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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2012 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]

   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which statement describes an activity of a
  decomposer?
  (1) A mushroom digests and absorbs nutrients
      from organic matter.
  (2) A sunflower uses nutrients from the soil to
      make proteins.
  (3) A snail scrapes algae off rocks in an aquarium.
  (4) A hawk eats and digests a mouse.
Answer: 1

2 The calcium concentration in the root cells of
  certain plants is higher than in the surrounding
  soil. Calcium may continue to enter the root
  cells of the plant by the process of
  (1) diffusion              (3) active transport
  (2) respiration            (4) protein synthesis
Answer: 3

3 Homeostasis is maintained in a single-celled
  organism by the interaction of
  (1) organs                (3) tissues
  (2) systems               (4) organelles
Answer: 4


4 Within which structure of an animal cell does
  DNA replication take place?
  (1) vacuole             (3) nucleus
  (2) cell membrane       (4) ribosome
Answer: 3

5 The shape of a protein is originally determined
  by the
  (1) size of the protein molecule
  (2) location of the protein within the cell
  (3) arrangement of amino acids in the protein
  (4) function the protein must carry out
Answer: 3

6 Plant cells can synthesize energy-rich organic
  molecules, and later break them down to extract
  that energy for performing life processes. These
  activities require direct interaction between the
  (1) chloroplasts and vacuoles
  (2) cell walls and ribosomes
  (3) chloroplasts and mitochondria
  (4) ribosomes and mitochondria
Answer: 3

7 Selective breeding has been used for thousands
  of years to
  (1) develop bacteria that produce human insulin
  (2) clone desirable plant varieties
  (3) develop viruses that protect against diseases
  (4) produce new varieties of domestic animals
Answer: 4

8 A deletion of a DNA segment alters a gene in a
  single skin cell of an individual. Which statement
  best describes a result of this mutation?
  (1) Any cell produced from this skin cell will
      have the same mutation.
  (2) All offspring of the individual will have a skin
      cell mutation.
  (3) The mutation will spread into other types of
      cells.
  (4) The gametes of this individual will have the
      same mutation.
Answer: 1

9 Some goats have been genetically modified with
  a human gene that codes for a blood anticlotting
  factor. The anticlotting factor can then be
  extracted from the goat milk and used during
  surgery. To produce these genetically modified
  goats, scientists most likely
  (1) injected the anticlotting factor into the milkproducing glands of the animals
  (2) added modified DNA into the milk of the
      animals
  (3) inserted the human gene into the egg cells of
      goats
  (4) altered the nutritional requirements of
      newborn goats
Answer: 3

10 Which characteristic is necessary for natural
   selection to occur in a species?
   (1) stability
   (2) variation
   (3) complex cellular organization
   (4) a very low mutation rate
Answer: 2

11 Researchers use a variety of techniques to learn
   more about the function of a specific gene in an
   organism. In one type of experiment, called a
   loss-of-function experiment, the gene being
   investigated is eliminated. In a gain-of-function
   experiment, extra copies of the gene being
   investigated are inserted. The cell process most
   directly affected in both experiments is
   (1) protein synthesis
   (2) waste disposal
   (3) transport of materials
   (4) breakdown of nutrients
Answer: 1

12 Plants are green because they contain the
   protein chlorophyll. A bucket was left on the
   lawn for one week. When the bucket was
   removed, the grass under the bucket had turned
   from green to a yellowish white color. This
   change is due to the interaction between the
   grass and
   (1) decomposer organisms in the soil, an abiotic
       factor
   (2) the amount of sunlight, an abiotic factor
   (3) increased moisture under the bucket, a biotic
       factor
   (4) the metal composition of the bucket, a biotic
       factor
Answer: 2

13 Which statement describes a function of the
   human male reproductive system?
   (1) It produces gametes in testes.
   (2) It supplies a fluid that protects the fetus.
   (3) It provides support for the development of
       the embryo.
   (4) It provides nutrient materials through a
       placenta.
Answer: 1

