habitat in another country, the
   population of these insects often increases rapidly. State one environmental factor in the new habitat
   that would account for this increase in the population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — abundant food supply
   — no natural predators in the new environment
   — There is a more favorable climate.
   — fewer competitors


57.
  Base your answer to question 57–60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            The year 2010 was declared the International Year of Biodiversity. However, significant
        loss of biodiversity is still occurring. Researchers around the world are working on a variety
        of ways to protect natural resources. According to an article in Science News, March 13,
        2010, “reversing the downward spiral of biodiversity will take more than protecting wild
        places, but that’s where scientists are starting.”
57–60 Explain the importance of biodiversity to an ecosystem. In your answer, be sure to:
      • state one effect of a loss of biodiversity in an ecosystem [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one effect of a loss of biodiversity in an ecosystem. Acceptable responses
include, but are not limited to:
    — The less biodiversity there is in an ecosystem, the less stable the ecosystem will be.
    — A loss of biodiversity would make it harder for the ecosystem to maintain stability.
    — It would reduce resources/food/shelter that are used by the organisms in the ecosystem.
    — A species might become extinct.
Note: Allow credit only for an “effect of a loss of biodiversity,” not just less biodiversity.


58.
• identify a source of variation within a species that leads to biodiversity [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying a source of variation within a species that leads to biodiversity.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — mutations
   — genetic changes
   — genetic recombination
   — sexual reproduction


59.
• identify one specific ecosystem that has shown a decrease in biodiversity and state one cause of the
  decrease in biodiversity in the ecosystem you identified [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit identifying one specific ecosystem that has shown a decrease in biodiversity and for
stating one cause of the decrease in biodiversity in the ecosystem identified. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — a tropical rain forest – deforestation
   — Lake Erie – agricultural runoff/overfishing/introduction of non-native species
   — Gulf of Mexico – oil spill
   — lakes in Adirondack Mountains – acid rain
   — arctic seas – global warming


60.
• identify one human activity, other than setting up protected wildlife areas, that has helped to preserve
  biodiversity [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one human activity, other than setting up protected wildlife areas,
that has helped to preserve biodiversity. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — establishing endangered species lists and laws that protect endangered species and their
     habitats
   — setting up laws that regulate the release of pollutants
   — enacting hunting or fishing regulations that protect endangered species
   — recycling of metals and plastics
   — replanting trees
   — stopping/slowing deforestation
   — breeding programs
   — regulating what chemicals can be used on farms


61.
  Base your answer to question 61–64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Scientists have been experimenting with different forms of alternate energy to help
        reduce the amount of fossil fuels that are burned. They studied yeast, which convert plant
        materials into ethanol, a form of alcohol that can be used in automobiles. These experiments 
were carried out at room temperature. The scientists wondered whether more
        ethanol would be produced at different temperatures.
61–64 Design an experiment to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol production by yeast. In your
      answer, be sure to:
      • state one hypothesis the experiment would test [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one hypothesis the experiment would test. Acceptable responses include,
but are not limited to:
   — Increasing the temperature will increase the rate of ethanol production.
   — Decreasing the temperature will increase the rate of ethanol production.
   — Temperature affects the rate of ethanol production.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


62.
• state how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental group [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
] Allow 1 credit for stating how the control group would be treated differently from the experimental group. 
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
     — The control group will be kept at room temperature, while the experimental group will be
       kept at a higher/lower temperature.
     — The control group would be kept at room temperature.
  Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s hypothesis for question 61.


63.
• identify two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and control groups [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying two factors that must be kept the same in both the experimental and
control groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — amount of yeast used
   — amount of plant material used
   — type of plant material used
   — species of yeast used
Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s hypothesis for question 61.


64.
• identify the independent variable in the experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the independent variable in the experiment as temperature.
Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s hypothesis for question 61.


