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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2006 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The diagram below represents levels of organization in living things.

Which term would best represent X?
(1) human
(2) tissue
(3) stomach
(4) organelle
2

2. The evolutionary pathways of ten different species are represented in the diagram below.

Which two species are the most closely related?
(1) C and D
(2) E and I
(3) G and J
(4) A and F
2

3. Which row in the chart below best describes the active transport of molecule X through a cell membrane?

3


4. Hereditary information is stored inside the
(1) ribosomes, which have chromosomes that contain many genes
(2) ribosomes, which have genes that contain many chromosomes
(3) nucleus, which has chromosomes that contain many genes
(4) nucleus, which has genes that contain many chromosomes
3

5. A human liver cell is very different in structure and function from a nerve cell in the same person. This is best explained by the fact that
(1) different genes function in each type of cell
(2) liver cells can reproduce while the nerve cells cannot
(3) liver cells contain fewer chromosomes than nerve cells
(4) different DNA is present in each type of cell
1

6. Most of the starch stored in the cells of a potato is composed of molecules that originally entered these cells as
(1) enzymes
(2) simple sugars
(3) amino acids
(4) minerals
2

7. Hereditary traits are transmitted from generation to generation by means of
(1) specific sequences of bases in DNA in reproductive cells
(2) proteins in body cells
(3) carbohydrates in body cells
(4) specific starches making up DNA in reproductive cells
1

8. Which process can produce new inheritable characteristics within a multi-cellular species?
(1) cloning of the zygote
(2) mitosis in muscle cells
(3) gene alterations in gametes
(4) differentiation in nerve cells
3

9. Which two processes result in variations that commonly influence the evolution of sexually reproducing species?
(1) mutation and genetic recombination
(2) mitosis and natural selection
(3) extinction and gene replacement
(4) environmental selection and selective breeding
1

10. The illustration below shows an insect resting on some green leaves.

The size, shape, and green color of this insect are adaptations that would most likely help the insect to
(1) compete successfully with all birds
(2) make its own food
(3) hide from predators
(4) avoid toxic waste materials
3

11. A food web is represented below.

Which statement best describes energy in this food web?
(1) The energy content of level B depends on the energy content of level C.
(2) The energy content of level Adepends on energy provided from an abiotic source.
(3) The energy content of level C is greater than the energy content of level A.
(4) The energy content of level B is transferred to level A.
2

12. Which statement concerning proteins is not correct?
(1) Proteins are long, usually folded, chains.
(2) The shape of a protein molecule determines its function.
(3) Proteins can be broken down and used for energy.
(4) Proteins are bonded together, resulting in simple sugars.
4

13. All chemical breakdown processes in cells directly involve
(1) reactions that are controlled by catalysts
(2) enzymes that are stored in mitochondria
(3) the production of catalysts in vacuoles
(4) enzymes that have the same genetic base sequence
1

14. Steps in a reproductive process used to produce a sheep with certain traits are listed below.
Step 1 — The nucleus was removed from an unfertilized egg taken from sheep A.
Step 2 — The nucleus of a body cell taken from sheep B was then inserted into this unfertilized egg from sheep A.
Step 3 — The resulting cell was then implanted into the uterus of sheep C.
Step 4 — Sheep C gave birth to sheep D.
Which sheep would be most genetically similar to sheep D?
(1) sheep A, only
(2) sheep B, only
(3) both sheep A and B
(4) both sheep A and C
2

15. Which diagram best illustrates an event in sexual reproduction that would most directly lead to the formation of a human embryo?