14 Exposure to toxins during early stages of
   pregnancy is more likely to cause birth defects
   than exposure in late pregnancy because
   (1) essential organs form during early
       development
   (2) the uterus provides more protection in late
       pregnancy
   (3) the placenta forms during late pregnancy
   (4) meiosis occurs rapidly during early
       development
Answer: 1

15 Although a liver cell and a muscle cell in a
   human developed from the same single cell,
   their appearance and functions are different.
   This is because the liver cell
   (1) contains different genes than the muscle cell
   (2) expresses different genes than the muscle
       cell
   (3) destroys the muscle cell genes it contains
   (4) lacks the genes found in muscle cells
Answer: 2

16 Sexual reproduction in a species usually results in
   (1) an increase in the chromosome number in
       the offspring
   (2) offspring genetically identical to the parent
   (3) recombination of genes
   (4) a decrease in biodiversity
Answer: 3

17 As water flows downhill, its energy can be used
   to generate electricity. Later, this water may
   evaporate, fall as rain, and be used again to
   generate electricity in the same way. This
   explains why electricity generated with water is
   considered
   (1) a source of water pollution
   (2) a renewable form of energy
   (3) more expensive than nuclear energy
   (4) responsible for global warming
Answer: 2

18 Scientists have found that although plants
   require light to carry on photosynthesis, very
   high levels of sunlight can kill some plants. This
   illustrates that many biochemical processes may
   occur
   (1) more rapidly when temperatures are very
        high
   (2) within a specific range of conditions
   (3) best in the absence of abiotic factors
   (4) even if homeostasis is disrupted
Answer: 2

19 A relationship between a consumer and producer
   is best illustrated by a
   (1) snake eating a bird
   (2) tree absorbing minerals
   (3) fungus breaking down wastes
   (4) deer eating grass
Answer: 4

20 The evolutionary pathways of several species are represented in the diagram below.
Which species was best adapted for survival in changing environmental conditions?
(1) A                                                    (3) K
(2) E                                                    (4) L
Answer: 2

21 The diagram below represents a microscopic view of blood.
Cell A protects the body by producing specific chemicals in response to pathogens. Cell A is
(1) a red blood cell                                      (3) an insulin-producing cell
(2) a bacteria cell                                       (4) a white blood cell
Answer: 4

22 The diagram below represents a change in guard cells that open and close pores in a plant.
This change directly helps to
(1) increase heterotrophic nutrition   (3) regulate water loss
(2) absorb minerals                    (4) reduce seed production
Answer: 3

23 Which statement represents a characteristic of
   an ecosystem that is not likely to sustain itself?
   (1) The Sun provides the needed energy.
   (2) Energy is transferred from plants to animals.
   (3) There are more consumers than producers.
   (4) There are interactions between biotic and
       abiotic factors.
Answer: 3

24 Which statement best explains why different
   plant species are found at different water depths
   as represented in the diagram below?
(1) Energy flows through ecosystems in one
    direction, typically beginning with photosynthetic organisms.
(2) In any particular environment, the growth
    and survival of organisms is affected by
    physical conditions.
(3) Plants on land are higher up the food chain
    than plants under water.
(4) Plant cells and some one-celled organisms
    contain chloroplasts.
Answer: 2

25 Some people see the benefit of wind energy as a
   clean alternative to fossil fuels for energy
   production. Others believe it is dangerous for
   migratory birds. These opinions best illustrate
   that decisions about alternate energy sources
   (1) will usually favor older methods of energy
       production over newer methods
   (2) must be made by weighing the risks and
       costs against the benefits
   (3) must be made by taking into account the
       present needs of the citizens without looking
       toward the future
   (4) should be the responsibility of each individual
Answer: 2

26 One way humans can promote the survival of
   organisms in an ecosystem is to
   (1) decrease diversity in plant habitats
   (2) introduce new consumers to control autotrophs
   (3) release extra CO2 into the atmosphere to
       help autotrophs
   (4) learn about the interactions of populations
Answer: 4

