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Biology : Diseases - Causes and their Symptoms

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Given the CAUSES AND SYMPTOMS, identify the DISEASE

1. Inflammation of joints causing pain and swelling due to deterioration of metabolism.
Answer: Arthritis
Arthritis is caused due to over-stretching, as well as physical or unintentional pull of joints.

2. A condition which clogs blood vessels due to the deposition of cholesterol and lipids on the inner lining of arteries.
Answer: Atherosclerosis
The symptoms of Atherosclerosis occur when arteries severely narrow or get totally blocked.
If the artery in the heart is blocked, the person may suffer from a heart attack.
If the artery in the brain is blocked, the person may suffer from paralysis.

3. Rapid and uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells.
Answer: Cancer
The causes of Cancer include tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing, drugs, certain radiations and even certain viruses.
Agents causing Cancer are called Carcinogens.

4. An acute, communicable disease that causes itchy rash of vesicles on the face and body.
Answer: Chickenpox
Chickenpox is transmitted through contact, clothes and other articles of the infected person.
Incubation period of Chickenpox is 14 to 20 days.

5. A waterborne disease causing acute gastrointestinal infection.
Answer: Cholera
Cholera is caused by vibrio cholerae bacteria.
Incubation period of Cholera is 2 to 6 days.

6. Hereditary genetic illness that prevents blood from clotting.
Answer: Hemophilia
Major symptoms of Hemophilia include bruising and bleeding.
In extreme cases, internal bleeding may occur which can be fatal if not treated promptly.

7. Viral infection characterized by yellowing of the eyes, skin and urine due to the deposition of the bile pigments.
Answer: Jaundice
Jaundice is caused by contaminated water and unhygienic food.
Incubation period of Jaundice is 14 to 42 days.

8. A chronic infectious disease that affects skin, peripheral nerves and mucous membranes.
Answer: Leprosy
Leprosy is popularly known as Hansen's disease.
In extreme cases, a person may suffer from loss of sensation, paralysis and even deformity.

9. A vector-borne disease caused by parasites that is transmitted by the infected female Anopheles mosquito.
Answer: Malaria
Malaria is caused by a protozoan Plasmodium.
Symptoms are repeated chill and high fever.
Incubation period of Malaria is 3 weeks.

10. Extremely infectious skin disease characterized by distinct rashes.
Answer: Measles
Measles is caused by morbillivirus.
Incubation period of Measles is 10 to 12 days.

11. A viral infection that causes inflammation of salivary glands, especially parotid glands.
Answer: Mumps
Mumps causes swelling below the ear in the neck.
Incubation period of Mumps is 12 to 26 days.
Vaccination of gamma globulin is used to prevent Mumps.

12. Respiratory infection characterized by the inflammation of lungs.
Answer: Pneumonia
Pneumonia is caused due to Diplococcus Pneumoniae.
Incubation period of Pneumonia is 1 to 3 days.
Antibiotics like Penicillin are used to cure Pneumonia.

13. Highly contagious viral disease that causes inflammation of gray substance of the spinal cord and often leads to paralysis.
Answer: Polio
Polio is primarily a disease of children.
Incubation period of Polio is 9 to 14 days.
Polio can be prevented only through immunization. Salk's vaccine, developed from dead virus, was initially used against Polio. Sabin's vaccine, developed from live weakened virus, can prevent the actual contraction of Polio and has helped to eliminate the disease from many countries around the world. 

14. An acute viral disease of animals, transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected animal.
Answer: Rabies
Rabies is also known as Hydrophobia, i.e., fear of water.
Rabies is caused due to Rhabdovirus that attacks the central nervous system.
The incubation period of Rabies is about 1 month.

15. A contagious disease, often fatal, characterized by pustules on all parts of the body.
Answer: Smallpox
Incubation period of Smallpox is 10 to 14 days.
Various vaccination programs across the world have completely eradicated Smallpox.

16. An infection that arises when specific bacterium enters through a deep wound causing painful muscle contraction.
Answer: Tetanus
Tetanus is also popularly known as Lockjaw.
It is caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria.
Incubation period of Tetanus may vary from 4 days to 3 weeks.

17. Infectious disease characterized by the formation of tubercle in the internal organs, especially in the lungs.
Answer: Tuberculosis
The symptoms of Tuberculosis include blood in the mucus, chest pain, weight loss and breathlessness.
Incubation period of Tuberculosis is 2 to 10 weeks.

18. An infectious feverish disease causing ulceration and inflammation of intestinal tract.
Answer: Typhoid
Typhoid is caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria.
Incubation period of Typhoid is 7 to 12 days.

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