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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2010 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1 The presence of which pair of geographic
  conditions discouraged the development of a
  plantation economy in the New England
  (1) wide coastal plain and absence of good harbors
  (2) rocky soil and short growing season
  (3) numerous rivers and humid climate
  (4) flatlands and lack of forests
Answer: 2

2 What was the main cause of the French and
  Indian War (1754–1763)?
  (1) disputed land claims in the Ohio River valley
      between the French and the British
  (2) conflicts between American colonists and the
      French over control of the Great Plains
  (3) taxation of American colonists without
      representation in Parliament
  (4) violation of trade agreements between
      European nations and Native American
Answer: 1

3 The British government’s use of writs of
  assistance against American merchants is one
  reason the Bill of Rights includes protection
  (1) cruel and unusual punishment
  (2) self-incrimination
  (3) excessive bail
  (4) unreasonable search and seizure
Answer: 4

4 “. . . Every thing that is right or reasonable pleads
  for separation. The blood of the slain, the
  weeping voice of nature cries, ’TIS TIME TO
  PART. . . .”
                       — Thomas Paine, Common Sense
  In this quotation, Thomas Paine is trying to
  convince the colonists to
  (1) accept the Proclamation of 1763
  (2) break a treaty with Spain
  (3) declare their independence from England
  (4) dissolve their alliance with France
Answer: 3

5 Shays’ Rebellion of 1786 was significant because it
  (1) showed that the English still had influence
      after the American Revolution
  (2) convinced many Americans of the need for a
      stronger national government
  (3) revealed the increased threat from rebellious
      Native American Indians
  (4) endangered the lives of many recent
Answer: 2

6 The Great Compromise reached at the
  Constitutional Convention resulted in the
  (1) formation of the Supreme Court
  (2) creation of a bicameral legislature
  (3) development of a two-party system
  (4) ban on the importation of enslaved Africans
Answer: 2

7 Building support for the ratification of the United
  States Constitution was the purpose of the
  (1) Farewell Address of George Washington
  (2) Albany Plan of Union
  (3) Mayflower Compact
  (4) Federalist Papers
Answer: 4

8 Federalism is best defined as a principle of
  government that
  (1) divides power between the central government
      and state governments
  (2) includes a system of checks and balances
  (3) allows the states to nullify national laws
  (4) places the most power in the hands of the
      legislative branch
Answer: 1

9 “All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the
  House of Representatives; . . .”
          — Article 1, Section 7, United States Constitution
  The main reason the writers of the Constitution
  included this provision was to
  (1) give citizens more influence over taxation issues
  (2) assure that all citizens would pay taxes
  (3) deny presidents the power to veto revenue bills
  (4) provide the government with a balanced
Answer: 1

10 The United States Constitution grants the Senate
   the power to
   (1) impeach governors
   (2) issue pardons
   (3) appoint ambassadors
   (4) approve treaties
Answer: 4

11 Which statement about the electoral college
   system is accurate?
   (1) The number of electoral votes a state receives
       is based on its geographic size.
   (2) A candidate can be elected president without
       the majority of the popular vote.
   (3) Presidential candidates are forced to
       campaign equally in every state.
   (4) The total number of electoral votes has
       increased with each census.
Answer: 2

12 President George Washington set a precedent for
   all future presidents by
   (1) appointing a career soldier to be Secretary of
   (2) choosing a friend to be Chief Justice of the
        Supreme Court
   (3) campaigning actively for the office
   (4) creating a cabinet of advisors
Answer: 4

13 A major reason President Thomas Jefferson
   authorized the Lewis and Clark expedition was to
   (1) claim California for the United States
   (2) explore a route to the Pacific Ocean
   (3) remove British outposts from United States
   (4) establish settlements in the Southwest
Answer: 2

