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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2014 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 How do cells in the ovary detect a hormone from
  the brain?
  (1) The brain sends a nerve impulse to the ovary.
  (2) White blood cells bring the hormone to the
      ovary.
  (3) Receptor molecules on the cells of the ovary
      bind with the hormone.
  (4) Vacuoles within the ovary bind with the
      hormone.
Answer: 3

2.
2 Single-celled organisms are able to maintain
  internal stability because they
  (1) have multiple organ systems
  (2) work with other cells
  (3) contain structures that perform life functions
  (4) carry out photosynthesis to produce food
Answer: 3

3.
3 A similarity between humans and many other
  multicellular animals is that they
  (1) occupy the same niche in most food webs
  (2) are composed of organ systems
  (3) have the same DNA sequences
  (4) carry out autotrophic nutrition
Answer: 2


4.
4 In order to enter cells and be useful to the body,
  starch must be
  (1) absorbed through the skin
  (2) broken down into fats and water
  (3) digested into simple sugars
  (4) converted to carbon dioxide and ATP
Answer: 3

5.
5 The increase of certain types of gases in the
  atmosphere has contributed to the problem of
  global warming. All these gases are
  (1) biotic factors
  (2) abiotic factors
  (3) organic factors
  (4) endangered factors
Answer: 2

6.
6 Several goldfish were kept in a small aquarium for
  several years. The fish grew to be approximately
  6 centimeters long in the first year, and after that,
  growth in length stopped. These fish were later
  transferred to a large pond. In the pond, the
  goldfish grew much larger, reaching lengths of
  around 25 centimeters. Which statement provides
  the best explanation for the increased growth of
  the fish in the pond?
  (1) Chemicals present in the pond increased the
      amount of DNA in the fish, causing the
      growth increase.
  (2) The expression of genetic information in the
      fish was influenced by their surroundings.
  (3) The fish expressed and passed on only those
      characteristics that enabled them to survive
      in the new environment.
  (4) The size of the fish depended only on their
      food supply and not on their DNA.
Answer: 2

7.
7 Autotrophs might survive when heterotrophs
  cannot, because autotrophs are able to
  (1) reproduce asexually
  (2) become dormant
  (3) exist without respiration
  (4) make their own food
Answer: 4

8.
8 The inability of sperm cells to move normally
  could prevent the production of offspring by
  interfering with
  (1) meiosis             (3) fertilization
  (2) mitosis             (4) differentiation
Answer: 3

9.
9 Which type of pathogenic microbe causes AIDS?
  (1) a bacterium
  (2) a virus
  (3) a multicellular fungus
  (4) a single-celled algae
Answer: 2

10.
10 The diagram below represents a technique used to produce carrots.
Which reproductive process determines the traits present in the cluster of cells?
(1) meiosis                                              (3) fertilization
(2) mitosis                                              (4) differentiation
Answer: 2

11.
11 The diagram below represents a scientific technique in use today.
Scientists have used this technique to
(1) produce hormones for human use at a lower cost than other methods
(2) produce pathogens that are able to live in humans
(3) clone human cells with desired characteristics
(4) eliminate the need for laboratory production of medicines for humans
Answer: 1

12.
12 DNA is able to control cellular activities most
   directly by regulating the process of
   (1) meiotic division       (3) active transport
   (2) protein synthesis      (4) selective breeding
Answer: 2

13.
13 Which statement describes an effect of natural
   selection on a species?
   (1) It favors the survival of certain members
       of the species and results in a change in
       the proportion of individuals with highly
       adaptive traits.
   (2) It provides feedback mechanisms for members
       of a species and results in a change in the
       proportion of individuals with homeostatic
       controls.
   (3) It leads to reproduction with other species,
       increasing the number of different adaptations.
   (4) It increases competition between populations
       that occupy different niches, increasing the
       chance of extinction of the less-adapted
       species.
Answer: 1

14.
14 Maple leaf beetles and willow leaf beetles are
   named for the type of tree where they live and
   reproduce. They look identical to each other
   when observed, but experiments have shown
   that willow beetles would starve before eating
   maple leaves. This is an example of specialization
   that would directly reduce
   (1) variation              (3) adaptation
   (2) competition            (4) replication
Answer: 2