27 Environmentalists are hoping to protect
   endangered organisms by calling for a reduction
   in the use of pesticides, because loss of these
   organisms would
   (1) increase the mutation rate in plants
   (2) cause pesticides to become more toxic to
       insects
   (3) reduce biodiversity in various ecosystems
   (4) decrease the space and resources available to
       other organisms
Answer: 3

28 Which farming practice causes the least harm to
   the environment?
   (1) using natural predators to reduce insect
       numbers
   (2) adding chemical fertilizers to all the crops in
       the area
   (3) planting the same crop for 1 year on all the
       fields in the area
   (4) planting the same crop in the same field
       each year for 10 years
Answer: 1

29 Some bacteria are unable to survive unless a
   certain nutrient is present in their food supply.
   After exposure to ultraviolet radiation, some of
   these bacteria are able to synthesize this nutrient.
   This change is most likely due to
   (1) increased respiration
   (2) exposure to an antigen
   (3) an alteration in a gene
   (4) gamete formation
Answer: 3

30 Which action by humans could improve the
   quality of the air?
   (1) building homes that use only oil furnaces for
       heat
   (2) buying cars that get more miles per gallon of
       gasoline
   (3) increasing the number of coal-burning
       power plants that generate electricity
   (4) cutting down forests to clear land for factories
Answer: 2


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [13]

    Directions (31– 43): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of
the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Euglena are single-celled organisms that live in ponds. All euglena have chloroplasts
      and can make their own food. They can also take in food from the environment. The
      diagram below represents a euglena.
An experiment was set up to determine the effect of nitrates, a pollutant, on the
number of chloroplasts present in euglena. Five tanks were set up, each with euglena and
a different concentration of nitrate solution: 0%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0%.
     The tanks were placed in a sunny location where each tank received the same amount
of light.
31 Which statement is a possible hypothesis for this experiment that could be supported by the results of this
   experiment?
   (1) If the average number of chloroplasts in euglena decreases, will less nitrate be needed in each tank?
   (2) If the nitrate concentration is increased, then the euglena will have a lower average number of
       chloroplasts.
   (3) If the number of euglena in a tank increases, will more nitrates be produced?
   (4) If the nitrate concentration is decreased, then more light will reduce the average number of
       chloroplasts in euglena.
Answer: 2

32 Which statement correctly identifies a variable in this experiment?
   (1) The independent variable is the concentration of nitrate solution used.
   (2) The dependent variable is the number of euglena placed in the tanks.
   (3) The independent variable is the amount of sunlight.
   (4) The dependent variable is the number of tanks used.
Answer: 1

33 Euglena can be classified as both
   (1) an autotroph and a parasite      (3) a producer and a parasite
   (2) a decomposer and a heterotroph   (4) an autotroph and a heterotroph
Answer: 4

34 Two methods of reproduction are represented in the diagram below.
How does the DNA in the offspring produced by these methods compare to the DNA in the original organism?
(1) The offspring contain half the original number of chromosomes in each method.
(2) The DNA in the offspring is genetically identical to that of the original organism in both methods.
(3) The offspring produced by method A contain twice the original number of genes, while those produced
    by method B contain half the original number of genes.
(4) The number of DNA bases is less than that of the original organism in method A, but more than the
    original number in method B.
Answer: 2

35 Puppies are often given medicine to eliminate roundworms from their intestines. These worms consume
   some of the food the puppies have digested. The worms and the puppies represent a relationship known as
   (1) predator–prey                                       (3) parasite–host
   (2) consumer–producer                                   (4) autotroph–heterotroph
Answer: 3

36 The diagram below represents cells and
   hormones present in the human body.
Which statement correctly describes an interaction
between the hormones and the cells?
(1) Hormone A is synthesized by cell 2 and
    targets cell 1.
(2) Hormone B bonds with both cell 1 and cell 2.
(3) Specific reactions carried out by cell 1 are
    regulated by hormone C.
(4) The specialized receptor molecules on cell 1
    secrete hormone B.
Answer: 3

37 In the diagram below, which letter indicates the part
   of the cell that carries out a function most similar
   to a function of the human excretory system?
(1) A   (3) C
(2) B   (4) D
Answer: 2

