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Living Environment - New York Regents August 2011 Exam

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Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1 The ability to grow in size is a characteristic of
  living organisms. Although an icicle may grow in
  size over time, it is considered nonliving because
  there is
  (1) an increase in matter, but no increase in the
       number of icicles
  (2) an interaction between the icicle and the
       environment
  (3) no way for the icicle to move away from heat
  (4) no metabolic activity present
Answer: 4

2 The diagram below represents a woodpecker
  finch.
This bird may best be described as
(1) a decomposer that most likely feeds on
    nectar (a sugary liquid) from flowers
(2) a heterotroph that may eat insects and is
    more closely related to a robin than to an
    earthworm
(3) a scavenger that feeds on animals and reproduces asexually
(4) an autotroph that probes tree bark for
    insects and is pathogenic
Answer: 2

3 Which cell structure is correctly paired with its
  primary function?
  (1) ribosome–protein synthesis
  (2) mitochondrion–movement
  (3) vacuole–cell division
  (4) nucleus–storage of nutrients
Answer: 1


4 The diagram below represents many species of
  plants and animals and their surroundings.
The diagram best represents
(1) a population        (3) an ecosystem
(2) a community         (4) the biosphere
Answer: 3

5 The cytoplasm in a cell carries out a function
  similar to a function of which human system?
  (1) respiratory system    (3) circulatory system
  (2) reproductive system (4) nervous system
Answer: 3

6 Which statement best describes a human
  chromosome?
  (1) It is made of amino acid subunits that form
      genes.
  (2) It contains genes that may code for the
      production of enzymes.
  (3) It is normally passed to the next generation
      through a placenta.
  (4) It varies in function from one generation to
      the next.
Answer: 2

7 Four different segments of a DNA molecule are represented below.
There is an error in the DNA molecule in
(1) segment 1, only                        (3) segments 2 and 3
(2) segment 3, only                        (4) segments 2 and 4
Answer: 2

8 Some human structures and their functions are listed below.
In a single-celled organism such as an ameba, all these functions can be performed by the
(1) nucleus                                                (3) mitochondria
(2) ribosomes                                              (4) cell membrane
Answer: 4

9 The diagram below can be used to illustrate cellular changes.
Which row of terms in the chart below best completes the diagram?

Answer: 2

10 A scientist wants to change the DNA of a
   sexually reproducing organism and have the new
   DNA present in every cell of the organism. In
   order to do this after fertilization, she would
   change the DNA in the
   (1) zygote
   (2) placenta
   (3) testes of the father
   (4) ovaries of the mother
Answer: 1

11 If the same antibiotic is used too many times, it
   can become less effective against a certain type
   of bacteria. This observation is best explained by
   the
   (1) presence of pathogens in antibiotics
   (2) production of antibiotics by white blood cells
   (3) replication of viruses that attack bacteria
   (4) survival and reproduction of unaffected
       bacteria
Answer: 4

12 Which group would most likely have the greatest
   survival success during a long period of environmental changes?
   (1) a small population of rabbits living in a field
       of grass
   (2) a large population of red ants living in a
       forest
   (3) an endangered population of polar bears
       living near an iceberg
   (4) one species of bird that nests only in sugar
       maple trees
Answer: 2

13 When changes occur in the genes of sex cells,
   these changes
   (1) lead to mutations in the parent organism
   (2) are always harmful to the offspring
   (3) can be the basis for evolutionary change
   (4) only affect asexually reproducing organisms
Answer: 3

14 Asexual reproduction produces offspring that
   each contain
   (1) genetic information from one parent
   (2) genetic information from two parents
   (3) less genetic information than either parent
   (4) a unique combination of genetic information
Answer: 1

15 The diagram below represents part of a human
   reproductive system.
One of the functions of this part of the system is to
(1) supply essential nutrients to the offspring in
    the form of milk
(2) provide nutritional support for the embryo
(3) provide a structure that allows the mixing of
    maternal and fetal blood
(4) produce specialized proteins used in the
    production and release of sperm
Answer: 2

16 Which row in the chart below indicates the
   correct process for each event indicated?

Answer: 4

17 The drinking of alcoholic beverages by a pregnant
   woman is harmful to the development of her
   fetus. This is most damaging early in a pregnancy
   because during this time
   (1) the lungs of the fetus become functional
   (2) alcohol can easily enter the mouth of the fetus
   (3) many of the essential organs of the fetus are
       forming
   (4) the fetus cannot excrete wastes
Answer: 3