14 Starting with the election of President Andrew
   Jackson (1828), voter participation increased due
   to the
   (1) passage of an amendment ending religious
       qualifications for voting
   (2) extension of suffrage to Native American
   (3) end of property requirements for voting by
       many states
   (4) arrival of more immigrants from nations with
       democratic governments
Answer: 3

15 “Compromise Enables Maine and Missouri to Enter
    the Union”
   “California Joins the Union As Part of Compromise
    of 1850”
   “Kansas-Nebraska Act Establishes Popular
    Sovereignty in the Territories”
   Which issue is most closely associated with these
   (1) status of slavery in new states
   (2) negotiation of the Oregon Treaty
   (3) expansion of land for reservations
   (4) influence of political parties on economic
Answer: 1

16 During the 185os, Irish immigrants were often
   discriminated against because they
   (1) refused to participate in local politics
   (2) displaced slave labor in the South
   (3) arrived in the United States with great wealth
   (4) practiced the Roman Catholic religion
Answer: 4

17 In his first inaugural address, President Abraham
   Lincoln stated his main goal for the nation was to
   (1) use the vote to resolve the conflict over slavery
   (2) free all slaves in the United States
   (3) uphold the Dred Scott decision
   (4) preserve the Union
Answer: 4

18 Poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses
   were adopted in Southern States primarily to
   (1) enforce the terms of the 15th amendment
   (2) keep African Americans from exercising their
       right to vote
   (3) stop criminals and immigrants from voting
   (4) eliminate bribery and corruption at polling
Answer: 2

19 During the late 180os, major improvements to a
   nationwide system of trade were made with the
   (1) construction of a network of canals
   (2) use of steamboats on rivers
   (3) completion of transcontinental railroads
   (4) construction of toll roads
Answer: 3

Base your answer to question 20 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
20 The principal message of the cartoon is that the Standard Oil Company
   (1) used its size to lower the prices of its products
   (2) protected the nation from foreign competition
   (3) used its economic power to influence government decisions
   (4) employed violence to gain an unfair advantage for its workers
Answer: 3

21 Jacob Riis, Ida Tarbell, and Margaret Sanger are
   best known for their efforts to
   (1) create awareness about social problems
   (2) gain support for the women’s movement
   (3) expand the rights of Native American Indians
   (4) win equal treatment for African Americans
Answer: 1

22 The Progressive movement supported the idea
   that the federal government should
   (1) regulate big business
   (2) reduce immigration
   (3) build an overseas empire
   (4) reduce the number of farms
Answer: 1

23 Which event most influenced President Woodrow
   Wilson’s decision to enter World War I?
   (1) defeat of Russia by Germany
   (2) assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
   (3) raids by Mexico on the southwestern United
   (4) renewal of unrestricted submarine warfare by
Answer: 4

24 In the early 2oth century, what was the primary
   cause of the large-scale migration of African
   Americans out of the rural South?
   (1) supply of new housing in the suburbs
   (2) opportunities for jobs in northern factories
   (3) availability of cheap land on the frontier
   (4) absence of racial discrimination in northern
Answer: 2

25 The conflict between science and religion in the
   192os was most clearly shown in the
   (1) trial of John Scopes
   (2) arrest of Sacco and Vanzetti
   (3) nativist reactions to immigration
   (4) poetry of the Harlem Renaissance
Answer: 1

26 One of the major causes of the stock market crash
   of 1929 was
   (1) excessive buying of stocks on margin
   (2) overconsumption of goods and services
   (3) failure of international banking systems
   (4) low prices of stocks and bonds
Answer: 1

27 Which action did President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt take that helped organized labor gain
   strength during the New Deal?
   (1) requiring the American Federation of Labor
       to admit skilled workers
   (2) allowing women to work in government
   (3) signing the National Labor Relations Act
       (Wagner Act)
   (4) selecting John L. Lewis as his Secretary of Labor
Answer: 3