38 In a DNA sample, 15% of the bases are
   thymine (T). What percentage of the bases in
   this sample are adenine (A)?
   (1) 15%                  (3) 35%
   (2) 30%                  (4) 85%
Answer: 1

39 The graph below shows the results of an action
   of the enzyme catalase on a piece of meat.
   Evidence of enzyme activity is indicated by
   bubbles of oxygen.
Which statement best summarizes the activity of
catalase shown in the graph?
(1) The enzyme works better at 10°C than at
    50°C.
(2) The enzyme works better at 5°C than at
    65°C.
(3) The enzyme works better at 35°C than at
    either temperature extreme.
(4) The enzyme works at the same level in all
    environments.
Answer: 3

40 Which process is represented in the diagram
   below?
(1)   energy flow
(2)   biological evolution
(3)   cellular communication
(4)   ecological succession
Answer: 4

    Base your answers to questions 41 and 42 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The
diagram represents various levels of interaction between organisms in a prairie ecosystem.
41 If the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere were to decrease, which organism in the diagram would
   be one of the first affected by this change?
   (1) hawks                                                (3) locusts
   (2) wheat                                                (4) molds
Answer: 2

42 Which statement best describes a function of the molds, bacteria, and yeasts in this ecosystem?
   (1) They convert light energy into chemical energy.
   (2) They carry out a food-making process, using inorganic raw materials.
   (3) They break down dead organisms, releasing raw materials to the environment.
   (4) They act as catalysts to speed up the energy flow between organisms.
Answer: 3

43 The diagram below represents the measurement of a biological specimen.
What is the approximate length of the specimen in millimeters?
(1) 25 mm                                               (3) 35 mm
(2) 30 mm                                               (4) 40 mm
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [12]

    Directions (44–55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on your separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
             Diabetes is a disease characterized by consistently high blood glucose levels (at or above
         126 mg/100 mL) as a result of hormone deficiency. For a study of diabetes, blood glucose
         levels from individual A and individual B were recorded each hour over a 5-hour period
         following a meal. The results are shown in the data table below.

   Directions (44 – 46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next
page, following the directions below.
44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
44 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks, on each labeled axis.


45 Plot the data for individual A on the grid, surround each point with a small circle, and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
45 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for individual A, surrounding each point with a small
       circle, and connecting the points.


46 Plot the data for individual B on the grid, surround each point with a small triangle, and connect the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
46 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for individual B, surrounding each point with a small
       triangle, and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit only if circles and triangles are used.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the xand y-axes is the origin (0.0) unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table. Do not
      allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0.0), or for extending
      lines beyond the data points. Do not deduct more than 1 credit for plotting points that are
      not in the data table or for extending lines beyond the data points.


47 Which individual most likely has diabetes?
   (1) A                                        (3) both A and B
   (2) B                                        (4) neither A nor B
Answer: 1

48 Identify one hormone associated with the maintenance of blood glucose levels. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
48 [1] Allow 1 credit for insulin or glucagon.


   Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the food chain and information below. The food chain involves
organisms in Yellowstone National Park.
                                           Grasses → Elk → Wolves
            Wolves in the park were killed or driven off by humans in the 192os and 193os. In the
         winter of 1995, humans released 17 wolves from Canada into the park. A year later, 14 more
         wolves were released.
49 One possible reason that the wolves were released into the park was to
   (1) eliminate unwanted autotrophs                        (3) provide food for small predators
   (2) reduce an overpopulation of elk                      (4) increase the number of herbivores

Answer: 2

50 After the wolves were released, the populations of some scavengers increased. This was most likely due to
   (1) a reduction in predator populations                  (3) an increase in the number of dead elk
   (2) a decrease in the number of grasses                  (4) an increase in water supplies
Answer: 3

  Base your answer to question 51 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Dissolved oxygen (DO) can be found in an aquatic ecosystem and is often one factor
        that affects the size of populations of aquatic organisms. Water temperature is very
        important in determining the amount of DO in a water supply. The colder the temperature
        of the water, the more DO the water can hold.
51 State one possible reason why the biodiversity of an aquatic ecosystem could decrease if the water
   temperature were to increase. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
51 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Warmer water holds less oxygen, so some species would not have enough oxygen to live.
            — There would be less oxygen available for organisms and some organisms may die off.