18 Which substance is an inorganic molecule?
   (1) starch               (3) water
   (2) DNA                  (4) fat
Answer: 3

19 The enzyme amylase will affect the breakdown
   of carbohydrates, but it will not affect the break-
   down of proteins. The ability of an enzyme
   molecule to interact with specific molecules is
   most directly determined by the
   (1) shapes of the molecules involved
   (2) number of molecules involved
   (3) sequence of bases present in ATP
   (4) amount of glucose present in the cell
Answer: 1

20 The disease known as malaria may result in a
   fever, a decrease in red blood cells, and an
   enlarged liver and spleen. These symptoms are
   evidence of
   (1) a disruption of homeostasis
   (2) a decrease in allergic reactions
   (3) an increased number of cell organelles
   (4) hormone destruction
Answer: 1

21 An activity that occurs in the human body is
   shown below.
This activity helps to
(1) provide protection against pathogens
(2) produce antibiotics to control disease
(3) eliminate harmful gene alterations
(4) regulate production of ATP by the cell
Answer: 1

22 Sweating is a process that helps cool the body
   during strenuous exercise. This is an example of
   (1) recycling of gases
   (2) cellular respiration
   (3) gene malfunction
   (4) a feedback mechanism
Answer: 4

23 A population of animals is permanently split by a
   natural barrier into two separate populations in
   different environments. What will likely result
   after a long period of time?
   (1) The evolution of the two populations will be
       identical.
   (2) The production of variations will stop in the
       two populations.
   (3) The two populations will evolve into separate
       species.
   (4) Autotrophic nutrition will replace heterotrophic 
       nutrition in the two populations.
Answer: 3

24 Which consequence could most likely be associated 
   with a decrease in biodiversity in an area?
   (1) More species would be better able to survive
       a major environmental change.
   (2) The ecosystems in the area would become
       more stable.
   (3) The amount of genetic information in the
       species of the area would increase.
   (4) Some sources of future foods or medications
       would be lost.
Answer: 4

25 The release of products of combustion into the
   air often causes the formation of ozone near the
   surface of Earth. This ground-level ozone
   damages plants and affects their ability to absorb
   carbon dioxide. The doubling of ground-level
   ozone since 1850 is most likely due to
   (1) the chemical composition of the upper
       atmosphere
   (2) emissions from vehicles and industrial
       processes
   (3) the extinction of certain animal species
   (4) a greater use of nuclear fuel
Answer: 2

26 After a fire destroys a forest, the area will most
   likely
   (1) remain bare land indefinitely
   (2) develop into a desert area
   (3) develop into an entirely different type of
       forest after hundreds of years
   (4) recover through gradual changes back to a
       point of long-term stability
Answer: 4

27 New fuels are being produced by converting corn
   and grasses into compounds containing alcohols
   that can be broken down for energy in various
   engines. The purpose of this research is to
   (1) reduce the use of finite resources
   (2) increase the rate of air pollution
   (3) reduce the rate of homeostasis in organisms
   (4) cause a loss of biodiversity in the rain forests
Answer: 1

28 The presence of wastes, such as plastic bags and
   motor oil, in lakes and streams miles away from
   developed areas suggests that
   (1) ecosystems are interconnected and human
       action can alter ecosystem equilibrium
   (2) recycling programs have failed to conserve
       biotic resources
   (3) natural processes can alter ecosystem
       stability
   (4) direct harvesting practices have led to
       irreversible destruction of ecosystems
Answer: 1

29 A new bird species is introduced to control an
   insect pest. A negative consequence of this
   action is that the new bird species may
   (1) limit the population of the pest insect
   (2) consume beneficial insects
   (3) disrupt mineral availability in the ecosystem
   (4) cause an increase of pesticide-resistant
       insects
Answer: 2

30 Most scientists recommend reducing carbon
   dioxide emissions. Less carbon dioxide in the
   atmosphere would be expected to
   (1) reduce the rate of global warming
   (2) increase damage caused by acid rain
   (3) decrease the number of biotic factors in
       ecosystems
   (4) reduce destruction of the ozone layer
Answer: 1


Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31 A laboratory technique is represented in the
   diagram below.
Which knowledge was needed to develop this
technique?
(1) knowledge of sexual reproduction in plants
(2) knowledge of the structure of starch
    molecules
(3) knowledge of the development of embryos
(4) knowledge of the structure of a DNA
    molecule
Answer: 4

32 Male stickleback fish with red undersides attack
   other male sticklebacks with red undersides and
   also attack models of fish with red undersides.
   Sticklebacks and fish models without red 
   undersides are not attacked. Which is the best
   inference that can be drawn regarding this
   behavior?
   (1) A male stickleback will defend its territory
       against all other fish.
   (2) The stimulus for an attack is a model with
       red fins or a male stickleback.
   (3) The stimulus for an attack is a red underside.
   (4) Male sticklebacks turn red to attract females.
Answer: 3

33 Specialized cells and organs are necessary in
   multicellular organisms because in these organisms
   (1) fewer cells are in direct contact with the
       external environment
   (2) all cells are in direct contact with the external
       environment
   (3) a body type evolved that relied on fewer body
       cells
   (4) a body type evolved that required larger
       sized cells
Answer: 1

34 Bacillus thuringiensis, a bacterium commonly
   known as Bt, produces a protein that can kill
   certain insects that feed on corn crops. Scientists
   have been successful in transferring the gene
   that codes for this protein from the bacterium to
   the corn, so the corn can now make the Bt
   protein. Corn borers, insects that eat corn, die
   when they feed on corn containing the Bt
   protein. A potential problem associated with
   increased production of Bt corn is
   (1) corn borers may stop feeding on corn plants
   (2) corn borers may develop resistance to the Bt
       protein
   (3) farmers may need to use less pesticide to
       control corn borers
   (4) corn borers may compete with other insects
       that feed on corn plants
Answer: 2

35 Throughout the history of life on Earth, many
   processes have resulted in new traits in
   organisms. Which list shows some of these
   processes in order from the oldest to the most
   recently used?
   (1) gene manipulation, natural selection,
       selective breeding
   (2) natural selection, selective breeding,
       gene manipulation
   (3) natural selection, gene manipulation,
       selective breeding
   (4) selective breeding, gene manipulation,
       natural selection
Answer: 2

36 DDT and other pesticides used over 50 years
   ago are still affecting the environment today.
   Scientists have found these substances in recent
   glacier runoff. Glacier runoff occurs during the
   summer, when precipitation that has fallen on
   glaciers during the winter is released. Ice layers
   from existing glaciers have been analyzed.
   The results of this analysis show that the
   concentrations of DDT and other pesticides
   were highest about 10 years after the use of
   these substances was banned.
   This information shows that
   (1) DDT and other pesticides cause glacier
       runoff during the summer
   (2) it takes humans over 50 years to analyze a
       glacier
   (3) precipitation helps to break down pesticides
   (4) the decision of one human generation may
       have an impact on future generations
Answer: 4

37 Abnormalities present in the cells that line the
   uterus may prevent the production of offspring
   by directly interfering with the
   (1) development of the embryo
   (2) differentiation of gametes into zygotes
   (3) secretion of estrogen by the ovary
   (4) production and release of egg cells
Answer: 1

38 The diagram below represents a cell of a green
   plant.
Solar energy is used to produce energy-rich
compounds in structure
(1) A                  (3) C
(2) B                  (4) D
Answer: 4

    Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the
diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents possible evolutionary pathways of certain organisms.
39 Which species is most closely related to
   species L?
   (1) E               (3) G
   (2) F               (4) I
Answer: 2

40 Which statement can best be inferred based on
   the information in the diagram?
   (1) Natural selection occurs only as a result of
       mutations.
   (2) Natural selection requires a minimum of
       5 million years to occur.
   (3) Each new species that develops continues to
       exist through present time.
   (4) Some species that are no longer successful in
       their environment may become extinct.
Answer: 4

41 Reasons for conducting peer review include all
   of the following except
   (1) analyzing the experimental design
   (2) pointing out possible bias
   (3) identifying an illogical conclusion
   (4) changing data to support the hypothesis
Answer: 4

42 The diagram below represents a food chain made up of organisms found in a field.
Which row in the chart correctly identifies characteristics that can be associated with the members of this
food chain?