    Base your answers to questions 28 and 29 on the
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
28 Which nations are represented by the two birds
   in this cartoon?
   (1) Soviet Union and Great Britain
   (2) United States and Soviet Union
   (3) Germany and Great Britain
   (4) United States and Germany
Answer: 4

29 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   point of view of the cartoonist?
   (1) Isolationism is the safest policy for these
       countries to follow.
   (2) The United States is ignoring the threat
       caused by foreign aggression.
   (3) Trade restrictions are more of a threat than
       leaders recognize.
   (4) England can defend itself against Axis
Answer: 2

30 Many of the songs, movies, and books of the
   193os are similar in that they
   (1) romanticized urban life
   (2) relived the bad times of the past
   (3) helped people escape from the realities of
       everyday life
   (4) pointed out the mistakes that led to the Great
Answer: 3

31 What was a major result of the Servicemen’s
   Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill)?
   (1) Millions of veterans received a college
   (2) Women kept their factory jobs after World
       War II.
   (3) Jobs were created by the Manhattan Project.
   (4) Veterans were exempted from gasoline
Answer: 1

32 President Harry Truman changed the United
   States military after World War II by
   (1) allowing women to serve in combat roles
   (2) establishing an all-volunteer army
   (3) banning racial segregation in the military
   (4) withdrawing all military forces from Europe
Answer: 3

33 The United States committed to a Cold War
   policy of mutual defense when it
   (1) aided the Nationalists in China
   (2) established the Eisenhower Doctrine
   (3) joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
   (4) rejected United Nations efforts to halt the
       development of atomic weapons
Answer: 3

34 Controversies involving Alger Hiss and Julius and
   Ethel Rosenberg reflected the post–World War II
   concern over
   (1) testing nuclear missiles
   (2) joining the United Nations
   (3) placing weapons in outer space
   (4) spying by communists in the United States
Answer: 4

35 Which development resulted from the
   construction of the interstate highway system?
   (1) increased suburbanization
   (2) reduced air pollution
   (3) decreased fuel consumption
   (4) growth of long-distance passenger train service
Answer: 1

Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
36 What is a valid generalization that can be drawn from this photograph?
   (1) Activists often advocate taking over the government.
   (2) Demonstrators use nonviolent means to demand equal rights.
   (3) Civil rights leaders supported “separate but equal” education.
   (4) Protesters encouraged a nationwide strike by teachers.
Answer: 2

37 The delay in implementing which Supreme Court decision helped lead to the protest
   shown in this photograph?
   (1) Plessy v. Ferguson
   (2) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
   (3) Tinker v. Des Moines
   (4) New Jersey v. T. L. O.
Answer: 2

38 The Supreme Court decisions in Mapp v. Ohio
   (1961) and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) directly
   expanded the rights of which group?
   (1) students with disabilities
   (2) women in the military
   (3) homeless Americans
   (4) persons accused of crimes
Answer: 4

39 Which development led to the other three?
   (1) growth of new home construction
   (2) increase in school populations
   (3) start of the baby boom
   (4) pressure on the Social Security system
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 40 on the excerpt
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   “. . . With America’s sons in the fields far away,
   with America’s future under challenge right here
   at home, with our hopes and the world’s hopes for
   peace in the balance every day, I do not believe
   that I should devote an hour or a day of my time
   to any personal partisan causes or to any duties
   other than the awesome duties of this office—the
   Presidency of your country.
        Accordingly, I shall not seek, and I will not
   accept, the nomination of my party for another
   term as your President. . . .”
          — President Lyndon B. Johnson, March 31, 1968
40 The decision announced in this speech was based
   primarily on the
   (1) assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.
   (2) growing violence in urban America
   (3) outbreak of terrorist attacks around the world
   (4) involvement of the United States in the
       Vietnam War
Answer: 4

