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Biology : Plant & Animal Cells I (General)

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Answer each question below related to plant and animal cells in general.

1. The lowest level of organization is the _______.
• tissue
• cell
• organ
• organism
Answer: cell
The levels of organization in ascending order are cell, tissue, organ, organ system and organism.


2. The green color of leaves is due to the presence of the _______ pigment.
• xanthophyll
• chlorophyll
• carotene
• anthocyanin
Answer: chlorophyll
Chlorophyll contained in the chloroplast (a green-colored plastid found only in the plant cell) captures energy from sunlight and helps in the manufacture of food by the process of photosynthesis.


3. Which of the following cell organelles is found in the plant cell but not in the animal cell?
• Mitochondrion
• Endoplasmic Reticulum
• Chloroplast
• Ribosome
Answer: Chloroplast
The chloroplast is a green-colored plastid found only in the plant cell. Chlorophyll contained in the chloroplast captures energy from sunlight and helps in the manufacture of food by the process of photosynthesis.



4. The network of convoluted tubules is called the _______.
• golgi apparatus
• mitochondrion
• microtubule
• endoplasmic reticulum
Answer: endoplasmic reticulum
The endoplasmic reticulum consists of tubular structures (convoluted tubules) lying near the nucleus. It provides support to the plant cell and the animal cell. It is of two types, namely the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (does not have ribosomes attached to it) and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (has ribosomes attached to it).Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum


5. Secretory granules are formed by the _______ of the animal cell.
• endoplasmic reticulum
• mitochondria
• ribosomes
• golgi apparatus
Answer: golgi apparatus
The secretory granule of the animal cell is a vesicular structure. It is formed when the substances produced in the endoplasmic reticulum are further processed in the golgi apparatus of the cell.


6.  _______ are known as the 'sites of intracellular digestion'.
• Secretory granules
• Mitochondria
• Lysosomes
• Ribosomes
Answer: Lysosomes
The lysosome of the animal cell is a membranous sac budded off from the golgi apparatus, and contains several types of enzymes. It performs intracellular digestion and destroys foreign substances.


7.  _______ consist of enzymes, which help in digestion.
• Ribosomes
• Lysosomes
• Centrosomes
• Plastids
Answer: Lysosomes
The lysosome of the animal cell is a membranous sac budded off from the golgi apparatus, and contains several types of enzymes. It performs intracellular digestion and destroys foreign substances.


8.  _______ are known as the 'power-houses of the cell'.
• Secretory granules
• Ribosomes
• Mitochondria
• Fat droplets
Answer: Mitochondria
The mitochondrion of the plant cell and the animal cell has two layers of membrane, of which the inner one is folded to form cristae. It is the site of ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) synthesis.Mitochondrion


9. The reproduction of the cell is controlled by the _______.
• mitochondrion
• nucleus
• endoplasmic reticulum
• centrosome
Answer: nucleus
The nucleus is the most important part of the plant cell and the animal cell, and contains large amounts of DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid). It controls and coordinates all the activities and functions of the cell.


10. The cell membrane is also known as the _______ membrane.
• pleural
• plasma
• parietal
• placental
Answer: plasma
The cell membrane is also known as the plasma membrane. It protects the plant cell and the animal cell & regulates the entry and exit of substances, namely ions and solutes.


11.  _______ are known as the 'sites of protein synthesis in the cell'.
• Ribosomes
• Secretory granules
• Mitochondria
• Fat droplets
Answer: Ribosomes
The ribosome of the plant cell and the animal cell is chiefly composed of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It synthesizes proteins.


12. Ribosomes are found attached on the _______.
• smooth endoplasmic reticulum
• rough endoplasmic reticulum
• mitochondrion
• golgi apparatus
Answer: rough endoplasmic reticulum
The ribosome of the plant cell and the animal cell is chiefly composed of RNA (Ribonucleic Acid). It synthesizes proteins.


13. The _______ color of flowers and fruits is due to the presence of the xanthophyll pigment.
• yellow
• green
• violet
• blue
Answer: yellow
Xanthophyll contained in the chromoplast (a plastid that imparts color to flowers and fruits, found only in the plant cell) imparts a yellow color to the flowers and fruits of the plant.


14. A group of cells performing a specific function constitute a tissue.
• True
• False
Answer: True
Tissue is a group of similar cells performing a specific function. A group of similar tissues performing a specific function constitute an organ.


15. The outermost covering of the plant cell is known as the cell membrane.
• True
• False
Answer: False
The cell wall is the outermost covering of the plant cell made up of cellulose, and surrounds the cell membrane. It protects the cell, provides mechanical support and is responsible for maintaining pressure inside the cell.


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