Answer: 3

43 A food web is represented below.
When water used to cool machinery is returned to a river, it raises the river water temperature.
This causes a sharp decline in small invertebrate populations. Based on the food web, a likely consequence of this change would be
(1) an increase in the number of clams                     
(2) a decrease in the number of water plants               
(3) an increase in the number of crabs
(4) a decrease in the number of crayfish
Answer: 4


Part B–2
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.

   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the data table below and on your knowledge of biology.
The data table shows the number of fish species found at various ocean depths.
Directions (44–45): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid, following the
directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis.


45 Plot the data from the data table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit if the points are correctly plotted, but not circled.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0,0) unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table. Do not
      allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for extending
      lines beyond the data points.


46 State the general relationship between water depth and the number of fish species found. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — The deeper the water, the fewer fish species are found.
        — Fewer fish species are found as the water gets deeper.
        — More fish species live near the surface than in deeper water.


47 The approximate number of fish species that can be found at 120 meters is
   (1) 5                                                   (3) 18
   (2) 13                                                  (4) 31
Answer: 3

   Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The graph
shows the number of species that became extinct from 1800 to 2000. It also shows estimates of the number of
species that will become extinct between 2000 and 2020.
48 State one possible reason for the change in the number of species extinctions between 1890 and 1990. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — The species could not adapt to rapid changes in the environment.
        — Habitats were destroyed at a rapid rate.
        — new pollutants added to the environment by humans
        — rapid human population growth
        — climate change


49 The number of species that became extinct between the years 1950 and 2000 is approximately
   (1) 5,000                                              (3) 22,000
   (2) 12,000                                             (4) 37,000
Answer: 3

Base your answers to questions 50 through 52 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                                Mayflies
          Mayflies belong to a group of insects known as Ephemeroptera, which means “shortlived wings.” 
      They have been given this name because the adult, the only stage that has
      wings, lives for only a few days.
          The aquatic juvenile form of most mayfly species lives for several years under rocks in
      streams that have high levels of dissolved oxygen. The juveniles feed on microscopic
      photosynthetic organisms. Juveniles supply food for trout and other stream fish.
          Millions of adult mayflies emerge from stream water in early summer. The adults have
      wings for flight, but lack functional mouth parts. Their energy supply comes from food
      stored in their bodies. Birds and bats eat adult mayflies. Adult mayflies mate, lay eggs, and
      die within a few days.
50 Adult mayflies are unable to
   (1) take in food               (3) form ATP
   (2) move from place to place   (4) form gametes
Answer: 1

51 Identify the nutritional role of the juveniles in a stream food chain. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — consumer
        — They eat microscopic autotrophs.
        — prey for fish
        — food for trout
        — herbivores


52 A student was asked to construct a food chain based on the information given in the passage. The student’s
   answer is shown below.
State one of the errors the student made when constructing this food chain. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        — Both arrows don’t go in the same direction.
        — Mayfly eggs do not eat bats.
        — Mayfly eggs do not feed on microscopic plants.
        — According to the passage, mayfly eggs and bats are not in the same food chain.


53 State one way white blood cells protect the body from foreign microbes. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They engulf pathogens.
   — They produce antibodies.
   — They mark invaders for destruction.
   — They remember antigens from past exposure, which speeds up antibody production with a
     second exposure.


Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                              When Whales Walked the Earth
       A newly unearthed fossil is the missing link between land and marine mammals
          Standing two to three feet tall on legs adapted to wade through shallow water, the
      48-million-year-old Indohyus is the missing link between modern day whales and their
      land-lubbing ancestors. Hans Thewissen of the Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of
      Medicine and Pharmacy recovered the skeleton in rocks from Kashmir, a disputed region
      between India and Pakistan, where the deer-like herbivore lived during the Eocene epoch,
      56 to 34 million years ago.
          The extreme thickness of its bones is a trait seen often in animals that are aquatic
      waders (thick, heavy bones counteract buoyancy and allow the animal to stay underwater
      more easily), and chemical traces in its teeth indicate that the animal ate plants in a
      freshwater environment. Scientists know that Indohyus belongs in the evolutionary path
      with whales because it has skeletal similarities to both modern whales and known
      primordial whale ancestors.
                      Source: Day Greenberg, “When Whales Walked the Earth,” Popular Science, May 2008
54 Identify one structure present in Indohyus mentioned in the passage. State how that structure made
   Indohyus successful in its environment during the Eocene Epoch. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — legs – adapted to wade through shallow water
   — heavy bones – to counteract buoyancy
   — teeth – adapted to eating freshwater plants


55 Identify one characteristic of Indohyus that led some scientists to conclude that it was an ancestor of
   modern whales. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — It has skeletal similarities to whales.
   — The structures/shapes of the bones are similar.