4

16. Offspring that result from meiosis and fertilization each have
(1) twice as many chromosomes as their parents
(2) one-half as many chromosomes as their parents
(3) gene combinations different from those of either parent
(4) gene combinations identical to those of each parent
3

17.
2

18. The diagram below represents human reproductive systems.

Which statement best describes part of the human reproductive process?
(1) Testosterone produced in A is transferred to D, where it influences embryonic development.
(2) Testosterone produced in D influences formation of sperm within B.
(3) Estrogen and progesterone influence the activity of C.
(4) Progesterone stimulates the division of the egg within C.
3

19. Which order of metabolic processes converts nutrients consumed by an organism into cell parts?
(1) digestion → absorption → circulation → diffusion → synthesis
(2) absorption → circulation → digestion → diffusion → synthesis
(3) digestion → synthesis → diffusion → circulation → absorption
(4) synthesis → absorption → digestion → diffusion → circulation
1

20. The diagram below represents a cell organelle involved in the transfer of energy from organic compounds.

The arrows in the diagram could represent the release of
(1) ATP from a chloroplast carrying out photosynthesis
(2) oxygen from a mitochondrion carrying out photosynthesis
(3) glucose from a chloroplast carrying out respiration
(4) carbon dioxide from a mitochondrion carrying out respiration
4

21. Which process illustrates a feedback mechanism in plants?
(1) Chloroplasts take in more nitrogen, which increases the rate of photosynthesis.
(2) Chloroplasts release more oxygen in response to a decreased rate of photosynthesis.
(3) Guard cells change the size of leaf openings, regulating the exchange of gases.
(4) Guard cells release oxygen from the leaf at night.
3

22. Which human activity would have the most positive effect on the environment of an area?
(1) using fire to eliminate most plants in the area
(2) clearing the area to eliminate weed species
(3) protecting native flowers and grasses in the area
(4) introducing a foreign plant species to the area
3

23. What impact do the amounts of available energy, water, and oxygen have on an ecosystem?
(1) They act as limiting factors.
(2) They are used as nutrients.
(3) They recycle the residue of dead organisms.
(4) They control environmental temperature.
1

24. Many years ago, a volcanic eruption killed many plants and animals on an island. Today the island looks much as it did before the eruption. Which statement is the best possible explanation for this?
(1) Altered ecosystems regain stability through the evolution of new plant species.
(2) Destroyed environments can recover as a result of the process of ecological succession.
(3) Geographic barriers prevent the migration of animals to island habitats.
(4) Destroyed ecosystems always return to their original state.
2

25. The growth of a population is shown in the graph below.

Which letter indicates the carrying capacity of the environment for this population?
(1) A 
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
4

26. When habitats are destroyed, there are usually fewer niches for animals and plants. This action would most likely not lead to a change in the amount of
(1) biodiversity
(2) competition
(3) interaction between species
(4) solar radiation reaching the area
4

27. Which set of terms best identifies the letters in the diagram below?

3

28. The diagram below represents some energy transfers in an ecosystem.


Which type of organism is most likely represented by letter X?
(1) decomposer
(2) autotroph
(3) producer
(4) herbivore
1

29. Some farmers currently grow genetically engineered crops. An argument against the use of this technology is that
(1) it increases crop production
(2) it produces insect-resistant plants
(3) its long-term effects on humans are still being investigated
(4) it always results in crops that do not taste good
3

30. The removal of nearly all the predators from an ecosystem would most likely result in
(1) an increase in the number of carnivore species
(2) a decrease in new predators migrating into the ecosystem
(3) a decrease in the size of decomposers
(4) an increase in the number of herbivores
4



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part.[13]
Directions (31-43): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31. The graph below shows the effect of moisture on the number of trees per acre of five tree species.

Which observation best represents information shown in the graph?
(1) All five species grow in the same habitat.
(2) The American elm grows in the widest range of moisture conditions.
(3) Red oaks can grow in wetter conditions than black willows.
(4) Sugar maples can grow anywhere black oaks can grow.
2

32. A science researcher is reviewing another scientist’s experiment and conclusion. The reviewer would most likely consider the experiment invalid if
(1) the sample size produced a great deal of data
(2) other individuals are able to duplicate the results
(3) it contains conclusions not explained by the evidence given
(4) the hypothesis was not supported by the data obtained
3