41 The policy of détente pursued by President
   Richard Nixon was an effort to
   (1) increase foreign aid to African nations
   (2) maintain access to East Asian markets
   (3) reduce conflict with the Soviet Union
   (4) end trade barriers among Western Hemisphere
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 42 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
42 Which statement best describes the point of view
   of the cartoonist?
   (1) Outsourcing of jobs has hurt American
   (2) Americans receive most of their news from
   (3) United States presidents now seek support
       throughout the world.
   (4) Low unemployment rates have forced United
       States companies to expand overseas.
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 43 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 What is the main issue identified in this cartoon?
   (1) the high cost of computer services
   (2) conflicts between Congress and the Supreme
   (3) the increasing lack of privacy
   (4) limits placed on the powers of Congress
Answer: 3

44 A belief in Manifest Destiny is most closely
   associated with the decision to
   (1) create the Bank of the United States
   (2) suppress the Whiskey Rebellion
   (3) declare war on Mexico
   (4) build the Panama Canal
Answer: 3

45 Which policy of the United States was designed
   to prevent new colonization of the Western
   (1) Monroe Doctrine      (3) Good Neighbor
   (2) Open Door            (4) Carter Doctrine
Answer: 1

46 The United States government is creating
   memorials along the Trail of Tears because it was
   (1) an important road used by settlers going to
       the frontier
   (2) the location of injustices against many Native
       American Indians
   (3) the site of victories by General Andrew
       Jackson during the War of 1812
   (4) the route followed by the first transcontinental railroad
Answer: 2

47 A goal that was established at the Seneca Falls
   Convention of 1848 was achieved in 1920 by the
   (1) creation of a free public education system
   (2) passage of legislation to end child labor
   (3) adoption of national woman’s suffrage
   (4) ratification of an amendment requiring
       national Prohibition
Answer: 3

48 The emergence of third political parties such as
   the Know-Nothing Party, the Greenback Party,
   and the Prohibition Party indicates that
   (1) basic democratic values are often rejected by
       many United States citizens
   (2) a single powerful issue can mobilize political
   (3) third parties have failed to influence
       governmental policies
   (4) minor political parties are usually formed by
       strong leaders
Answer: 2

49 One common theme in many of the writings of
   Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and
   Langston Hughes was
   (1) the need to regulate business
   (2) the benefits of mass production
   (3) optimism for reforms promised by the Great
   (4) dissatisfaction with the American culture of
       the 192os
Answer: 4

50 “Security Council Approves Use of Force Against
    Communist Invaders”
   “President Truman Fires General MacArthur”
   “Armistice Divides Nation at 38th Parallel”
   These headlines refer to which international
   (1) World War I        (3) Korean War
   (2) World War II       (4) Persian Gulf War
Answer: 3

                                                    PART II
                                      THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Presidential Actions
                   United States presidents have taken actions that have had a significant effect on
                   United States foreign or domestic policies.
                   Identify two presidential actions that have had significant effects on United States
                   history and for each
                   • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the action
                   • Discuss the impact of the presidential action on United States foreign policy or
                      on American society
            You may use any presidential action that has had a significant effect on United States
        history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include George Washington issuing the
        Proclamation of Neutrality, Abraham Lincoln issuing the Emancipation Proclamation,
        William McKinley calling for war against Spain, Theodore Roosevelt supporting the Meat
        Inspection Act, Woodrow Wilson proposing the Fourteen Points, Franklin D. Roosevelt
        proposing the New Deal, Harry Truman making the decision to drop the atomic bomb, and
        Lyndon B. Johnson signing the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
                                 You are not limited to these suggestions.
                       Do not use Thomas Jefferson purchasing the Louisiana Territory
                                  as your example of a presidential action.
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of the documents have been edited for the purposes
of the question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each document and
any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              Geographic factors such as size, location, climate, and natural resources have played
              a critical role in the development of the United States. They have had both positive
              and negative effects on the United States throughout its history.
        Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
              history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
              the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                • Discuss the positive and/or negative effects of geography on the development
                  of the United States
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
       . . . Geography contributed powerfully to a policy of noninvolvement. A billowing ocean moat
       three thousand miles wide separated but did not completely isolate the American people from
       Europe. The brilliant young Alexander Hamilton pointed out in 1787, in Number 8 of the
       Federalist Papers, that England did not have to maintain a large standing army because the
       English Channel separated her from Europe. How much better situated, he noted, was the
       United States. His point was well taken, for geographical separation—not isolation—made
       possible the partial success of a policy of nonentanglement during most of the 19th Century. . . .
                           Source: Thomas A. Bailey, A Diplomatic History of the American People, Prentice Hall, 1980
 1 According to Thomas A. Bailey, how did geography contribute to the United States policy of noninvolvement? [1]
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