15.
15 Which event would most likely cause a change in
   a genetic sequence in an organism?
   (1) eating certain foods high in saturated fats
   (2) strenuous physical activity
   (3) exposure to radiation
   (4) a sudden exposure to cooler temperatures
Answer: 3


16.
16 During the process of cellular respiration,
   energy is released from
   (1) carbon dioxide      (3) water molecules
   (2) oxygen atoms        (4) chemical bonds
Answer: 4

17.
17 A new vaccine was developed and then tested on
   a large sample of individuals. This new vaccine
   will be considered effective if it helps prepare
   the body to fight future invasion by
   (1) inhibiting the response of red blood cells
   (2) stimulating the reproduction of microbes
   (3) inhibiting the action of immune cells
   (4) stimulating the production of antibodies
Answer: 4

18.
18 Which expression correctly represents a reproductive process that usually occurs in humans
   where 2n is equal to the number of chromosomes in each body cell?

Answer: 2

19.
19 One effect of uncontrolled diabetes is that the
   blood might develop an acidic pH. As a result,
   cells may not be able to regulate their internal pH.
   Within these cells, this could cause a disruption
   of the function of biological catalysts known as
   (1) enzymes                 (3) antibodies
   (2) toxins                  (4) antigens
Answer: 1

20.
20 A Native American saying states that, “We do not
   inherit the land we live on from our grandparents,
   we borrow it from our grandchildren.” This saying
   is an attempt to make us understand that
   (1) the impact we have on the environment lasts
       for many generations
   (2) we must pay a lot of money to buy land from
       our parents
   (3) what we do today to the environment has little
       impact on our children
   (4) human actions only affect other humans
Answer: 1

21.
21 Cells of the immune system are able to respond
   to the presence of invading organisms because
   they recognize the
   (1) antigens present on the invaders
   (2) antibodies present in invading pathogens
   (3) DNA pattern in the nuclei of viruses
   (4) antibiotics released from microbes
Answer: 1

22.
22 Typhoid fever, a disease that causes headaches,
   digestive upset, and a high fever, is caused by the
   bacterium Salmonella typhi. Typhoid can be
   spread from person to person by contaminated
   water or food or by a lack of cleanliness. Since
   the 19th century, the number of individuals
   infected with this disease has decreased. Which
   statement best explains why the number of
   people with this disease and other bacterial
   diseases has decreased over the last 100 years?
   (1) Scientists have corrected the damaged genes
       that cause typhoid fever and other infectious
       diseases.
   (2) Public health officials have placed better
       controls on the use of the toxic substances
       that cause these diseases.
   (3) Typhoid fever, like most other bacterial
       diseases, is often caused by a lack of proper
       nutrition.
   (4) Personal habits, such as hand washing, have
       greatly reduced contamination from bacteria.
Answer: 4

23.
23 Deforestation most directly results in
   (1) an increase in oxygen in the atmosphere
   (2) a decrease in soil erosion
   (3) a decrease in biodiversity in the area
   (4) an increase in the absorption of carbon dioxide
Answer: 3

24.
24 In the California Mojave Desert, an energy
   company is building a large solar-power facility.
   It is expected to produce enough power for
   140,000 homes and also cut carbon dioxide
   emissions by 500,000 tons a year. The facility will
   be built on 4,050 acres of wildlife habitat, which
   is near a protected refuge for a species of desert
   tortoise. The decision to build this power plant is
   most likely based on
   (1) proving that positive atmospheric changes
       are less important than preserving wildlife
   (2) a trade-off, weighing the need for a cleaner
       energy source versus the protection of a
       natural resource
   (3) the fact that building these solar-power energy
       plants disrupts wildlife habitats
   (4) providing evidence that technological
       advances always produce positive environmental
       impacts
Answer: 2

25.
25 As a result of human activity, a significant
   percentage of the coral reefs in the oceans have
   been damaged. One-third of marine fish species
   depend on coral reefs for survival. Many of these
   fish might die. The most direct cause of the
   death of these fish would be
   (1) habitat destruction
   (2) direct harvesting
   (3) recycling of nutrients
   (4) use of nuclear fuels
Answer: 1

26.
26 Which statement best describes the role of
   decomposers?
   (1) They convert carbon dioxide and water to
       glucose.
   (2) They break down organic compounds into
       products used by other organisms.
   (3) They release oxygen to the atmosphere.
   (4) They provide energy for the synthesis of
       proteins.
Answer: 2