65.
Base your answers to questions 65 and 66 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                          Smoking is Dumb
          A study by Prof. Mark Weiner of Tel Aviv University’s Department of Psychiatry and the
      Sheba Medical Center of Tel Hashomer Hospital has determined that young men who
      smoke are likely to have lower IQs than their nonsmoking peers. Tracking 18to 21-yearold men enlisted 
in the Israeli army in the largest study of its kind, he has been able to
      demonstrate an important connection between the number of cigarettes young males
      smoke and their IQ.
          The average IQ for a nonsmoker was about 101, while the smokers’ average was more
      than seven IQ points lower at about 94, the study determined. The IQs of young men who
      smoked more than a pack a day were lower still, at about 90. An IQ score in a healthy
      population of such young men, with no mental disorders, falls within the range of 84 to 116.
                                                                   Source: Science Daily April 2, 2010
 65 Based on the information given in the passage, state the relationship between the number of cigarettes
    young males smoke and their IQ. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The more cigarettes a young man smokes, the lower his IQ.
Note: Allow credit only for responses that address the number/quantity of cigarettes smoked.


66.
66 Explain how chemicals present in cigarette smoke are able to enter the body and reach the brain. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Smoke enters the lungs. Chemicals diffuse into the blood and are transported to all parts
     of the body, including the brain.
   — Chemicals reach the brain through the blood. They enter the body through the lungs.
   — They inhaled the smoke and it was absorbed into the blood.


67.
Base your answers to questions 67 through 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           The rapidly growing biofuel industry converts resources such as corn plants, vegetable
      oils, and industrial wastes into products that can be used to power cars and trucks, and heat
      homes. The increased demand for fossil fuel has led to the construction of factories to produce biofuels. 
A proposal has been made to build a biofuel factory near Syracuse in New
      York State.
 67 State one advantage, other than decreased reliance on fossil fuels, of the increased production of
    biofuels in New York State. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — This is a domestic fuel source.
   — They are a renewable resource.
   — provide more jobs in the Syracuse area
   — It is a beneficial use of industrial wastes.


68.
68 State one disadvantage of the increased use of corn for biofuels. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There will be less corn for food.
   — There will be less farmland available to grow crops other than corn.
   — The cost of corn food products could go up.
   — Burning ethanol produces carbon dioxide, just like fossil fuels.


69.
69 State one economic advantage of constructing a biofuel factory. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Construction of the factory would mean more jobs.
   — An increased local supply of fuel might reduce fuel costs.
   — It could generate tax revenues.


70.
70 State one concern that local residents might have about having a biofuel factory in their area. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There would be more traffic in the area.
   — There might be increased pollution.
   — A loss of habitat for animals and plants would occur.
   — There would be a loss of open space for recreation.


71.
    Base your answers to questions 71 and 72 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             Endometriosis is a condition that occurs in some women, causing multiple cells or
         layers of cells to grow outside of the uterus. In some cases, these growths can actually cover
         the entire ovary or cause the tube leading from the ovary to the uterus to be blocked. The
         diagram below represents the female reproductive system. Two structures, A and B, are
         labeled.
71 Select structure A or B and indicate your selection on the line below. Describe specifically how the
   growths that are characteristic of endometriosis at the location you selected could affect the ability of
   a female to become pregnant. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Structure: A
            — Growths covering the ovary could prevent the egg from being released from the ovary (or
               entering the oviduct).
            Structure: B
            — Blocking the oviduct (tube) could prevent the sperm from reaching the egg.


72.
72 Select either surgical procedure or hormone therapy and explain why it can be an effective treatment
   for endometriosis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Effective treatment: surgical procedure
            — surgical procedure because the growths physically block reproductive structures and need
               to be removed
            Effective treatment: hormone therapy
            — The hormones might lessen or shrink the growths.
            — These hormones might block the influence of estrogen, which sometimes stimulates the
              growths.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          A student observes a red onion cell with a compound light microscope using low, then
      high power. The two views are represented below.
73 The best explanation for the changes observed by the student is that, when switching from low to high
   power, the
   (1) diameter of the field of view decreases            (3) diameter of the field of view increases
   (2) slide was accidentally moved                       (4) image is inverted and reversed
Answer: 1

74.
74 Which diagram represents where the cell should be located in the low-power field of view to be sure the
   entire cell will be visible after switching to high power?