Part C
                             Answer all questions in this part.     [17]
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
Base your answers to questions 56 and 57–59 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                           Blown Away
                                Head Lice Meet Hair Dryer of Death
           Head lice are becoming indestructible. A study found that as many as 80 percent of the
      bugs are [resistant] to insecticides in over-the-counter shampoos, and resistance will only
      increase. Evolutionary biologist Dale Clayton may have a new line of attack.
           Clayton, who usually studies lice on bird feathers, stumbled onto his solution after a
      major research setback. When he moved his laboratory from England to the University of
      Utah a decade ago, his entire louse collection perished in the dry desert air. Soon after, his
      8-year-old came home from school with head lice. He wondered if human head lice could
      also be killed by drying them out. “It was sort of a forehead slapper,” Clayton says. After
      conventional hair dryers failed, Clayton came up with the LouseBuster, a 10-pound device
      resembling a vacuum cleaner that desiccates [dries out] the bugs with a jet of 140-degree
      air [140°F]. “It’s a pretty brutal assault,” he says. Tests show the invention is both safe and
      effective, eradicating 80 percent of live lice and 98 percent of eggs, leaving survivors unable
      to breed. And, Clayton says, “it will be awfully hard for lice to develop resistance.”
                               Source: Emily Saarman, “Blown Away—Head Lice Meet Hair Dryer of Death,”
                                                                    Discover Magazine, February 2007
56 State how Clayton first learned that desiccating lice kills them. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
      — His entire louse collection perished in the dry, desert air.


57–59 Design a controlled experiment to determine the effect of hot, dry air on head lice. In your
      experimental design, be sure to:
      • state the hypothesis to be tested in the experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 57–59 need not appear in the
      following order.
Allow 1 credit for stating the hypothesis to be tested. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — Lice exposed to high temperatures will have a lower survival rate than those exposed to
     98.6°F (body temperature).
   — Lice not blasted with high temperatures will have a higher survival rate.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


• state one way the control group will be treated differently from the experimental group [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one way the control group will be treated differently from the experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The control group will not be exposed to heat and the experimental group will be exposed
     to 140-degree air.
Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s hypothesis for question 57.


• state one result of the experiment that would support the hypothesis [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one result of the experiment that would support the hypothesis.
   — The lice blasted with the 140-degree air had a lower survival rate than the lice not blasted
     with hot air.
   — The lice not blasted with high-temperature air lived longer.
Note: Allow credit for a response that is consistent with the student’s hypothesis.


60 In the past, diabetics used horse or cow insulin to control their glucose levels. Today, as a result of genetic
   engineering, human insulin can be synthesized by bacteria. State one advantage for a person with diabetes
   to receive genetically engineered insulin rather than insulin taken from a horse or cow. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Genetically engineered insulin is actually human insulin and is less likely to be rejected by
     the person.
   — Insulin from a horse or cow may cause an allergic reaction in a human.
   — Genetically engineered insulin costs less.
   — Human insulin may have fewer side effects.


Base your answer to question 61– 63 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Smokers are passing down problems to future generations. Men who smoke and drink
      alcohol could be endangering the health of their future children and grandchildren. Toxic
      chemicals in cigarettes and alcohol are thought to cause changes in the DNA, which are
      passed down via the sperm to future generations.
                                                                  Source: Associate Newspapers Ltd.,
                                                   Mail Online Health, Fiona Macrae, February 9, 2008
61– 63 Explain how smoking and drinking alcohol by males can affect the development of an embryo. In your
       answer, be sure to:
       • identify the term used to describe a change in DNA [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 61–63 need not appear in the
      following order.
Allow 1 credit for identifying the term used to describe a change in DNA as mutation.


• state why changes that take place in a sperm cell can affect an embryo [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating why these changes that take place in a sperm cell can affect an embryo.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Reproductive cells can pass on traits.
   — Mutations that occur in sex cells can be passed on to offspring.
   — The sperm cell contributes half of the genetic information for the embryo.
   — The sperm and egg combine to form an embryo.