27.
27 Many scientists are worried about some of
   Earth’s finite resources because humans are
   (1) using carbon dioxide faster than it is being
       produced
   (2) placing industrial wastes in landfills
   (3) interfering with energy flow from consumers
       to producers
   (4) using large amounts of some materials that
       cannot be renewed
Answer: 4

28.
28 Many communities have started programs to
   dispose of evergreen trees after the holiday
   season. These programs allow individuals to
   bring these trees to be shredded, and the resulting
   chips are spread around parks and recreational
   areas as mulch. These programs benefit the
   environment by
   (1) increasing pollution in parks
   (2) taking up more space in landfills
   (3) returning materials to the environment
   (4) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
Answer: 3

29.
29 Modern dogs are direct descendants of the gray wolf. They first appeared about 130,000 years ago.
   Today, there are about 150 different breeds of domestic dog, a few of which are shown below.
The great variety of modern dogs can best be explained by
(1) selective breeding of dogs over many years          (3) genetic alterations in gray wolves alive today
(2) the cloning of domestic dogs                        (4) natural selection favoring wolves over dogs
Answer: 1

30.
30 The diagram below shows an alteration that occurred during the replication process of a portion of a gene.
   The numbers identify the locations of specific bases in the sequence.
This alteration is most likely the result of
(1) a substitution at base 2                   (3) an insertion of base 3
(2) a deletion of base 2                       (4) a deletion of base 4
Answer: 4


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
   Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
represents a food web.
31 What do the arrows in the diagram represent?
   (1) an increase in population                  (3) the flow of energy
   (2) the evolution of organisms                 (4) ecological succession
Answer: 3

32.
32 Which statement correctly describes interactions between organisms in this ecosystem?
   (1) Hawks are predators of insect-eating birds, but not of seed-eating birds.
   (2) Hawks and snakes prey on both rabbits and grasshoppers.
   (3) Rabbits and mice compete for both grasses and flower seeds.
   (4) Grasshoppers and mice compete for grasses, but not flower seeds.
Answer: 4

33.
33 Humans have altered ecosystems by activities that are sometimes deliberate and sometimes accidental. In
   the United States, humans have altered ecosystems by introducing invasive species that outcompete native
   species. Which activity resulted in the accidental introduction of an invasive species?
   (1) importing Japanese knotweed because it has an attractive flower
   (2) transporting zebra mussels to the Great Lakes by discharging water taken on in European ports to
       stabilize large ships
   (3) releasing Chinese mitten crabs in the Hudson River to establish them as a food source
   (4) planting purple loosestrife that was brought here from Europe as a source of medicine
Answer: 2

34.
34 The diagram below represents a specialized cell located in the root of a plant. The arrows in the diagram
   indicate the movement of molecules of oxygen and water into the cell.
Which row in the chart below correctly identifies the process responsible for the movement of each type
of molecule represented in the diagram?

Answer: 2

35.
    Base your answer to question 35 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph shows
the level of gene expression of five different genes in normal and cancerous cells.
35 Which statement is a valid inference that can be made based on the data in this graph?
   (1) The change in the level of gene expression in gene 4 could indicate it plays a major role in the development
       of cancer.
   (2) Slight decreases in gene expression will always result in the formation of cancer cells.
   (3) Cells will develop cancer if the gene expression of these five genes remains below four peptides per second.
   (4) An increase in the level of gene expression in these five genes is necessary for cancer to develop in cells.
Answer: 1

36.
36 The cells of some organisms contain both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Which statement describes what
   would happen in these cells if they were moved from a light environment to a dark one?
   (1) The amount of oxygen present would decrease and the amount of carbon dioxide would increase.
   (2) The amount of glucose present would increase and ATP would no longer be available.
   (3) The amount of carbon dioxide present would decrease and ATP would continue to be synthesized.
   (4) The amount of oxygen present would increase and the amount of glucose available would decrease.
Answer: 1

