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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2013 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

Base your answer to question 1 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 Based on this map, which statement about the geography of colonial New England is
  most accurate?
  (1) New Hampshire had the highest population density.
  (2) Rivers served as natural boundaries between the colonies.
  (3) The first communities developed along rivers and coastlines.
  (4) The Atlantic Ocean isolated the region from the rest of the colonies.
Answer: 3

2 Which heading best completes the partial outline
(1) Factors in the Economic Development of
    Colonial New England
(2) Reasons for the Development of Southern
(3) Features Contributing to Dutch Success in
    Colonial New Amsterdam
(4) Components of the British System of
Answer: 1

3 One reason traditions of self-government
  developed in the American colonies before the
  French and Indian War was that the British
  (1) sent effective leaders to govern colonial
  (2) required     colonial    representation    in
  (3) practiced salutary neglect in the colonies
  (4) maintained a strong military presence in the
Answer: 3

4 The Proclamation of 1763 was intended to
  (1) allow American farmers to use the Mississippi
  (2) outlaw slavery in the Ohio River valley
  (3) prevent France from expanding into the
      Great Lakes region
  (4) avoid conflicts with Native American Indians
      west of the Appalachian Mountains
Answer: 4

5 In the 176os, Americans in the original thirteen
  British colonies began to protest against
  (1) efforts by the king to extend voting rights to
  (2) laws passed by the British Parliament
      regulating colonial trade
  (3) limits placed on land ownership by royal
  (4) decisions of British authorities to end
      immigration to the colonies
Answer: 2

6 At the Constitutional Convention (1787), which
  issue was resolved by the Great Compromise?
  (1) method of electing the president
  (2) power of Congress to tax exports
  (3) regulation of interstate commerce
  (4) representation of states in Congress
Answer: 4

7 To prevent tyranny, the authors of the
  Constitution drew on Montesquieu’s concept of
  (1) religious liberty
  (2) universal suffrage
  (3) separation of powers
  (4) supremacy of the nobility
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 8 on the chart
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
8 Which constitutional principle is best illustrated
  by the chart?
  (1) federalism            (3) due process
  (2) implied powers        (4) property rights
Answer: 1

9 During the 179os, one way Congress applied the
  elastic clause was by
  (1) establishing a national bank
  (2) creating a national postal system
  (3) adding Vermont and Kentucky as states
  (4) approving the Jay Treaty with Great Britain
Answer: 1

10 The importance of the Supreme Court’s ruling in
   Marbury v. Madison (1803) is that the Court
   (1) decided on the legality of state taxation of
       federal property
   (2) allowed for the influence of political parties in
       the passage of laws
   (3) refused to expand federal power over
       interstate trade
   (4) established the power of judicial review of
       federal laws
Answer: 4

11 What was a major foreign policy goal of the
   United States during the first half of the 180os?
   (1) forming defense alliances with European
   (2) establishing colonies in the Caribbean and
       Latin America
   (3) maintaining neutrality while increasing
       foreign trade
   (4) continuing the transatlantic African slave
Answer: 3

12 “Jackson Replaces Many Government Workers With
    His Supporters”
   “Jackson Vetoes Bank Recharter Bill for Political
   “Jackson Refuses to Enforce Worcester v. Georgia
   Which conclusion about President Andrew
   Jackson is most consistent with these headlines?
   (1) He allowed Congress to decide controversial
   (2) He expanded presidential powers.
   (3) He demonstrated weakness in dealing with
       domestic issues.
   (4) He relied on the Supreme Court to settle
Answer: 2

13 Which event led directly to the secession of
   several Southern states from the Union?
   (1) violence in Kansas over the spread of slavery
   (2) election of Abraham Lincoln as president
   (3) publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin
   (4) raid by John Brown at Harpers Ferry
Answer: 2

14 After the Civil War, the purpose of adding the
   13th, 14th, and 15th amendments to the
   Constitution was to
   (1) grant civil and political rights to Native
       American Indians
   (2) allow women to become full citizens
   (3) guarantee African Americans equal treatment
       under the law
   (4) extend constitutional rights to new territories
Answer: 3

15 Which form of agriculture was created and
   became dominant in the South in the decades
   immediately following the Civil War?
   (1) homesteading          (3) ranching
   (2) sharecropping         (4) cooperative farming
Answer: 2