33. The graph below shows how the human population has grown over the last several thousand years.

Which statement is a valid inference that can be made if the human population continues to grow at a rate similar to the rate shown between 1000 A.D. and 2000 A.D.?
(1) Future ecosystems will be stressed and many animal habitats may be destroyed.
(2) Global warming will decrease as a result of a lower demand for fossil fuels.
(3) One hundred years after all resources are used up, the human population will level off.
(4) All environmental problems can be solved without a reduction in the growth rate of the human population.
1

34. Cellular communication is illustrated in the diagram below.

Information can be sent from
(1) cell A to cell B because cell B is able to recognize signal 1
(2) cell A to cell B because cell A is able to recognize signal 2
(3) cell B to cell A because cell A is able to recognize signal 1
(4) cell B to cell A because cell B is able to recognize signal 2
3

35. The diagram below represents single-celled organism A dividing by mitosis to form cells B and C.

Cells A, B, and C all produced protein X. What can best be inferred from this observation?
(1) Protein X is found in all organisms.
(2) The gene for protein X is found in single- celled organisms, only.
(3) Cells A, B, and C ingested food containing the gene to produce protein X.
(4) The gene to produce protein X was passed from cell A to cells B and C.
4


Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the information in the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.


36. In an autotrophic organism, substance B functions as a
(1) source of energy
(2) hormone
(3) vitamin  
(4) biotic resource
1

37. In a heterotrophic organism, substance A could be used directly for
(1) photosynthesis
(2) synthesis of enzymes
(3) a building block of starch
(4) a genetic code
2


38. The dichotomous key shown below can be used to identify birds W, X, Y, and Z.

Bird X is most likely
(1) Certhidea
(2) Geospiza
(3) Camarhynchus
(4)Platyspiza
4

39. An experimental setup is shown in the diagram below.

Which hypothesis would most likely be tested using this setup?
(1) Green water plants release a gas in the presence of light.
(2) Roots of water plants absorb minerals in the absence of light.
(3) Green plants need light for cell division.
(4) Plants grow best in the absence of light.
1


Base your answers to questions 40 through 42 on the passage below which describes an ecosystem in New York State and on your knowledge of biology.


40. The Karner Blue larvae belong in which group?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
2

41. Which food chain best represents information in the passage?
(1) lupine → Karner Blue larvae → wasps
(2) wasps → Karner Blue larvae → lupine
(3) Karner Blue larvae → lupine → wasps
(4) lupine → wasps → Karner Blue larvae
1

42. Which group contains decomposers?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
4


43. A graph of the population growth of two different species is shown below.

Which conclusion can be drawn from information in the graph?
(1) Oxygen concentration affects population sizes of different species in the same manner.
(2) Species A requires a high oxygen concentration for maximum population growth.
(3) Species B requires a high oxygen concentration to stimulate population growth.
(4) Low oxygen concentration does not limit the population size of either species observed.
2



Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the passage and the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.

The amount of oxygen gas dissolved in water is important to the organisms that live in a river. The amount of dissolved oxygen varies with changes in both physical factors and biological processes. The temperature of the water is one physical factor affecting dissolved oxygen levels as shown in the data table below. The amount of dissolved oxygen is expressed in parts per million (ppm).

Directions (44-45): Using the information given, construct a line graph on the grid, following the directions below. 
44. Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each labeled axis.


45.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data correctly and connecting the points.


46.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that the approximate dissolved oxygen level would be 6 ppm (±0.5 ppm) or an answer that is consistent with the student’s graph.


47. State the relationship between the level of dissolved oxygen and water temperature. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating the relationship between the level of dissolved oxygen and water temperature. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— As the water temperature rises, the level of dissolved oxygen decreases.
— As the water temperature decreases, the level of dissolved oxygen increases.


48. Identify one physical or biological process taking place within the river, other than temperature change, that would affect the level of dissolved oxygen and state whether this process would increase or decrease the level of dissolved oxygen. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one physical or biological process taking place within the river, other than temperature change, that would affect the level of dissolved oxygen and stating whether the process identified would increase or decrease the level of dissolved oxygen. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Photosynthesis would increase the level of dissolved oxygen.
— Respiration would decrease the level of dissolved oxygen.
— Decomposition would decrease the level of dissolved oxygen.
— Turbulence of the river water will increase the level of dissolved oxygen.