Answer: 3

75.
75 Hospital patients are often given intravenous fluids (IVs) to maintain proper levels of water and salts in the
   body. Great care is used in preparing these solutions. If a manufacturer accidentally prepared a batch of IV
   fluid that contained much more than the usual amount of salt, harm to the patient could result. The most
   likely effect on a patient if this incorrectly prepared IV fluid was used is that
   (1) water would move into body cells and cause them to burst
   (2) water would move out of body cells and cause them to dehydrate
   (3) salt and water would both move out of body cells and disrupt homeostasis
   (4) salt and water would both move into body cells and preserve homeostasis
Answer: 2

76.
76 Which technique could be used to determine the relative number of bases in fragments taken from a
   sample of DNA?
   (1) electrophoresis                                  (3) paper chromatography
   (2) cloning                                          (4) light microscopy
Answer: 1

77.
    Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the DNA base sequence below and on your knowledge of
biology.
                                    AAC –GCC – GTC –CGC – TAG
 77 Identify the mRNA codons that would be produced using this DNA as a template. [1]
    DNA base sequence: AAC         GCC      GTC       CGC      TAG
    mRNA codons:         _______    _______     _______    _______     _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for completing the chart as shown below.
DNA base sequence: AAC          GCC        GTC       CGC    TAG
mRNA codons:          UUG
                      _______     CGG
                                _______     CAG
                                          _______     GCG
                                                    _______   AUC
                                                            _______


78.
78 If a mutation occurs, leaving 12 bases, what is the maximum number of amino acids that could be coded
   for by this DNA segment? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 4.


79.
    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents a cell and its changes as a result of two laboratory procedures, A and B.
79 Describe procedure A and explain why it would cause the change shown. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating both a description of the procedure and an explanation. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — In procedure A, salt water is added to the cell. The reduced water concentration outside
     results in water leaving the cell and its cytoplasm shrinks away from the cell wall.
   — Put the cell in salt solution. Water moves out of the cell and the cell contents shrink.


80.
80 Explain why procedure B has the opposite effect of procedure A. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — In procedure B, distilled water is added to the cell. The distilled water goes into the cell
     and restores the cytoplasm to the normal size.
   — Process B is to add distilled water to dilute the salt water. Water will move into the cell and
     fill it back up.
   — Process B adds a new substance that causes water to reenter the cell.


81.
   Base your answers to questions 81 through 83 on the information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            The circled areas in the diagram represent bird species that are in the same genus, a
        classification group that includes closely related species. These birds are found on the
        Hawaiian Islands.
81 Which processes are directly responsible for the presence of the different species of birds shown in the
   diagram?
   (1) mitosis and differentiation                         (3) gene mutations and natural selection
   (2) gene manipulation and overpopulation                (4) competition and cloning

Answer: 3

82.
82 Which two finches are most closely related?
   (1) Lesser Koa finch and Nukupuu              (3) Kauai akialoa and Maui parrot bill
   (2) Akialoa and Ou                            (4) Ou and Greater Koa finch
Answer: 4

83.
83 If the Akialoa migrated to an ecosystem occupied by a Greater Koa finch, could both species survive?
   Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating if both species could survive and supporting the answer. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Yes, but only if there is food that the Akialoa can eat, since it has a very different beak.
   — No, because the environment might not contain the type of food the Akialoa can eat.
   — Yes, because they won’t compete for food.
   — Yes, if they have different niches.
   — No, it is not the habitat that the Akialoa are adapted to.
   — Yes, because based on beak shape, they eat different foods.


84.
84 Identify one specific molecule that will increase in concentration in the blood as a result of increased 
activity of the circulatory system during physical exercise. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — oxygen (O2)
   — carbon dioxide (CO2)
   — lactic acid
   — adrenaline


85.
85 Before deciding whether a conclusion was valid or invalid, students looked at the results of the entire class.
   Explain why the results of the entire class were analyzed, rather than just the results of one individual
   student. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Results from a larger sample are more reliable than results from a small sample.
   — Using data from more students makes it more likely that the results will be accurate.
   — You could compare the results for both boys and girls, which makes the study more valid.



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