  Base your answers to questions 52 through 54 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
             Polio is a virus that can cause paralysis or death. At its peak, the disease affected about
         500,000 people a year worldwide before the development of an effective vaccine in 1955.
             When the first polio vaccine was developed, it was tested in experiments using
         thousands of children as subjects. The children were injected with either the experimental
         vaccine or given a harmless injection without the vaccine. Only after these extensive tests
         was the vaccine finally accepted as being successful in preventing the disease.
             Although, at this time, polio has been nearly eliminated in the Western Hemisphere,
         certain countries in the world still report new cases of the disease. Complete elimination of
         the disease can be achieved in these countries by vaccinating all of the children at the same
         time with the polio vaccine.
52 Identify the substance in the polio vaccine that makes it effective. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
52 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — dead/weakened pathogen
            — antigens
            — a small piece of the virus/viral coat
        Note: Do not accept “a little bit of the disease” or “a small amount of the virus.”


53 Describe how the body responds to the vaccine, making it effective against a particular disease. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
53 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The body responds to the vaccine by producing antibodies to protect against polio.
            — The vaccine triggers an immune response against a particular disease.
            — The immune system is activated to fight off the virus.


54 Explain why the children in the first testing of the polio vaccine were not all given an injection of the
   experimental vaccine. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
54 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The children who did not receive the vaccine served as the control group.
            — They needed a group for comparison.


  Base your answer to question 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            In many areas, there are some small mammals whose fur color is influenced by
        temperature. In these animals, the trait for fur color is expressed only if the air temperature
        is above a certain level. In cold weather, when the ground is covered with snow, the trait is
        not expressed and the fur color is white.
55 Explain how the fur color change trait may help the small mammals survive. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
55 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The trait increases chances for survival of the small mammals by helping them blend into
              their environment.
            — They can avoid being eaten by predators if they are camouflaged.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]

Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
  Base your answer to question 56–60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            New varieties of organisms have resulted from human activities. These organisms have
        often led to problems in modern society. Two of these new varieties are listed below.
                                       Antibiotic-resistant bacteria
                                        Pesticide-resistant insects
56–60 Select one of these varieties and discuss a problem associated with the development of this new variety
      of organism. In your answer, be sure to:
      • identify the variety you selected
      • identify one biological process by which a population of this variety may develop resistance [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
56 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying one biological process by which a population of this variety may
       develop resistance. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            —   natural selection
            —   evolution
            —   reproduction
            —   mutation


• describe how this process is involved in the production of a population of resistant organisms [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
57 [1] Allow 1 credit for describing how this process is involved in the production of a population of
       resistant organisms. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
        Natural Selection:
           — The population had some members that were naturally resistant to antibiotics. They
              survived and reproduced, passing on the resistance.
        Evolution:
           — Some organisms were resistant to the pesticide. They survived and passed on the trait.
        Reproduction:
           — Resistant members survived and passed on the trait.
        Mutation:
          — It produces variations that give some organisms a survival advantage.
        Note: Allow credit for a response consistent with the process identified in question 56.


• identify one problem caused by this resistance [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
58 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying one problem caused by this resistance. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            —   Resistant bacteria will survive and continue to make people sick.
            —   Insects will continue to destroy crops.
            —   Antibiotics do not work anymore.
            —   There will be less food available.


• state one solution to this problem [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
59 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one solution to this problem. Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — Do not use antibiotics/antibacterial products unless needed.
            — Use different antibiotics or pesticides.
            — Use a natural predator for pests.
            — Insert genes into plants that will make them resistant to bacteria or pests.
            — Research and find new antibiotics/ways of controlling insect pests.
        Note: Allow credit for a response consistent with the problem identified in question 58.