Document 2
     . . . The President [Thomas Jefferson] was playing for large stakes. Louisiana [Territory] stretched
     from the Mississippi westward to the Rocky Mountains, and from Canada’s Lake of the Woods
     southward to the Gulf of Mexico. If annexed, these 825,000 square miles would give the new
     nation access to one of the world’s potentially richest trading areas. The Missouri, Kansas,
     Arkansas and Red rivers and their tributaries could act as giant funnels carrying goods into the
     Mississippi and then down to New Orleans. Even in the 179os, with access to the Mississippi only
     from the east, the hundreds of thousands of Americans settled along the river depended on it
     and on the port of New Orleans for access to both world markets and imported staples for
     everyday living. “The Mississippi is to them everything,” Secretary of State James Madison
     observed privately in November 1802. “It is the Hudson, the Delaware, the Potomac, and all the
     navigable rivers of the Atlantic formed into one stream.”. . .
                                      Source: Walter LaFeber, “An Expansionist’s Dilemma,” Constitution, Fall 1993
2 According to Walter LaFeber, what were two benefits to the United States from acquiring the Louisiana
  Territory? [2]
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Document 3
     . . . Other problems faced by wagoners [settlers] included howling wind, battering hail and
     electrical storms, lack of sufficient grass for the oxen, and wagon breakdowns. The forty waterless
     miles across the hot, shimmering desert between the Humboldt Sink and the Truckee River in
     Nevada exacted its toll of thirst on men and oxen. Rugged mountains of Idaho, Oregon, and
     Washington debilitated [weakened] men and animals. On the California branch loomed the
     Sierra Nevada, a formidable barrier of sheer granite. So high and perpendicular towered these
     granite walls, that wagons had to be dismantled and hoisted by rope, piece by piece, over
     precipices seven thousand feet above sea level. On some wagon trains, supplies ran low or
     became exhausted. Aid from California saved hundreds of destitute and emaciated pioneers. The
     story of the ill-fated Donner party that lost half its roster to starvation, freezing cold, and deep
     snows just east of Donner Pass in the Sierra Nevada is well-known. The great westward
     adventure was not for the weak, the timid, the infirm. One emigrant graphically recorded a small
     incident along the trail:
        On the stormy, rainy nights in the vast open prairies without shelter or cover, the deep
        rolling or loud crashing thunder, the vivid and almost continuous flashes of lightning, and
        howling winds, the pelting rain, and the barking of coyotes, all combined to produce a
        feeling of loneliness and littleness impossible to describe. . . .
                Source: H. Wilbur Hoffman, Sagas of Old Western Travel and Transport, Howell North Publishers, 1980
3 According to H. Wilbur Hoffman, what are two examples of how geography negatively affected the
  westward movement of settlers? [2]
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4 Based on these documents, what are two ways the size of the United States has affected its development?
Document 4a
    . . . Americans whose lives
    spanned the era from 1800 to
    1850 must have been amazed at
    the changes in transportation
    that took place before their eyes.
    They saw the oxcart, the stage
    coach, the clumsy flatboat, ark,
    and scow, give way to the
    steamboat and to railroads run
    by steam power. They saw the
    channels of many rivers widened
    and deepened, thousands of
    miles of canals built in the North
    and West,∗ and thousands of
    miles of railroad lines threading
    their way across the country
    from the Atlantic coast toward
    the Mississippi River. They
    witnessed a transportation
    revolution. . . .
   ∗In this passage, West refers to the area
    now known as the Midwest.