37.
37 In the spring of 2010, there was a catastrophic explosion on an ocean oil drilling rig, causing millions of
   gallons of oil to be released into the Gulf of Mexico. Many organisms died due to the thick sludge in their
   habitat. However, in some organisms, such as shellfish, the oil stuck to tissues inside their shells. Which
   statement expresses a major concern of environmentalists about the accumulation of the oil in certain
   organisms in the Gulf of Mexico ecosystem?
   (1) Larger organisms eat the shellfish and more chemicals will build up in their tissues.
   (2) The shellfish will prevent other organisms from obtaining oil.
   (3) Smaller organisms will be unaffected by the chemicals.
   (4) Larger organisms will be less affected by the oil, because they can eat other organisms.
Answer: 1

38.
    Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             Fertilized eggs containing embryos from the same species of alligator were incubated
         at different temperatures. The sex of the hatched offspring is shown in the table below.
38 A review of this data could lead to the conclusion that
   (1) the most alligator eggs hatched if incubated at 26°C
   (2) the sex of the offspring depends on the incubation temperature
   (3) female alligators develop at higher temperatures
   (4) temperature doesn’t affect the survival of alligator embryos
Answer: 2

39.
39 The percent of surviving females at 32°C from the original number of eggs incubated was
   (1) 13%                                                  (3) 85%
   (2) 2%                                                   (4) 98%
Answer: 3

40.
   Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph
shows the growth of a population of rabbits in a specific ecosystem.
40 Which environmental factor could have caused the change indicated at A?
   (1) increased predation by herbivores                 (3) increased number of decomposers
   (2) increased availability of food                    (4) increased competition among carnivores
Answer: 2

41.
41 Over a period of time, the location of the dashed line would move from location B to location C on this
   graph if
   (1) the birthrate of the rabbit population was equal to the death rate of the rabbit population
   (2) there was a decrease in the number of rabbit predators and an increase in the availability of plants
   (3) there was a decrease in the availability of minerals, water, and shelter
   (4) the entire rabbit population migrated to a new ecosystem containing more autotrophs
Answer: 3

42.
    Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents the effect of two chemical substances, A and B, in maintaining the level of glucose in the
blood in humans.
42 The interaction of substances A and B is an example of
   (1) a genetic mutation                                   (3) an immune response
   (2) homeostatic feedback                                 (4) active transport
Answer: 2

43.
43 Which statement is correct regarding the substances involved in these interactions?
   (1) Substance A is insulin, which is released by cells in the pancreas.
   (2) Substance B is a chemical receptor molecule produced by blood cells.
   (3) Both substances A and B are classified as biological catalysts.
   (4) Substance A is a chemical that is produced by specialized blood cells.
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

44.
44 Two views through a compound light microscope of a wet-mount slide preparation of cells are shown in the
   photographs below.
Which procedure was most likely followed to obtain view B? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
44 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — adjusting the diaphragm
            — staining
            — adding iodine
            — adjusting the light


45.
   Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
The data table shows the concentration of estrogen in picograms per milliliter (pg/mL) in the blood of a woman
over the course of 28 days.
Directions (45–46): Using the information given in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid following
the directions below.
 45 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the axis labeled “Concentration of Estrogen.” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
45 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on the axis labeled
       “Concentration of Estrogen.”


46.
46 Plot the data for concentration of estrogen on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and
   connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
46 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data, surrounding each point with a small circle, and
       connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit if points are correctly plotted, but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


47.
47 The concentration of estrogen at day 8 is closest to
   (1) 28 pg/mL                                           (3) 150 pg/mL
   (2) 80 pg/mL                                           (4) 200 pg/mL
Answer: 3

48.
   Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the word equations below and on your knowledge of biology.
The equations represent two biochemical processes that occur in living organisms. The letter X represents a
molecule produced from process 1.
48 Identify the molecule represented by letter X in process 1. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
48 [1] Allow 1 credit for ATP or adenosine triphosphate.


49.
49 Which process occurs in the cells of a green plant leaf?
   (1) process 1, only                                        (3) neither process 1 nor process 2
   (2) process 2, only                                        (4) both process 1 and process 2
Answer: 4

50.
   Base your answers to questions 50 through 53 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology.
The graph shows some events associated with the reproductive cycle of human females.
50 Which sections of the graph represent structures affected directly by the hormones shown?
   (1) section A and section B, only                         (3) section A and section C, only
   (2) section B and section C, only                         (4) section A, section B, and section C
Answer: 3

51.
51 According to the graph, on which day is the egg released from the ovary? [1]
  Day:_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 14.


52.
52 Which section of the graph shows the location where the zygote would most likely become implanted and
   develop? [1]
  Section:_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for C or the section showing the lining of the uterus or the uterus.