• identify one possible negative effect of this solution [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
60 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying one possible negative effect of this solution. Acceptable responses
       include, but are not limited to:
            — People might be sick longer.
            — More people could get sick.
            — Organisms may become resistant to other treatments.
            — Natural predators may get out of control.
            — Inserted genes may have an undesired effect.
            — Research takes a lot of time and money.
        Note: Allow credit for a response consistent with the student’s solution to question 59.


  Base your answer to question 61–63 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                                            Green Tea & Acne
            Green tea might be an effective treatment for acne, according to a study by researchers
        from Memorial Medical Center in the Philippines, reported by United Press International
        (UPI). The study showed that 3 percent green tea cream is comparable to 4 percent
        benzoyl peroxide in the treatment of moderate to severe acne.
            Green tea has been shown to fight bacteria, reduce inflammation and decrease
        hormone activity — three characteristics that make the ancient tea an excellent candidate
        for an acne therapy.
            In the study, one group of subjects applied benzoyl peroxide cream twice daily for
        12 weeks and another used green tea extract cream twice daily for the same period.
        Patients received identical bottles of cream and were unaware of the type of treatment they
        were assigned. The researchers noted the green tea cream seemed to lighten patients’
        [acne] and improve the overall appearance of their complexion.
            The preliminary data suggest green tea extract cream causes fewer side effects than
        benzoyl peroxide treatment. Patients in the green tea group reported fewer cases of dry
        skin, itching and allergic responses. Azucena Arguelles, MD, a private practice dermatologist
        from Mountain View, CA, told UPI that the findings, while promising, are not yet substantial
        enough to change clinical practice.
                                                                      Advance for Nurses, Nov. 10, 2003,
                                                              “Green Tea & Acne,” www.advanceweb.com
61–63 Explain how this experiment can be used to develop a new treatment for acne. In your answer, be
      sure to:
      • identify the organism targeted by green tea [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 61–63 need not appear in the following
      order.
61 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying the organism targeted by green tea. Acceptable responses include,
       but are not limited to:
            — bacteria
            — acne
            — C. acnes
            — Propionibacterium acnes


• identify the organism targeted by green tea [1]
• identify one advantage of using green tea extract instead of benzoyl peroxide cream to treat acne [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
62 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying one advantage of using green tea extract instead of benzoyl peroxide
       cream to treat acne. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — causes fewer side effects
            — less itching
            — lightening of acne on the skin
            — improved overall complexion


• state one reason why, even though the findings are promising, they are “not yet substantial enough to
  change clinical practice” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
63 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why, even though the findings are promising, they are “not
       yet substantial enough to change clinical practice.” Acceptable responses include, but are not
       limited to:
            — need to repeat experiment to see if results are the same
            — need a larger sample group
            — need to see if side effects occur later on


Base your answers to questions 64 and 65 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Raw eggs and undercooked poultry may contain Salmonella bacteria. These bacteria
      can cause food poisoning by invading the cells lining the small intestine and producing a
      toxin that causes inflammation in the intestine. Symptoms usually appear 24 to 48 hours
      after the bacteria are ingested. Symptoms include fever, diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration,
      and abdominal pain that may last for several days.
 64 Explain why Salmonella bacteria are described as pathogens. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
64 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It is an organism that causes disease.
            — produces toxins that cause fewer and other symptoms
            — because it invades cells and causes food poisoning
            — Salmonella makes people sick.


65 State one possible reason why the symptoms of food poisoning do not appear for 24 to 48 hours after
   eating food contaminated with Salmonella bacteria. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
65 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — It takes time for the bacteria to reproduce.
            — It takes time for the bacteria to produce enough toxins.
            — It takes time for the bacteria to invade intestine walls.
            — It takes time for the bacteria to cause inflammation.


66–68 A student was visiting a friend at her home. Her friend owned two cats. After playing with the cats for
      a while, the student began to sneeze. Her nose began to run and her eyes became red, watery, and
      itchy. It also became hard for her to breathe. A few minutes after leaving her friend’s home, the
      symptoms disappeared.
       Provide a biological explanation for the symptoms the girl developed at her friend’s house. In your
       response, be sure to:
       • identify the body system that was responsible for triggering the reaction she experienced [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 66–68 need not appear in the following
      order.
66 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying the body system that was responsible for triggering the reaction she
       experienced as the immune system.