Base your answers to questions 49 through 51 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

In Search of a Low-Allergy Peanut


Many people are allergic to substances in the environment. Of the many foods that contain allergens (allergy—inducing substances), peanuts cause some of the most severe reactions. Mildly allergic people may only get hives. Highly allergic people can go into a form of shock. Some people die each year from reactions to peanuts.
A group of scientists is attempting to produce peanuts that lack the allergy-inducing proteins by using traditional selective breeding methods. They are searching for varieties of peanuts that are free of the allergens. By crossing those varieties with popular commercial types, they hope to produce peanuts that will be less likely to cause allergic reactions and still taste good. So far, they have found one variety that has 80 percent less of one of three complex proteins linked to allergic reactions. Removing all three of these allergens may be impossible, but even removing one could help.
Other researchers are attempting to alter the genes that code for the three major allergens in peanuts. All of this research is seen as a possible long-term solution to peanut allergies.
49. Allergic reactions usually occur when the immune system produces
(1) antibiotics against usually harmless antigens
(2) antigens against usually harmless antibodies
(3) antibodies against usually harmless antigens
(4) enzymes against usually harmless antibodies
3

50. How does altering the DNA of a peanut affect the proteins in peanuts that cause allergic reactions?
(1) The altered DNA is used to synthesize changed forms of these proteins.
(2) The altered DNA leaves the nucleus and becomes part of the allergy-producing protein.
(3) The altered DNA is the code for the antibodies against the allergens.
(4) The altered DNA is used as an enzyme to break down the allergens in peanuts.
1

51. Explain how selective breeding is being used to try to produce commercial peanuts that will not cause allergic reactions in people. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining how selective breeding is being used to try to produce commercial peanuts that will not cause allergic reactions in people. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Varieties of peanuts that are low in the allergens will be crossed with commercial types.
— Varieties of peanuts that are free of the allergens will be crossed with commercial types.
— A variety of peanut that has 80% less of one of the allergens will be crossed with commercial types.



Base your answers to questions 52 through 55 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The arrows in the diagram represent biological processes.


52. Identify one type of organism that carries out process 1. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one type of organism that carries out process 1. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— plants
— autotroph
— producer
— trees


53. Explain why process 2 is essential in humans. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why process 2 is essential in humans. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— to make food molecules small enough to be transported (or diffused)
— so that energy can be released


54. Identify process 3. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying process 3. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— respiration


55. Identify what letter X represents. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying what letter X represents. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— ATP
— energy




Part C
Answer all questions in this part. [17]
56. Growers of fruit trees have always had problems with insects. Insects can cause visible damage to fruits, making them less appealing to consumers. As a result of this damage, much of the fruit cannot be sold. Insecticides have been useful for controlling these insects, but, in recent years, some insecticides have been much less effective. In some cases, insecticides do nothing to stop the insect attacks.
Provide a biological explanation for this loss of effectiveness of the insecticides. In your answer, be sure to:
• identify the original event that resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in some insects [1]
• explain why the percentage of resistant insects in the population has increased [1] • describe one alternative form of insect control, other than using a different insecticide, that fruit growers could use to protect their crops from insect attack [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits for providing a biological explanation for the loss of effectiveness of the insecticides, allocated as follows:
Allow 1 credit for identifying the original event that resulted in the evolution of insecticide resistance in some insects. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A mutation (or genetic change) probably occurred that led to the resistance to the insecticide.
Note: Do not accept that the insects became “immune” to the insecticide.
Allow 1 credit for explaining why the percentage of resistant insects in the population has increased. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The percentage of resistant insects in the population has increased over the years because they survived when the insecticide was used, and were then able to reproduce and pass on the resistance.
Note: Do not allow credit for simply stating that they survived.
Allow 1 credit for describing one alternative form of insect control, other than using a different insecticide, that fruit growers could use to protect their crops from insect attack.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— release natural predators of the insects
— the release of large numbers of sterile males of insect species that damage fruits
— provide conditions that help predators of the insects live in the area
— genetically engineer insect-resistant plants