• identify one factor, other than smoking and drinking alcohol, that may negatively affect a developing
  embryo [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one factor, other than smoking and drinking alcohol, that may
negatively affect a developing embryo. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — mother’s poor diet
   — toxic chemicals in air, food, and water
   — drugs
   — radiation
   — other genetic disorders


Base your answer to question 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          The California condor is the largest bird species in North America, with a wingspan of
      about 3.5 meters. They live in parts of California and in the Grand Canyon, and nest on
      rock ledges. Condors are scavengers. The condor population in the Grand Canyon is very
      small, with only about 70 adult birds.
 64 Identify one human activity that could negatively affect this bird and state why it would have a negative
    effect. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Building homes might destroy their habitat.
   — Hunting the condor reduces its numbers.
   — Hunting other animals might reduce their food source.
   — Removing dead animals (roadkill) would reduce available food for the condors.
Note: Allow 1 credit only if the answer is a human activity, not the consequence of an activity, such
      as pollution.


Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
         Every population is linked, directly or indirectly, with many others in an ecosystem.
      The table below shows the size of the moose and wolf populations that live on an island in
      Lake Superior.
65 State how the information in the table can be used to determine that the wolves are the predators. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There are fewer predators than there are prey, so the wolf is the predator.
   — In a food chain/food pyramid, there are more prey animals than there are predators.


66 State one possible ecological reason, other than human activity, for the change in the moose population
   between 1975 and 1980. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There were more wolves, so the moose were being killed off.
   — There may have been less food available for the moose, since the moose population had
     been growing for 20 years.
   — Disease may have affected the moose population.
   — There may have been really bad winters.


67 Identify two limiting factors that keep the wolf population size from growing any larger. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — number of moose
   — living space on the island
   — diseases
   — competition with other predators
   — weather conditions
   — hunting


68–70 Describe how a flu vaccine protects the human body. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify what substance is in a flu vaccine that stimulates immunity [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 68–70 need not appear in the following
      order.
[1] Allow 1 credit for identifying what substance is in a flu vaccine that stimulates immunity.
    Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — dead/weakened pathogen
       — antigens
       — a small piece of the virus/viral coat
    Note: Do not accept “a little bit of the disease” or “a small amount of the virus.”


• state how the human immune system reacts to the vaccine [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how the human immune system reacts to the vaccine. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Antibodies are produced against the virus.
   — increase in number of white blood cells
   — produces a primary immune response
   — It builds up immunity.


• state one reason the flu vaccine does not protect a person from other viral diseases, such as
  measles [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying one reason the flu vaccine does not protect a person from other viral
diseases, such as measles. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The antibodies are specific for the flu virus.
   — The white blood cells that remain in the body are specific for the flu virus.
   — The white blood cells are specialized to attack only the flu virus.
   — The two viruses have different characteristics.
   — Each vaccine results in immunity to only one disease.


Base your answer to question 71 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           Two methods for controlling mosquitoes are listed below.
                                            Control Methods
                   A: Draining a swamp where mosquitoes lay eggs
                   B: Releasing more mosquito predators that are native to the ecosystem
 71 Identify the letter of the control method in the list that would most likely have the least damaging effect
    on the ecosystem. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — B would have the least damaging effect on the ecosystem because if native predators are
     used, they are already part of the food web.
   — B is best because method A destroys the entire ecosystem.


72 Scientists have recently discovered that two toxic chemicals in most antibacterial soap products do not
   break down when treated at wastewater facilities. These chemicals are in the nutrient-rich sludge that
   remains after wastewater treatment. Farmers can buy this sludge to fertilize their fields. State one
   possible ecological problem that may result from the use of sludge for fertilizer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Toxic chemicals may kill organisms that are beneficial.
   — Toxins may accumulate in organisms at higher levels in food chains and cause serious
     problems.
   — Toxins may end up in plants used for food.
Note: Do not accept just pollution without an explanation.