• identify the type of reaction the student was most likely experiencing [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
67 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying the type of reaction the student was most likely experiencing.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — an allergic reaction or allergy
           — an immune response to a usually harmless substance


• state one reason why her symptoms are not likely due to an infectious agent [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
68 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why her symptoms are not likely due to an infectious agent.
       Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — An infection would probably take longer to develop.
            — An infection by a pathogen would probably not end so suddenly.
            — The symptoms went away when she left her friend’s house.


  Base your answer to question 69–72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Environmentalists and public health experts are warning the public about some
        chemicals that they come in contact with daily, such as PBDEs and phthalates. PBDEs are
        used to make children’s clothing flame retardant and phthalates are used to manufacture
        many plastic bottles, toys, and cosmetics. Both of these chemicals accumulate in the body
        and endanger health.
            In one family tested, the young children had PBDE levels seven times that of their
        parents. These levels were two to three times the levels that caused thyroid problems in
        animals. Animal studies have shown that phthalates cause reproductive defects. Even at low
        levels, phthalates may contribute to infertility and impaired testes in males. Both chemicals
        can cause nervous system damage.
            Biomonitoring is a technology used to test for levels of industrial chemicals found in the
        body. The technology is less than ten years old, but results from animal studies led some
        countries to ban PBDEs in 2004.
            Presently, the United States EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) does not require
        chemical manufacturers to conduct human toxicity studies prior to approval for use. If
        concerns regarding risk or exposure arise during the approval process, the EPA can ask for
        additional testing. Additional testing occurs for approximately 10 percent of the new
        chemicals submitted each year. The EPA has also set up voluntary testing programs with
        major chemical manufacturers to rate some of the 3,000 most widely used chemicals.
69–72 The use of industrial chemicals, such as PBDEs and phthalates, provides both advantages and
      disadvantages. Discuss the disadvantages of using these chemicals. In your answer, be sure to:
      • state one specific reason why public health officials are concerned about the use of these chemicals [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Note: The student’s response to the bulleted items in question 69–72 need not appear in the following
      order.
69 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one specific reason why public health officials are concerned about the
       use of these chemicals. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — These chemicals have been found to cause health problems in animals and in humans.
            — PBDEs have been found to cause thyroid problems and nervous system damage in animals.
            — Phthalates may contribute to infertility.


• identify the technique used to determine exposure levels to these chemicals in humans [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
70 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying the technique used to determine exposure levels to these chemicals
       in humans as biomonitoring.


• state one possible reason why young children might have higher levels of exposure to these
  chemicals than do adults [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
71 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one possible reason why young children might have higher levels of
       exposure to these chemicals than do adults. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Young children have more contact with the products that contain these chemicals.
            — Young children play with more toys/use baby bottles.
            — Children wear flame-retardant clothing.


• state one possible reason why chemical manufacturers might participate in the voluntary testing
  programs set up by the EPA [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
72 [1] Allow 1 credit for stating one possible reason why chemical manufacturers might participate in the
       voluntary testing programs set up by the EPA. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — They may participate to prevent being sued in the future.
            — They may participate because it improves their public image.
            — They may participate to make sure their product is safe.



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]

    Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on your separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this
part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
73 The materials represented in the diagram below were used in a laboratory activity.
These materials were used to carry out the technique known as
(1) DNA staining                                        (3) paper chromatography
(2) genetic engineering                                 (4) glucose testing
Answer: 3

74 A coverslip should be slowly lowered from a 45° angle onto a slide in order to
   (1) prevent the slide from being scratched
   (2) stop the loss of water from under the coverslip
   (3) ensure that the specimen being viewed will stay alive
   (4) reduce the formation of air bubbles
Answer: 4