    Base your answer to question 16 on the
legislation below and on your knowledge of social
   That the master of any vessel who shall knowingly
   bring within the United States on such vessel, and
   land or permit to be landed, any Chinese laborer,
   from any foreign port or place, shall be deemed
   guilty of a misdemeanor, and on conviction
   thereof shall be punished by a fine of not more
   than five hundred dollars for each and every such
   Chinese laborer so brought, and may be also
   imprisoned for a term not exceeding one year.
                — Section 2, Chinese Exclusion Act, 1882
16 Passage of this legislation was mainly a response
   (1) economic and race-based opposition to
       immigrants in the western United States
   (2) demands by businesses for additional workers
   (3) efforts of the American Federation of Labor
       to recruit skilled workers
   (4) pressure from railroads to limit competition
       in shipping
Answer: 1

Base your answer to question 17 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
17 The military districts shown on the map were created during Reconstruction to
   (1) create economic and social equality in the South
   (2) pay for the physical rebuilding of the South
   (3) move Native American Indians to reservations
   (4) govern the former Confederate states
Answer: 4

18 • Settlement of the Great Plains
   • Creation of standard time zones
   • Establishment of the first federal regulatory
   • Introduction of new methods of business
     management and finance
   These developments in the late 19th century
   show the importance of
   (1) railroads on the development of the United
   (2) agrarian reformers in western states
   (3) the labor union movement on the nation
   (4) the oil industry in increasing American power
       in the world
Answer: 1

19 Which Progressive Era muckraker’s book led to
   the passage of the Meat Inspection Act?
   (1) Jacob Riis’s How the Other Half Lives
   (2) Lincoln Steffens’s The Shame of the Cities
   (3) Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle
   (4) Frank Norris’s The Octopus
Answer: 3

20 During the Progressive Era, Presidents Theodore
   Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and Woodrow
   Wilson broke with the policies of late 19thcentury presidents concerning
   (1) colonial expansion
   (2) federal ownership of railroads
   (3) laissez-faire economic practices
   (4) civil rights for African Americans
Answer: 3

    Base your answers to questions 21 and 22 on the
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social
21 The cartoonist is commenting on the
   (1) pollution in New York harbor
   (2) excessive power of big business
   (3) slum conditions in New York City
   (4) limits placed on immigration
Answer: 2

22 Which individual is most closely associated with
   creating the situation shown in the cartoon?
   (1) William Jennings Bryan
   (2) Booker T. Washington
   (3) John D. Rockefeller
   (4) Gifford Pinchot
Answer: 3

23 Maintaining trading opportunities in China for
   United States businesses was the primary
   purpose of
   (1) the Open Door Policy
   (2) the Roosevelt Corollary
   (3) the Gentlemen’s Agreement
   (4) Dollar Diplomacy
Answer: 1

24 A major reason for the creation of the Federal
   Reserve System (1913) was to
   (1) regulate the supply of money in the economy
   (2) lend money directly to consumers at low
       interest rates
   (3) finance public works projects
   (4) invest government money in private
Answer: 1

25 The “clear and present danger” principle stated
   by the Supreme Court in Schenck v. United States
   (1919) had the effect of
   (1) prohibiting the president from implementing
       a military draft
   (2) preventing the wartime internment of
   (3) restricting the formation of defense alliances
   (4) limiting freedom of speech during wartime
Answer: 4

26 Which factor was the basis of the United States
   Senate’s opposition to the League of Nations after
   World War I?
   (1) rejection by President Woodrow Wilson of
   (2) fear of becoming involved in another
       European war
   (3) high financial cost of membership
   (4) concern over communist control of
       international organizations
Answer: 2

27 “Radical Immigrants Deported”
   “Bombs Explode on Wall Street”
   “Palmer Raids Criticized by Congress”
   These post–World War I headlines are most
   closely associated with the
   (1) Volstead Act            (3) Scopes trial
   (2) Ku Klux Klan            (4) Red Scare
Answer: 4

Base your answer to question 28 on the maps below and on your knowledge of social studies.
28 Which conclusion is most clearly supported by the information provided by these maps?
   (1) The Great Depression altered American political preferences.
   (2) The Republican Party remained strong in the deep South.
   (3) The Democratic Party lost support in the Northeast between the two elections.
   (4) Most voters believed in traditional approaches to economic problems.
Answer: 1