Part D
                                 Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
    Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this
part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
    Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this
part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

   Base your answers to questions 73 through 76 on
the information and diagram below and on your
knowledge of biology.
      Average beak sizes of the seed-eating
  medium ground finch on one of the Galapagos
  Islands are shown in the diagram below. During
  wet years, all types of seeds are abundant. The
  medium ground finch prefers to eat small seeds
  that are easy to crush. However, during droughts
  (dry years), when small seeds are not as
  abundant, they eat the larger seeds on the island.
73 How might an extended period of drought influence the ground finch population?
   (1) The birds with smaller beaks would be more
       numerous.
   (2) The birds with larger beaks would be more
       numerous.
   (3) Drought decreases seed availability, but has
       no influence on the ground finch.
   (4) Drought increases seed availability, and all
       ground finches would be more numerous.
Answer: 2

74 How would the introduction of another species
   of seed-eating ground finch to the island most
   likely influence the medium ground finch?
   (1) The finches would not compete, since they
       both eat seeds.
   (2) The finches would interbreed and produce a
       new species of finch.
   (3) The medium ground finch would face
       increased competition for seeds.
   (4) The medium ground finch would become a
       parasite of the introduced species.
Answer: 3

75 Which factors most likely had a role in the
   development of beak characteristics in the
   medium ground finch?
   (1) mutation and cloning
   (2) genetic engineering and selective breeding
   (3) unchanging environment and the need to
       reproduce
   (4) variation and recombination
Answer: 4

76 The most likely explanation for this variation in
   the beak size of the medium ground finch is that
   (1) the birds acquired larger beaks so they could
       take advantage of the supply of small seeds
   (2) the birds with smaller beaks mutated due to
       the drought so they produced more offspring
   (3) different adaptations gave some birds a
       better chance for survival
   (4) the environment caused the birds to exercise
       their beaks and the beaks became longer and
       stronger
Answer: 3

77 Two molecules, A and B, and their distribution inside and outside of a cell are represented in the diagram
   below.
State one possible reason why molecule A could diffuse across the membrane of the cell but molecule B
could not. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Molecule A is smaller than molecule B.
   — Molecule B is too big.
   — The membrane is selectively permeable to A.


78 Some of the pain from a sore throat is caused by swelling of moist throat tissue. A common remedy for a
   sore throat is to gargle (rinse the throat tissue) with salt water. Explain why gargling with salt water would
   be expected to relieve the pain of a sore throat. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The salt solution causes water to move out of the swollen cells (tissue), reducing the
     swelling and relieving the pain.
   — The loss of water by the cells decreases the swelling and relieves some of the pain.
   — Gargling with salt water will reduce swelling.
   — When a person gargles with salt water, water moves by diffusion from the throat tissues into
     the salt water, reducing swelling.


Base your answer to question 79 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          The segments of DNA below were extracted from two different species of plants.
      The segments represent the same region of DNA that codes for a particular pigment (color)
      in these species.
79 A restriction enzyme is used to cut the DNA from species A and B. The enzyme binds to the sequence
   G G G A T T and cuts between G and A. State how many cuts will be made in the DNA sequences of each
   species when this enzyme is used. [1]
   Plant species A cuts: _______
   Plant species B cuts: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating the correct number of cuts for both plant species A and plant species B.
Plant species A cuts: 1
Plant species B cuts: 0


80 An experimental setup using a model cell is shown in the diagram below.
State what cell structure the dialysis tubing represents. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for cell membrane.


Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
         An experiment was designed to test whether students could squeeze a clothespin more
      times in one minute after resting or after exercise.
81 The dependent variable for this experiment is the
   (1) time the student was squeezing the clothespin
   (2) number of times the student was able to squeeze the clothespin
   (3) strength of the student
   (4) length of the clothespin
Answer: 2

82 The experimental results could be made more valid by
   (1) increasing the number of students                  (3) using safety precautions
   (2) using a plastic clothespin                         (4) making a bar graph of the data
Answer: 1

83 The technique of paper chromatography was performed on plant extracts from four different plant species.
   The results showed the same pattern for two of the plant species. State an evolutionary relationship
   between these two plants that is supported by this observation. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They have a close evolutionary relationship.
   — They have a common ancestor.
   — These two organisms are more closely related to each other than to the other two.


    Base your answers to questions 84 and 85 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             A change in hemoglobin, a protein found in red blood cells, causes sickle-cell disease.
         Hemoglobin samples from different individuals can be compared by using a specific
         technique. The protein banding patterns of three samples are shown below.
84 Identify the technique that was used to produce these results. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for electrophoresis or gel electrophoresis.


85 Identify another substance that can be analyzed using this technique. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — DNA
   — another protein



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