75 A substance is most likely to diffuse into a cell when
   (1) it is a large organic food molecule such as protein or starch
   (2) it is enclosed in an organelle such as a vacuole
   (3) the concentration of the substance is greater outside the cell than inside
   (4) the pH of the substance is greater than the pH of the cell
Answer: 3

    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             Five students design an experiment to answer the question: “How is heart rate affected
         by running?” Two chairs were set up at different ends of a large room. The pulse rate of
         each student was taken at rest just before running. Each of the five students ran between
         the chairs a different number of times. Their pulse rates were taken after running and the
         results are shown in the table below.
76 If a control group is not included in an experiment, it would be difficult to
   (1) formulate a hypothesis for the experiment              (3) record data in a data table
   (2) make observations about the experimental group         (4) draw a valid conclusion
Answer: 4

77 Explain how the change in heart rate helps to maintain homeostasis during exercise. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
77 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — The heart rate increases, which transports more oxygen from the lungs to the muscle cells.
            — The heart beats faster and transports carbon dioxide to the lungs faster for elimination.
            — Increased heart rate removes wastes from cells more rapidly.


  Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            The sequences below represent the same portions of a DNA molecule from the same
        gene used by a student to study the relationship between two plant species. A biological
        catalyst that recognizes the CCGG site is used to cut the DNA molecules into pieces. The
        catalyst cuts the DNA between the C and G of the site.
78 Draw lines in the sequences below for species 1 and species 2 to show where the catalyst would cut the
   DNA. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
78 [1] Allow 1 credit.
        Example of a 1-credit response:


79 Complete the data table below to show the results of the action of the catalyst. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
79 [1] Allow 1 credit.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s response to question 78.


80 Are the two species of plants closely related? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
80 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — No, the biological catalyst made two cuts in species 1 DNA and only one cut in species 2
              DNA.
            — No, the catalyst cut the DNA of species 1 into three pieces and cut the DNA of species 2
              into only two.
            — No, 15 out of 24 bases are different.
            — No, the base sequences are very different.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s response to question 79.


Base your answer to question 81 on the information and diagrams below and on your knowledge of biology.
          The drawings below were made during a laboratory exercise in which a microscope was
      used to view slides of preserved protozoa. The microscope had a 10× eyepiece and two
      different objectives.
81 Which statement about the size of the organisms is correct?
   (1) Organism A is larger than organism B.
   (2) Organism B is larger than organism A.
   (3) Organisms A and B are both the same size.
   (4) The relative size of the organisms cannot be determined from the information given.
Answer: 1

82 A student performed a gel electrophoresis experiment. The results are represented in the diagram below.
Compared to the fragments at the top of the gel, the fragments at the lower end are
(1) larger, and move slower                               (3) smaller, and move faster
(2) larger, and move faster                               (4) smaller, and move slower
Answer: 3

Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
83 On an island populated by both warbler finches and small tree finches, there is a significant decrease in the
   amount of animal food. Which finch population would decrease more? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
83 [1] Allow 1 credit for warbler finch and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
       not limited to:
            — Small tree finches may eat some plant food, while warbler finches eat only animal food.
            — Warbler finches eat only animal food, while small tree finches may eat some plant food.


84 Identify one species of finch that would most likely survive a sudden change in climate that destroyed seeds
   with small, thin coverings, leaving only seeds with large, thick coverings. Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
84 [1] Allow 1 credit for identifying one species of finch that would most likely survive a sudden change
       in climate that destroyed seeds with small, thin coverings, leaving only seeds with large, thick
       coverings, and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — large ground finch or medium ground finch or small ground finch or sharp-billed ground
              finch because it has a large crushing beak and eats mainly plant food
            — large/small tree finch or woodpecker finch or warbler finch because they don’t eat much
              plant food
            — The warbler finch eats only animal food, so it would not be affected.


85 An island has populations of both the cactus finch and sharp-billed ground finch. Explain how these
   finches can live on the same island even though these finches have similar beaks and both eat plants. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
85 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — different niches
            — eat at different times
            — live in different areas
            — amount of food was sufficient to support both
            — may eat different plants/different parts of plant



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