29 “The annual quota of any nationality shall be 2
   per centum of the number of foreign-born
   individuals of such nationality resident in
   continental United States as determined by the
   United States census of 1890, but the minimum
   quota of any nationality shall be 100.”
                 — Section 11a, Immigration Act of 1924
   The passage of this act reflects the American
   public’s perception that
   (1) too many immigrants were coming into the
   (2) dictatorships were emerging in western Europe
   (3) fewer workers were needed in consumer
       goods industries
   (4) economic prosperity was dependent on
       unskilled foreign labor
Answer: 1

30 During the early 2oth century, W. E. B. Du Bois
   was best known as a leader in the
   (1) creation of technical schools for African
   (2) formation of the National Association for the
       Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
   (3) development of the “Back to Africa”
   (4) effort to modernize farming in the South
Answer: 2

31 The New Deal reform that helped labor unions
   win the right to represent workers was the
   (1) creation of Social Security
   (2) formation of the Securities and Exchange
   (3) passage of the National Labor Relations
       (Wagner) Act
   (4) establishment of unemployment insurance
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 32 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
32 Based on this cartoon, President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt’s goal concerning the Supreme Court
   was to
   (1) increase ethnic and racial diversity
   (2) insure support for New Deal legislation
   (3) appoint justices who would use a strict
       interpretation of the Constitution
   (4) strengthen judicial independence
Answer: 2

33 What was the major purpose of the Lend-Lease
   Act (1941)?
   (1) sending United States troops to defend France
   (2) keeping the Soviet Union from invading China
   (3) helping Great Britain without going to war
   (4) profiting from Germany’s demand for steel
       and oil from the United States
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 34 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 Which statement most accurately expresses the
   main idea of this 1942 cartoon?
   (1) Allied goals in World War II will affect every
   (2) The Atlantic Charter will help only Europe
       and Asia.
   (3) The United States intends to rule the entire
   (4) American strategy will be to win the war in
       the Pacific first.
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 35 on the poster
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
35 A key purpose of this World War II poster was to
   (1) encourage protests against the war
   (2) gain support for the war effort
   (3) influence the Axis powers to end the war
   (4) illustrate the nature of modern warfare
Answer: 2

36 The war crimes trials of German and Japanese
   officials after World War II demonstrate the
   principle that
   (1) only nations can be considered responsible
       for actions during war
   (2) international law may not be applied to
       national leaders
   (3) nations have the authority to suspend human
   (4) leaders can be held accountable for crimes
       against humanity
Answer: 4

37 The baby boom in the United States of the 195os
   and 196os had its most significant impact on the
   (1) rebirth of urban business districts
   (2) decreased use of child labor in factories
   (3) recruitment for the armed forces
   (4) construction of housing and schools
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 38 on the
photograph below and on your knowledge of social
38 Which circumstance is most clearly illustrated by
   this photograph?
   (1) equality in accommodations experienced by
       African Americans
   (2) discrimination while serving one’s country
   (3) civil disobedience being used to protest racial
   (4) social changes in New York City after World
       War II
Answer: 2

39 Which development was a major result of the
   1956 Interstate Highway Act?
   (1) revitalization of family farms
   (2) migration to the suburbs
   (3) population shift to the Northeast
   (4) higher unemployment for the nation’s
Answer: 2

40 One way in which the feminist movement of the
   late 196os and early 197os is similar to the civil
   rights movement of the 195os and 196os is that
   (1) used public demonstrations and protests to
       draw attention to their goals
   (2) opposed Supreme Court decisions expanding
       the rights of the accused
   (3) refused support from churches and religious
   (4) focused on securing equal access to housing
Answer: 1

    Base your answer to question 41 on the
photograph below and on your knowledge of social
41 This 1973 photograph shows a situation most
   directly related to
   (1) the development of nuclear power sources
   (2) the end of oil production in the Gulf of
   (3) terrorist attacks on United States petroleum
   (4) an oil embargo imposed by nations in the
Answer: 4

    Base your answer to question 42 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
42 Which statement best describes the point of view
   of the cartoonist?
   (1) The press is responsible for misleading the
       public about the Nixon administration.
   (2) Most Americans continue to support the
       policies of the Nixon administration.
   (3) The articles of impeachment against
       President Richard Nixon are unjustified.
   (4) President Richard Nixon is directly involved
       in the Watergate cover up.
Answer: 4