57. The concentration of salt in water affects the hatching of brine shrimp eggs. Brine shrimp eggs will develop and hatch at room temperature in glass containers of salt solution. Describe a controlled experiment using three experimental groups that could be used to determine the best concentration of salt solution in which to hatch brine shrimp eggs. Your answer must include at least:
a description of how the control group and each of the three experimental groups will be different [1]
two conditions that must be kept constant in the control group and the experimental groups [2]
data that should be collected [1]
one example of experimental results that would indicate the best concentration of salt solution in which to hatch brine shrimp eggs [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 5 credits for describing a controlled experiment using three experimental groups that could be used to determine the best concentration of salt solution in which to hatch brine shrimp eggs, allocated as follows:
Allow 1 credit for describing how the control group and each of the three experimental groups will be different. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to: — The control group will be in a 0% salt solution while the experimental groups will be in varying salt concentrations, such as 2%, 4%, and 6%.
— The control group will be in normal seawater while the experimental groups will have different salt concentrations.
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two conditions that must be kept constant in the control group and the experimental groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— the number of brine shrimp eggs in each group
— species of brine shrimp
— the number of days observed
— the temperature
— the amount of liquid in each container
— the size of each container
— the type of container
Allow 1 credit for indicating data that should be collected. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— the total number of brine shrimp eggs hatched after a given time in each of the different salt concentrations
Allow 1 credit for one example of experimental results that would indicate the best concentration of salt solution in which to hatch brine shrimp eggs. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— the concentration of salt in which the greatest number of shrimp eggs hatched by the end of the experiment
— The concentration in which brine shrimp eggs hatch soonest is best.



Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the statement and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.

Women are advised to avoid consuming alcoholic beverages during pregnancy.

58. Identify the structure labeled A and explain how the functioning of structure A is essential for the normal development of the fetus. [2]
Structure A:_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
Allow 1 credit for identifying the structure labeled A as the placenta.
Allow 1 credit for explaining how the functioning of structure A is essential for the normal development of the fetus. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— exchange surface for nutrients or wastes or O2 between mother and fetus


59. Explain why consumption of alcoholic beverages by a pregnant woman is likely to be more harmful to her fetus than to herself. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why the consumption of alcoholic beverages by a pregnant woman is likely to be more harmful to her fetus than to herself. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— When the alcohol from the mother’s bloodstream enters the fetus, the relative amount is much greater due to the smaller size of the fetus.
— The fetus is still developing.



Base your answers to questions 60 through 61 on the statement below and on your knowledge of biology.

Some internal environmental factors may interfere with the ability of an enzyme to function efficiently.
60. Identity two internal environmental factors that directly influence the rate of enzyme action. [2]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two internal environmental factors that directly influence the rate of enzyme action. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— temperature
— pH
— concentration of enzyme
— substrate


61. Explain why changing the shape of an enzyme could affect the ability of the enzyme to function. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why changing the shape of an enzyme could affect the ability of the enzyme to function. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— If the shape changes, it will not fit with the same substrate.
— The enzyme no longer fits with the molecules with which it interacted before.
— Shape determines function.



62. Deforestation is viewed as a problem in the world today. Describe a cause and an effect of deforestation and a way to lessen this effect. In your answer, be sure to:
state one reason deforestation is occurring [1]
state one environmental problem that results from widespread deforestation [1]
state one way to lessen the effects of deforestation, other than planting trees [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits for describing a cause and an effect of deforestation and a way to lessen this effect, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating one reason deforestation is occurring. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— There is a great demand for lumber for building new homes and other structures.
— Forested areas are being cut down to allow for grazing areas for animals.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one environmental problem that results from widespread deforestation. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Habitats are lost.
— When many trees are cut down, the carbon dioxide they would normally use remains in the atmosphere (and may intensify the process of global warming).
— Deforestation promotes erosion.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one way to lessen the effects of deforestation other than planting trees. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— protect present forested areas
— allow succession to take place on deforested land
— reduce the amount of CO2 that is released to the atmosphere
— recycle paper
— cut down fewer trees




Part D
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the Universal Genetic Code Chart below and on your knowledge of biology.