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Document 5
5 Based on this map, state one way natural resources have affected the economic development of the United
  States. [1]
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Document 6
      . . . For years conservationists had warned that ecological catastrophe hovered over the Great
      Plains. The so-called short-grass country west of the hundredth meridian was favored by fewer
      than twenty inches of rain a year. Early explorers had labeled the frontier beyond the Missouri
      “the great American desert,” and then it was relatively stable, hammered flat by millions of bison
      and untilled by the Indians. Then the settlers arrived with their John Deere plows. Before the
      Depression they were blessed by extraordinarily heavy rains, but as they pushed their luck by
      overgrazing and overplowing, the ineludible [unavoidable] drew nearer. Even in the 192os a
      hundred counties in Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Texas, and Oklahoma had been called the
      “dust bowl.” Now in 1934 the National Resources Board estimated that 35 million acres of arable
      [productive] land had been completely destroyed, the soil of another 125 million acres had been
      nearly or entirely removed, and another 100 million acres were doomed. Abruptly the bowl grew
      to 756 counties in nineteen states. Like Ireland and the Ukraine in the nineteenth century, the
      Plains were threatened with famine. . . .
                                         Source: William Manchester, The Glory and the Dream, Little Brown, 1974
6 According to William Manchester, what is one way climate affected farming on the Great Plains? [1]
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Document 7a
Document 7b
      . . . There are many among us who closed their eyes, from lack of interest or lack of knowledge;
      honestly and sincerely thinking that the many hundreds of miles of salt water made the American
      Hemisphere so remote that the people of North and Central and South America could go on
      living in the midst of their vast resources without reference to, or danger from, other Continents
      of the world.
         There are some among us who were persuaded by minority groups that we could maintain our
      physical safety by retiring within our continental boundaries—the Atlantic on the east, the
      Pacific on the west, Canada on the north and Mexico on the south. I illustrated the futility—the
      impossibility—of that idea in my Message to the Congress last week. Obviously, a defense policy
      based on that is merely to invite future attack. . . .
                      Source: Franklin D. Roosevelt, Fireside Chat, “On National Defense,” May 26, 1940, FDR Library
7 Based on these documents, what is one way that the geographic location of the United States affected its
  foreign policy before World War II? [1]
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Document 8
8 Based on this map, how did the location of Cuba influence the Cuban missile crisis? [1]
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Document 9
      We’re getting a painful lesson in economic geography. What Wall Street is to money, or
      Hollywood is to entertainment, the Gulf Coast is to energy. It’s a vast assemblage of refineries,
      production platforms, storage tanks and pipelines—and the petroleum engineers, energy
      consultants and roustabouts [oil field workers] who make them run. Consider the concentration
      of energy activity. Oil production in the Gulf of Mexico accounts for nearly 30 percent of the U.S.
      total. Natural-gas production is roughly 20 percent. About 60 percent of the nation’s oil imports
      arrive at Gulf ports. Nearly half of all U.S. oil refineries are there. [Hurricane] Katrina hit this
      immense system hard. The shock wave to the U.S. and world economies—which could vary from
      a temporary run-up in prices to a full-blown global recession—depends on how quickly
      America’s energy-industrial complex repairs itself. . . .
                               Source: Robert J. Samuelson, “Hitting the Economy,” Newsweek, September 12, 2005
9 According to Robert J. Samuelson, what is one reason the Gulf Coast is important to the economy of the
  United States? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Geographic factors such as size, location, climate, and natural resources have played
                a critical role in the development of the United States. They have had both positive
                and negative effects on the United States throughout its history.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                 • Discuss the positive and/or negative effects of geography on the development
                   of the United States
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
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