43 In the second half of the 2oth century, federal
   efforts to reduce air and water pollution included
   (1) imposing limits on the number of imported
   (2) increasing domestic coal production
   (3) placing limits on factory emissions
   (4) encouraging United States corporations to
       move operations overseas
Answer: 3

44 Which action did President Ronald Reagan
   support to achieve economic growth?
   (1) lowering taxes on corporations and
   (2) increasing spending on social welfare
   (3) cutting defense budgets
   (4) increasing the regulation of industry
Answer: 1

45 Which newspaper headline would have appeared
   after the breakup of the Soviet Union?
   (1) “Russian Troops Invade Afghanistan”
   (2) “Poland and Hungary Join NATO”
   (3) “President Carter Announces Camp David
   (4) “President Reagan Supports Contras in
Answer: 2

46 Balancing individual rights and freedoms with
   the need for national security has been one of the
   biggest challenges created by
   (1) global climate change
   (2) cultural exchanges
   (3) corporate globalization
   (4) international terrorism
Answer: 4

47 Which government action from the 180os
   resulted in significant migration within the
   United States?
   (1) Embargo Act (1807)
   (2) Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
   (3) Homestead Act (1862)
   (4) Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Answer: 3

    Base your answer to question 48 on the poem
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … ‘Give me your tired, your poor,
   Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
   The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
   Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
   I lift my lamp beside the golden door!’
                                    — Emma Lazarus
48 An American who holds the ideals expressed by
   the poem would most likely favor
   (1) allowing only highly educated immigrants to
       enter the United States
   (2) using troops to stop immigration from Mexico
   (3) penalizing businesses that hire illegal
   (4) maintaining a policy of open immigration
Answer: 4

49 The economic programs of President Franklin D.
   Roosevelt and President Lyndon B. Johnson both
   resulted in
   (1) increased responsibilities for the federal
   (2) significant reductions in state and federal
   (3) federal ownership of major corporations
   (4) reduced spending on public works projects
Answer: 1

50 Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), United States v. E. C.
   Knight Co. (1895), and Schechter Poultry
   Corporation v. United States (1935) are all
   Supreme Court cases dealing with
   (1) presidential power during wartime
   (2) federal authority to regulate interstate
   (3) protection of students’ religious freedom
   (4) government regulation of passenger transportation
Answer: 2