53.
53 Identify another human reproductive hormone that is not shown on this graph. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — testosterone
            — follicle stimulating hormone
            — FSH
            — LH


54.
  Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Different plant species require different amounts of direct sunlight in order to flower.
        A student designed an experiment to determine the length of exposure to direct sunlight
        necessary for a specific plant species to produce flowers. The student collected the data
        below.
                        0 hours, 0% with flowers; 9 hours, 0% with flowers
                        1 hour, 0% with flowers; 5 hours, 90% with flowers
                        3 hours, 80% with flowers; 7 hours, 10% with flowers
54 Organize the data collected, from shortest to longest length of exposure, in the data table below. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
54 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly organizing the data collected, from shortest to longest length of
       exposure.


55.
55 At the end of the experiment, the student stated that if plants are exposed to more hours of daylight, they
   will always produce a greater percentage of flowers. Is this a valid conclusion? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
55 [1] Allow 1 credit for no and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
           — No, this is not a valid conclusion because only one species of plant was tested.
           — No, more flowers were present at 5 hours than 7 or 9 hours.
           — No, there were no flowers at 9 hours.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

56.
  Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                         Decline in the Amphibians
             Declines in amphibian species, such as frogs, toads and salamanders, might affect the
         ways in which ecosystems function. Amphibians prey on many types of small organisms that
         survive by consuming leaf litter (leaf material on the ground of ecosystems). These small
         organisms include animals such as earthworms, centipedes, millipedes, pill bugs, and many
         species of insects. In turn, amphibians are preyed on by fish, herons, chipmunks, turkeys,
         foxes, coyotes, and other animals.
             Human activities often cause a reduction in the size of amphibian populations. As
         amphibian populations are reduced, the organisms that are preyed on by amphibians
         increase in number. As the populations of small forest organisms increase, the amount of
         leaf litter decreases. The decrease in the amount of leaf litter on the forest floor may have
         negative effects on the forest ecosystem.
56 Identify one human activity and describe how that activity could directly or indirectly lead to a reduction in
   amphibian populations. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Building in the area destroys the habitat.
            — Deforestation reduces the area where animals can find food and shelter.
            — Burning fossil fuels leads to acid rain, resulting in the death of organisms.
            — Introducing nonnative species increases competition for resources and could cause the loss
              of an organism to an area.
        Note: Allow credit for a human activity, not the product of activities, not just “pollution” without
              an explanation.


57.
57 State one possible effect an increase in the amount of leaf litter on the forest floor would have on the
   amphibian population. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating one possible effect an increase in the amount of leaf litter on the forest
       floor would have on the amphibian population and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — The amphibian population might increase because more food would be available to support
              a larger population of animals that the amphibians eat.
            — There would be more food available for the amphibian population.


58.
  Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                    Female Shark Reproduced Without Male DNA, Scientists Say
            A hammerhead shark that gave birth in a Nebraska aquarium reproduced without mating,
        a genetic analysis shows.
            This form of asexual reproduction, called parthenogenesis, has been found in other
        vertebrate species, including some snakes and lizards. But this is the first time it has been
        documented in a shark.…
            Instead, the female shark’s own genetic material combined during this process of cell
        division that produces an egg. A cell called the secondary oocyte, which contains half the
        female chromosomes and normally becomes the egg, fused with another cell called the
        secondary polar body, which contains the identical [amount of] genetic material….
            Robert E. Hueter, director of the Center for Shark Research at the Mote Marine
        Laboratory in Sarasota, Fla., said the finding helped fill a gap in understanding
        parthenogenesis, which has been found to occur in most vertebrate lines except mammals,
        and until now, cartilaginous fishes like sharks….
            “It’s a last-resort tactic that animals use when they absolutely can’t find another mate,”
        Dr. Hueter said.
                                                Source: Henry Fountain, The New York Times, May 23, 2007
58 State why parthenogenesis is considered a form of asexual reproduction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Parthenogenesis involves one parent, only.
            — The genetic material of the offspring comes from only one parent.
            — Mating does not occur.
            — No sperm is involved.


59.
59 Explain why parthenogenesis could prove to be harmful to the survival of this species if it were the only
   method of shark reproduction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Offspring would be less able to adapt to environmental changes, so the possibility of
              survival is decreased.
            — There will be less variation, limiting the species’ ability to adapt.
            — The offspring would be all the same sex.