Some DNA, RNA, and amino acid information from four similar sequences of four plant species is shown in the chart below.

63. Using the information given, fill in the missing mRNA base sequence for species B in the chart below. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for-filling in the missing mRNA base sequence for species B: ACG ACG UAU GUC CAU


64. Using the Universal Genetic Code Chart above, fill in the missing amino acid sequence for species C in the chart below. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for filling in the missing amino acid sequence for species C: GLY THR TYR VAL GLN


65. According to these amino acid sequences, which two plant species are the most closely related? Support your answer. [1]
Species _______and _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating which two plant species are most closely related and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— species C and D because the amino acid sequences are identical



66. A student was comparing preserved specimens of three plant species, XY and Z, in a classroom. Which statement is an example of an observation the student could have made and not an inference?
(1) The leaves produced by plant X are 4 cm across and 8 cm in length.
(2) Plant Y has large purple flowers that open at night.
(3) Plant X produces many seeds that are highly attractive to finches. (4) The flowers of plant Z are poisonous to household pets.
1


Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

A student squeezes and releases a clothespin as often as possible for 2 minutes and then takes his pulse for 20 seconds. After a 2—minute rest, he repeats the procedure. This pattern is repeated one more-time. The student’s 20—second pulse counts were 23, 26, and 21.
67. Complete the “Pulse/Min” column in the data table below for all three trials as well as the average pulse rate per minute. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW


68. What additional data should the student have collected in order to determine the effect of squeezing a clothespin on his pulse rate? [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for indicating that the student would need the resting pulse rate for comparison.



Base your answers to questions 69 through 71 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

When Charles Darwin traveled to the Galapagos Islands, he observed 14 distinct varieties of finches on the islands. Darwin also observed that each finch variety ate a different type of food and lived in a slightly different habitat from the other finches. Darwin concluded that the finches all shared a common ancestor but had developed different beak structures.
69. The 14 varieties of finches are most likely the result of
(1) absence of biodiversity
(2) biological evolution
(3) asexual reproduction
(4) lack of competition
2

70. The second sentence best describes
(1) an ecosystem
(2) a food web
(3) a niche
(4) a predator/prey relationship
3

71. The different beak structures mentioned in the last sentence were most likely influenced by
(1) selection for favorable variations
(2) environmental conditions identical to those of the common ancestor
(3) abnormal mitotic cell division
(4) characteristics that are acquired during the bird’s lifetime
1


72. The diagram below represents a laboratory setup used by a student during an investigation of diffusion.

Which statement best explains why the liquid in tube A will rise over a period of time?
(1) The starch concentrations are equal on both sides of the membrane.
(2) The water will pass from a region of lower starch concentration to one of higher starch concentration.
(3) Water and starch volumes are the same in both tubes A and B.
(4) The fluids in both tubes A and B will change from a higher temperature to a lower temperature.
2

73. A red onion cell has undergone a change, as represented in the diagram below.

This change is most likely due te the cell being placed in
(1) distilled water
(2) light
(3) salt water
(4) darkness
3


74. A laboratory setup for a demonstration is represented in the diagram below.

Describe how an indicator can be used to determine if starch diffuses through the membrane into the beaker. In your answer, be sure to include:
the procedure used [1]
how to interpret the results [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits for describing how an indicator can be used to determine if starch diffuses through the membrane into the beaker.
Example of a 2-credit response: Add starch indicator solution to the water in the beaker. If the indicator solution changes color, then starch is present (no color change, no starch)



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