                                               Part II
                                THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
ctions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
        below, and a conclusion.
    Theme: Foreign Policy (Cold War)
             Following World War II, the threat of communist expansion led the United States
             to take diplomatic, military, and economic actions to limit the global influence of
             the Soviet Union and China. These Cold War actions met with varying degrees of
             Select two specific actions taken by the United States to limit the expansion of
             communism during the Cold War and for each
             • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the action
             • Discuss the extent to which the action was successful in limiting the expansion
               of communism
        You may use any action taken by the United States to limit the expansion of communism
    during the Cold War. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include the
    implementation of the Marshall Plan (1947–1952), the establishment of the North Atlantic
    Treaty Organization [NATO] (1949), intervention in Korea (1950–1953), the blockade of Cuba
    (1962), the escalation of the Vietnam War (1964–1973), the visit of President Richard Nixon
    to China (1972), and the pursuit of the Strategic Defense Initiative [SDI] (1983–1989).
                            You are not limited to these suggestions.
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                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              In the early years of the republic, various controversial issues divided the American
              people. Three such issues were ratification of the Constitution, purchase of the
              Louisiana Territory, and expansion of slavery into the territories.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two issues mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the issue
                • Discuss arguments of those in favor of and of those opposed to the issue.
                  In your discussion, include at least one argument on each side of the issue.
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Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
       … Almost immediately after the Confederation was created, many Americans, including [James]
       Madison, came to see that it was much too weak to do what they wanted. By the 178os the
       problems were severe and conspicuous [obvious]. The Congress could not tax and pay its bills.
       It could not feed, clothe, or supply the army. It could not levy tariffs to regulate trade or to
       retaliate against the mercantilist European empires. It was even having trouble gathering a
       quorum to conduct business. Attempts to revise the Articles and grant the Congress the power
       to levy a 5 percent impost [tax] on imported European goods were thwarted by the need to get
       the unanimous consent of all thirteen states. Internationally the United States were being
       humiliated. In the Mediterranean the Barbary pirates were seizing American ships and selling
       their sailors into slavery, and the Confederation was powerless to do anything. It was unable even
       to guarantee the territorial integrity of the new nation. Great Britain continued to hold posts in
       the northwestern parts of United States territory in defiance of the peace treaty of 1783. In the
       southwest Spain was claiming territory that included much of present-day Alabama and
       Mississippi and plotting with American dissidents to break away from the Union.…
           Source: Gordon S. Wood, Revolutionary Characters: What Made the Founders Different, Penguin Press, 2006
 1 According to Gordon S. Wood, what were two weaknesses of the national government under the Articles of
   Confederation that led to the Constitutional Convention? [2]
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Document 2
    John Jay of New York wrote The Federalist, Number 4, in support of ratification of the Constitution. This is
an excerpt from that publication.
       But whatever may be our situation, whether firmly united under one national government, or
       split into a number of confederacies, certain it is, that foreign nations will know and view it
       exactly as it is; and they will act toward us accordingly. If they see that our national government
       is efficient and well administered, our trade prudently regulated, our militia properly organized
       and disciplined, our resources and finances discreetly managed, our credit re-established, our
       people free, contented, and united, they will be much more disposed to cultivate our friendship
       than provoke our resentment. If, on the other hand, they find us either destitute of [lacking] an
       effectual government (each State doing right or wrong, as to its rulers may seem convenient), or
       split into three or four independent and probably discordant [quarreling] republics or
       confederacies, one inclining to Britain, another to France, and a third to Spain, and perhaps
       played off against each other by the three, what a poor, pitiful figure will America make in their
       eyes! How liable would she become not only to their contempt but to their outrage, and how
       soon would dear-bought experience proclaim that when a people or family so divide, it never
       fails to be against themselves.
                                                   Source: John Jay, The Federalist, Number 4, November 7, 1787
 2 Based on this excerpt from The Federalist, Number 4, state one argument used by John Jay to support
   ratification of the Constitution. [1]
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Document 3a
      … The first question that presents itself on the subject is, whether a confederated government
      be the best for the United States or not? Or in other words, whether the thirteen United States
      should be reduced to one great republic, governed by one legislature, and under the direction
      of one executive and judicial; or whether they should continue thirteen confederated republics,
      under the direction and controul [control] of a supreme federal head for certain defined national
      purposes only?…
      In a republic of such vast extent as the United–States, the legislature cannot attend to the various
      concerns and wants of its different parts. It cannot be sufficiently numerous to be acquainted
      with the local condition and wants of the different districts, and if it could, it is impossible it
      should have sufficient time to attend to and provide for all the variety of cases of this nature, that
      would be continually arising.…
      These are some of the reasons by which it appears, that a free republic cannot long subsist
      [survive] over a country of the great extent of these states. If then this new constitution is
      calculated to consolidate the thirteen states into one, as it evidently is, it ought not to be
                                                 Source: Antifederalist Papers, Brutus Number 1, October 18, 1787
3a Based on this document, state one argument the Antifederalists used to oppose ratification of the
   Constitution. [1]
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Document 3b
      There is no declaration of rights; and the laws of the general government being paramount
      [superior] to the laws and constitutions of the several states, the declarations of rights in the
      separate states are no security. Nor are the people secured even in the enjoyment of the benefits
      of the common law, which stands here upon no other foundation than its having been adopted
      by the respective acts forming the constitutions of the several states.…
      There is no declaration of any kind for preserving the liberty of the press, the trial by jury in civil