60.
Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Ticks, such as deer ticks and dog ticks, feed on the blood of humans and other animals.
      Part of the feeding process involves the tick injecting its saliva to help make blood flow.
      In the process, they sometimes spread disease organisms to their host. Sometimes ticks get
      on clothing, and can remain there for a few days before actually biting their host.
          A scientist found that ticks might be able to survive even when exposed to hot water and
      detergent in a washing machine.
          Students designed the experiment below to test how well ticks survive a hot-water
      washing machine cycle with detergent. Note that some details of the design are incorrect.
60 Identify one error with the hypothesis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It is written in the form of a question.
            — It is not a prediction.


61.
61 Explain why the students’ proposed data to be collected would not likely test what the students intended. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The students wanted to see if the ticks would survive a hot-water wash. The students are
              collecting data only for cold water.
            — There is no hot water data being collected, so the students could not support their
              hypothesis.
            — The data on only cold water could never support their hypothesis.


62.
62 Identify one error in the students’ design in the shaded area of the table and explain how the students
   should change the experiment to correct the error. [1]
  Error:
  Correction:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Error: two different kinds of ticks
            Correction: Use the same species for each group.
            Error: number of subjects used
            Correction: The student used 10 in one group and 100 in the other. Use 100 in both groups.
            Error: number used
            Correction: Use the same amount in both groups.
        Note: Do not accept errors referring to the unshaded portion of the table.


63.
Base your answers to questions 63 through 66 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                               The Return of the Large Blue Butterfly
          In 1979, the Large Blue Butterfly was declared extinct in the United Kingdom, despite
      the efforts to protect the grasslands where it lived.
          Research into the butterfly life cycle discovered the following facts. The butterflies lay
      their eggs on flowering thyme plants, and the caterpillars fall to the ground after they hatch.
      The young butterfly caterpillars have a “honey gland” on their posterior end, which, when
      stimulated by red ants, makes the caterpillars smell and wiggle like red ants. The red ants
      treat the butterfly caterpillars as ant grubs and carry them to their underground homes. The
      red ants keep looking after them and guard them, even though the caterpillars eat ant grubs
      for 10 months before flying away as adult butterflies in the spring.
          The red ants live in fields of short grass. The grass is short enough to let the sun warm
      the soil. This is where the ants find and eat insects and plants. Rabbits had kept the grass
      short until the mid-195os, when the rabbit populations were suddenly devastated by a viral
      disease. Additionally, farmers allowed pastures to get overgrown by not letting cattle graze
      on the grass. The red ants vanished when the taller grass increased the shade and cooled
      the soil.
          A program was introduced to protect the pastures where the red ants nested. Their
      numbers came back. Populations of Large Blue Butterflies from Sweden were brought into
      the area, and now the Large Blue Butterfly is thriving again.
 63 Describe one way humans have negatively influenced the ecosystem of the red ant. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Humans stopped cattle from feeding on the grass and the grass grew longer.
            — Farmers allowed pastures to get overgrown by grasses.


64.
64 Describe one adaptation present in the butterfly caterpillars that enables the Large Blue Butterfly to
   survive. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The caterpillars smell and wiggle like red ants.
            — The honey gland at the posterior end of the caterpillar causes them to smell like red ants.
            — The caterpillars mimic the behavior of the red ants.


65.
65 In the space below, construct a food chain consisting of at least three organisms, including a producer,
   that would be present in the ant ecosystem. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — plants → ants (grubs) → caterpillars
            — plants → insects → red ants
            — grasses → insects → birds
            — grasses → cattle → humans


66.
66 Select one organism from the food chain you constructed and write it on the line below. State one way
   the removal of the organism you selected would affect another organism in the food chain. Support
   your answer. [1]
   Organism:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for selecting an organism and stating one way the removal of the organism selected
       would affect another organism in the food chain and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
          Organism: grass or plant
            — All other organisms decrease because there is less food.
          Organism: rabbit or cow
            — Grass overpopulates because it is not being eaten.
          Organism: red ant
            — Butterflies die out because they are not fed and protected by the ants.
            — no ant grubs for the caterpillars to eat
          Organism: butterfly
            — Red ants increase because they are not being eaten by butterfly caterpillars.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s food chain for question 65.
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 67–69 need not appear in the following
      order.


