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World Geography : Some Geographical Forms

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GEOGRAPHICAL FORMDESCRIPTIONMORE INFO
archipelagogroup of islands found close together in the seaThe Philippines in Asia is an archipelago. Other examples of archipelagos are the Lakshadweep Islands in the Arabian Sea and the Andaman & Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.
baypart of sea filling wide-mouthed opening of the landThe largest bay in the world is the Bay of Bengal. It has a shoreline of about 3620 km from south-eastern Sri Lanka to Pagoda Point in Myanmar. It measures 2745 km across its mouth.
beachsloping, sandy or pebbly, shore of a body of waterThere are several famous beaches in Florida, USA. An example is Daytona Beach.
capeland jutting out into the seaCape of Good Hope in South Africa, Kanya Kumari (formerly Cape Comorin) in India, and Cape Kennedy (formerly Cape Canavarel) in USA are examples.
The Atlantic and Pacific Oceans meet at Cape Horn.
deltatriangular patch of deposited silt at the mouth of a river formed by its diverging branchesThe largest delta is formed by the Ganga and Brahmaputra rivers in West Bengal (India) and Bangla Desh. It covers an area of 76800 km.
desertdry barren land that receives little or no rainfallThe largest desert in the world is the Sahara desert in Northern Africa. It is hot and sandy. The Gobi desert in Asia is rocky.
estuarymouth of a large river affected by tidesEstuary and delta are the two kinds of river mouths. Rivers that do not carry much silt flow as one continuous stream into the sea. The mouth of such a river is affected by tides and is called an estuary.
glacierriver of ice moving downward very slowlyThe world's longest glacier is the Lambert Glacier discovered in the Australian Antarctic territory. It is 64 km wide. With its upper section known as the Mellor Glacier, it measures at least 400 km in length.
gulflarge area of sea partly surrounded by landThe Gulf of Mexico is the largest gulf in the world. It has a shoreline of 4990 km from Cape Sable (Florida) to Cabo Calochie (Mexico).
The Gulf of Bothnia lies between Sweden and Finland.
harborport protected naturally or artificially to provide shelter for shipsNew York Harbor is the largest harbor in the world.
icebergthick mass of floating ice in the seaAn iceberg is a huge piece of freshwater ice that breaks off from a snow-formed glacier or ice shelf and floats in open water.
islandpiece of land surrounded by waterThe world's largest island is Greenland (Australia is considered a continent). Greenland is thrice the size of Borneo (the second largest island in the world) and nine times as big as Honshu (the largest island of Japan).
Japan, New Zealand and Sri Lanka are examples of island countries.
isthmusnarrow strip of land joining two larger land massesThe Isthmus of Panama connects the continents of North America and South America.
oasisfertile area in desert where there is waterAn oasis is sometimes found in a desert because of a spring or pool of water. People find it convenient to live and trees find it easier to grow near an oasis.
peninsulapiece of land almost surrounded by water (but joined to mainland on one side)The southern part of India is a peninsula. It is surrounded on three sides by the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. The world's largest peninsula is Arabia with an area of about 3237000 sq. km.
plainlow, flat or almost level landLow flat land along a coast is referred to as a coastal plain.
plateauextensive stretch of elevated, level landA plateau or tableland is a large stretch of land that is flat and located at an altitude.
straitnarrow strip of water connecting two large bodies of water or seasThe Straits of Magellan are at the southern tip of South America.
The longest strait in the world is the Strait of Malacca (about 615 km) between West Malaysia and Sumatra.
The Palk Strait connects the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. It divides India and Sri Lanka.
tributarysmall river flowing into a bigger main riverIn India, the Jamuna and the Chambal are tributaries of the River Ganga whereas the Beas and the Sutlej are tributaries of the River Indus.
valleylow land between hills or mountainsValleys may be broad or narrow. Valleys through which rivers or streams flow are referred to as river valleys.

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