      cases, nor against the danger of standing armies in time of peace.…
                                           Source: George Mason, “Objections to the Constitution,” October 7, 1787
3b According to George Mason, what is one argument against ratifying the new Constitution? [1]
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Document 4a
     … There is on the globe one single spot, the possessor of which is our natural and habitual
     enemy. It is New Orleans, through which the produce of three-eighths of our territory must pass
     to market, and from its fertility it will ere [before] long yield more than half of our whole produce
     and contain more than half our inhabitants. France, placing herself in that door, assumes to us
     the attitude of defiance.…
                                            Source: President Thomas Jefferson, Letter to Robert Livingston, 1802
Document 4b
4 Based on these documents, why was New Orleans important to the United States? [1]
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Document 5
      … To acquire an empire of perhaps half the extent of the one we possessed, from the most
      powerful and warlike nation on earth, without bloodshed, without the oppression of a single
      individual, without in the least embarrassing the ordinary operations of your finances, and all this
      through the peaceful forms of negotiation, and in despite too of the opposition [despite the
      opposition] of a considerable portion of the community, is an achievement of which the archives
      of the predecessors, at least, of those now in office, cannot furnish a parallel.…
                                                       Source: Senator John C. Breckenridge, November 3, 1803
5 According to Senator John C. Breckenridge, what is one reason he supports the purchase of the Louisiana
  Territory? [1]
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Document 6
      … When news of the [Louisiana] purchase reached the United States, President [Thomas]
      Jefferson was surprised. He had authorized the expenditure of $10 million for a port city, and
      instead received treaties committing the government to spend $15 million on a land package
      which would double the size of the country. Jefferson’s political opponents in the Federalist
      Party argued that the Louisiana purchase was a worthless desert, and that the Constitution did
      not provide for the acquisition of new land or negotiating treaties without the consent of the
      Senate. What really worried the opposition was the new states which would inevitably be carved
      from the Louisiana territory, strengthening Western and Southern interests in Congress, and
      further reducing the influence of New England Federalists in national affairs. President
      Jefferson was an enthusiastic supporter of westward expansion, and held firm in his support for
      the treaty. Despite Federalist objections, the U.S. Senate ratified the Louisiana treaty in the
      autumn of 1803.…
                                                                             Source: National Park Service
6 Based on this document, state two reasons the Federalist Party opposed the purchase of the Louisiana
  Territory. [2]
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Document 7a
      The expiring months of the [James K.] Polk Administration in 1848–49 gave a dark augury [sign]
      of the storms to come. Congress no sooner met in December than the agitation of the slavery
      question recommenced [began again]; and even when the surface of the political sea for a few
      days grew calm, beneath it all was commotion and intrigue. Polk in his last annual message dwelt
      upon the importance of promptly supplying Territorial governments for California and New
      Mexico. Three modes of settlement, he suggested, were open. One, which he preferred, was to
      carry the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific; another, to let the people of the Territories
      decide the slavery question when they applied for admission; and the third, to lay the issue
      before the Supreme Court. But Northern free-soilers and Southern extremists could agree on
      none of the three.…
                                Source: Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union, Volume 1, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1947
7a Based on this document, what were two ways President Polk proposed to address the issue of slavery in the
   territories? [2]
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Document 7b
              Effects of the Compromise of 1850 on the Territory
                       Gained from the Mexican Cession
7b Based on this map, what is one way the Compromise of 1850 dealt with the issue of the expansion of slavery
   into the territory gained from the Mexican Cession? [1]
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Document 8
      … It is not for them [the North], nor for the Federal Government to determine, whether our
      domestic institution [slavery] is good or bad; or whether it should be repressed or preserved. It
      belongs to us [the South], and us only, to decide such questions. What then we do insist on, is,
      not to extend slavery, but that we shall not be prohibited from immigrating with our property,
      into the Territories of the United States, because we are slaveholders; or, in other words, that we
      shall not on that account be disfranchised [deprived] of a privilege possessed by all others,
      citizens and foreigners, without discrimination as to character, profession, or color. All, whether
      savage, barbarian, or civilized, may freely enter and remain, we only being excluded.…
                                                 Source: Senator John C. Calhoun, “The Southern Address,” 1849
8 According to Senator John C. Calhoun, what is one reason Southerners should be allowed to take their
  slaves into the new territories? [1]
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Document 9
                             Excerpt from Republican Party Platform, 1860
      That the normal condition of all the territory of the United States is that of freedom: That, as our
      Republican fathers, when they had abolished slavery in all our national territory [Northwest
      Territory], ordained that "no persons should be deprived of life, liberty or property without due
      process of law," it becomes our duty, by legislation, whenever such legislation is necessary, to
      maintain this provision of the Constitution against all attempts to violate it; and we deny the
      authority of Congress, of a territorial legislature, or of any individuals, to give legal existence to
      slavery in any territory of the United States.
                                                                 Source: Republican Party Platform, May 17, 1860
9 According to this document, what was the position of the Republican Party in 1860 on the issue of expanding
  slavery into the territories? [1]
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Part B
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                In the early years of the republic, various controversial issues divided the American
                people. Three such issues were ratification of the Constitution, purchase of the
                Louisiana Territory, and expansion of slavery into the territories.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two issues mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances surrounding the issue
                  • Discuss arguments of those in favor of and of those opposed to the issue.
                    In your discussion, include at least one argument on each side of the issue.
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site

  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents August 2013 Exam

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