67.
    Base your answer to question 67–69 on the information and photographs below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             In addition to their use for hearing, ears contain many blood vessels that allow heat to
         escape into the air. Animals that live in warm climates tend to have ears with large areas
         exposed to the environment. Animals in cold climates have a more compact ear that keeps
         exposure to the environment to a minimum. The photographs below show a jackrabbit from
         desert regions of the southwestern United States and a fennec fox from northern Africa
         with large ears, and a snowshoe hare and an arctic fox with small ears.
67–69 Discuss how differences in ear size in these organisms might have occurred. In your answer, be sure
      to:
      • explain how the size of these animals’ ears can help the animals survive in their environment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for explaining how the size of these animals’ ears can help the animals survive in
       their environment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Large ears can help an animal remove excess heat in a warm environment, which helps the
              animal maintain a stable internal temperature.
            — The small ears in the arctic fox help minimize heat loss in its cold environment.
            — The large ears in the jackrabbit let excess heat escape, helping it stay cool.
            — Large ears would allow animals to hear predators.


68.
• identify one process that most likely resulted in the animals in warm climates having large ears, while
  animals in cold climates have small ears [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one process that most likely resulted in the animals in warm climates
       having large ears, while animals in cold climates have small ears. Acceptable responses include, but
       are not limited to:
            — natural selection
            — evolution
            — mutation
            — recombination


69.
• state how the overproduction of offspring in each species for many generations contributed to the
  presence of different ear sizes [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for stating how the overproduction of offspring in each species for many generations
       contributed to the presence of different ear sizes. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — When there is overproduction, not all can live, so natural selection results in the survival of
              the fittest in each generation.
            — With more offspring, only some survive and pass on their traits, resulting in changes in the
              species over time.
            — Overpopulation leads to an increase in the number of variations in a population.
            — With more individuals, more variations might occur.


70.
Base your answers to questions 70 and 71 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Plasmodium, the world’s most lethal parasite, causes malaria. The parasite enters the
      bloodstream through a mosquito bite, hiding in the human liver before invading red blood
      cells. Ultimately, millions of infected blood cells explode at once, causing fever and death
      in 3 million people a year worldwide.
                              Source: Zimmer, February 12, 2001, “Animal Parasites – As Gross As It Gets,”
                                                                                  “Science World,” pg 11.
 70 State one reason why Plasmodium is considered a parasite of humans. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — They live in and harm the host.
            — They cause red blood cells to explode, which causes harm to the host.
            — They interfere with normal life functions.


71.
71 State one negative impact on humans when the use of pesticides for mosquitoes is decreased. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — An increased mosquito population could lead to more malaria.
            — An increased mosquito population could lead to disease.
            — There would be more deaths from malaria.
            — more mosquito bites


72.
72 If a large quantity of herbicide, a chemical that is designed to kill weeds, were accidentally spilled into
   a large lake, it could endanger all the organisms living in the lake. State one way the effects of killing
   the weeds in the lake could be destructive to populations of fish and other animals. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Fish and other animal populations in the lake would be harmed because they depend on
              the plants directly or indirectly for food.
            — Fish and other animal populations would be harmed because they depend on the plants for
              oxygen.
            — There would be fewer hiding/breeding sites.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

73.
   Base your answers to questions 73 and 74 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The diagram
represents evolutionary relationships among some primates.
73 Which statement best describes a relationship between the common ancestor and the other organisms in
   the diagram?
   (1) The common ancestor most likely has segments of its DNA that will match each of the other organisms’.
   (2) The common ancestor is more closely related to macaques than to gibbons.
   (3) Orangutans and gorillas have exactly the same DNA as the common ancestor.
   (4) Chimps and baboons were the first organisms to evolve from the common ancestor.
Answer: 1

74.
74 A line representing an organism that is closely related to leaf monkeys and that evolved at about the same
   time as the gibbons would be drawn beginning at point
   (1) A                                                       (3) C
   (2) B                                                       (4) D
Answer: 2

75.
75 The parents of a new baby believe they brought the wrong child home from the hospital. Gel
   electrophoresis was performed using DNA samples from the parents and the child. A section of the gel
   electrophoresis results is shown below.
Which conclusion is valid based on the gel electrophoresis results?
(1) They have the correct child, because her genetic information is identical to that of the father.
(2) They have the wrong child, because her genetic information does not match that of either parent.
(3) They have the correct child, because her genetic information came from both parents.
(4) They have the wrong child, because her genetic information matches only that of the mother.
Answer: 3

76.
76 The extremes of dry and wet weather of the Galapagos Islands cause the food supply to constantly change.
   During dry years, the food is mainly large, hard seeds, and finches with large beaks are found in greater
   numbers.
   Which statement best explains this observation?
   (1) Dry environments cause mutations in finches.
   (2) Finches grow larger when they have more water.
   (3) Small finches become smaller during dry seasons.
   (4) Large beak size is an adaptation to dry conditions.
Answer: 4

77.
Base your answers to questions 77 and 78 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
         Three students took their pulse rates in beats per minute (bpm) while sitting in class.
      The results are shown in the data table below.
77 State one reason why the pulse rates were not the same for all three students, even though they were all
   resting at the time. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The rates were different because not everyone has exactly the same pulse rate under the
              same conditions.
            — Individual pulse rates vary.
            — They may not have measured their pulse rates accurately.
            — The students may have been doing different activities prior to resting.
            — Some students have different levels of fitness.


78.
78 What is the average pulse rate, in bpm, for this group of students? [1]
                 bpm
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 75.


79.
    Base your answers to questions 79 and 80 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             In an experiment, three plants of the same species were grown in each of six identical
         pots. The heights of the plants were measured when growth began. Each of the pots was
         watered every day with salt solutions of different concentrations. The data for the
         experiment are shown in the table below.
79 State the effect of increasing the percent of salt in the solution used to water the plants on the average final
   height of the plants in groups A through D. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — When more salt was used, the plants did not grow as tall.
            — Increasing the salt made the plants grow less.


80.
80 State one way diffusion was involved in the cause of death of the plants in groups E and F. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — When more salt was used, more water diffused out of the plant cells. The plants in E and F
              dried out and died.
            — The cells lost too much water.
            — It caused the plants to dehydrate and die.


81.
81 In an experiment to determine the effect of exercise on pulse rate, a student checks his pulse rate before
   and after exercising for several minutes. The purpose of checking his pulse rate before exercising is that it
   (1) serves as the conclusion for the experiment
   (2) is needed to justify the sample size
   (3) serves as a control for the experiment
   (4) is needed to formulate a hypothesis
Answer: 3

82.
82 What is an advantage of a change in pulse rate after exercising?
   (1) The heart needs to produce more energy to supply the active muscle cells and maintain homeostasis.
   (2) An increased blood flow carries excess waste products away from the active muscle cells.
   (3) The blood is removing oxygen from muscle cells that were not active and carrying it to muscle cells that
       are active.
   (4) The blood is supplying the active muscle cells with carbon dioxide to neutralize wastes in those cells.
Answer: 2

83.
83 The diagrams below represent seeds taken from a carrot plant and seeds taken from plant species 1, 2,
   and 3.
Which species would be expected to be most similar to the carrot? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for species 3 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — because the seeds are most similar in structure to carrot seeds
            — because they look most alike


84.
84 Other than having a variation in beak characteristics, describe another variation in a finch species that could
   promote survival of an individual bird. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for describing another variation in a finch species that could promote survival of an
       individual bird and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Some birds may fly better, helping them escape predators better.
            — Some finches might have colors that help them hide from predators.
            — Some of them might be smaller and need less food for survival.
            — Some birds are more aggressive, so they get more food.


85.
85 Identify or describe one tool used in “The Beaks of Finches” lab, and explain why the special features of
   this beak represented either an advantage or a disadvantage in the competition. [1]
  Tool:
  Advantage or disadvantage:
  Explanation:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            Tool: Forceps
            Advantage or disadvantage: Advantage
            Explanation: picked up enough small seeds so a finch on an island with lots of small seeds
                          could survive
            Tool: Forceps/Tweezers
            Advantage or disadvantage: Disadvantage
            Explanation: didn’t pick up enough seeds to survive
            Tool: Large hair clip
            Advantage or disadvantage: Disadvantage
            Explanation: didn’t pick up any seeds
            Tool: Tool for holding test tubes
            Advantage or disadvantage: Advantage
            Explanation: picked up really big seeds so it got enough food to survive



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