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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2004 Exam


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: Multiple choice

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1.

Which graph best represents the force of gravity between Earth and the Sun during one revolution of Earth around the Sun?

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2.

Which celestial feature is largest in actual size?
(1) the Moon
(2) Jupiter 
(3) the Sun
(4) the Milky Way

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3.

The best evidence that Earth rotates is provided by the
(1) location of mid-oceanic ridge volcanoes and the distribution of index fossils
(2) movement of Foucault pendulums and the Coriolis effect on air movement
(3) pattern of changing seasons and the depth of meteor impacts
(4) rate of uranium-238 decay and changes in atmospheric composition

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4.

How do Jupiter’s density and period of rotation compare to Earth's?
(1) Jupiter is less dense and has a longer period of rotation.
(2) Jupiter is less dense and has a shorter period of rotation.
(3) Jupiter is more dense and has a longer period of rotation.
(4) Jupiter is more dense and has a shorter period of rotation.

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5.

What is represented by the diagram below?

(1) changing phases of the Sun
(2) changing phases of the Moon
(3) stages in an eclipse of the Sun
(4) stages in an eclipse of the Moon

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6.

Which graph best represents the relationship between the angle of insolation and the intensity of insolation?

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7.

A square meter of surface of which of these natural areas would most likely absorb the most insolation during a clear day?
(1) a fast-moving river
(2) a dark-green forest
(3) a beach with white sand
(4) a snow-covered field

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8.

Which observable change would occur in New York State if Earth’s rate of rotation were one-half its present rate?
(1) The Sun would rise in the southwest each day.
(2) The length of a day would be longer.
(3) The time needed to complete a cycle of Moon phases would be greater.
(4) The seasonal changes would not occur.

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9.

The data below represent some of the weather conditions at a New York State location on a winter morning.
Air temperature (dry-bulb temperature) 0°C
Relative humidity  81%
Present weather  snow


What was the dewpoint at this time?
(1) 1°C
(2) 2°C 
(3) −3°C 
(4) −5°C

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10.

Students wish to study the effect of elevation above sea level on air temperature and air pressure. They plan to hike in the Adirondack Mountains from Heart Lake, elevation 2,179 feet, to the peak of Mt. Marcy, elevation 5,344 feet. Which instruments should they use to collect their data?
(1) anemometer and psychrometer
(2) anemometer and barometer
(3) thermometer and psychrometer
(4) thermometer and barometer

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11.

Weather-station measurements indicate that the dewpoint temperature and air temperature are getting farther apart and that air pressure is rising. Which type of weather is most likely arriving at the station?
(1) a snowstorm
(2) a warm front
(3) cool, dry air
(4) maritime tropical air

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12.

The diagram below represents a naturally occurring geologic process.

Which process is best illustrated by the diagram?
(1) cementation
(2) erosion 
(3) metamorphism
(4) weathering

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13.

The graph below shows the average number of days each year that thunderstorms occur at different latitudes on Earth.

According to the graph, what is the approximate number of days each year that thunderstorms occur at locations along the 40° N parallel of latitude?
(1) 8 days
(2) 18 days
(3) 24 days
(4) 32 days

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14.

One result of a large volcanic eruption is that surface air temperatures decrease over a sizable region of Earth. This phenomenon occurs because volcanic eruptions usually decrease the
(1) transparency of the atmosphere
(2) number of dust particles entering the atmosphere
(3) amount of moisture in the atmosphere
(4) reflection of sunlight within the atmosphere

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15.

When rainfall occurs, the rainwater will most likely become surface runoff if the land surface is
(1) sandy
(2) impermeable
(3) covered with grass
(4) nearly flat

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16.

Fossil pollen has been recovered from sediments deposited in late-Pleistocene lakes. The pollen’s geologic age can most accurately be measured by using
(1) rubidium-87
(2) potassium-40 
(3) oxygen-18
(4) carbon-14

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17.

Andrija Mohorovicic discovered the interface between the crust and the mantle that is now named for him. His discovery of the "Moho" was based on analysis of
(1) landscape boundaries
(2) continental coastlines
(3) erosional surfaces
(4) seismic waves

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18.

Which phrase best describes coal?
(1) low density, mafic
(2) chemical precipitate
(3) organic plant remains
(4) glassy texture, volcanic

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19.

Which mineral will scratch glass (hardness = 5.5), but not pyrite?
(1) gypsum
(2) fluorite
(3) orthoclase
(4) quartz

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20.

The observed difference in density between continental crust and oceanic crust is most likely due to differences in their
(1) composition
(2) thickness 
(3) porosity
(4) rate of cooling

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21.

The diagrams below show gradual stages 1, 2, and 3 in the development of a river delta where a river enters an ocean.

Which statement best explains why the river delta is developing at this site?
(1) The rate of deposition is less than the rate of erosion.
(2) The rate of deposition is greater than the rate of erosion.
(3) Sea level is slowly falling.
(4) Sea level is slowly rising.

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22.

According to plate tectonic theory, during which geologic time interval did the continents of North America and Africa separate, resulting in the initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean?
(1) Mesozoic Era
(2) Paleozoic Era
(3) Proterozoic Eon
(4) Archean Eon

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23.

Which rock most probably formed directly from lava cooling quickly at Earth's surface?

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24.

The diagram below shows a sedimentary rock sample.

Which agent of erosion was most likely responsible for shaping the particles forming this rock?
(1) mass movement
(2) wind
(3) glacial ice
(4) running water

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25.

Near which location in New York State would a geologist have the greatest chance of finding dinosaur footprints in the surface bedrock?
(1) 41° 10' N latitude, 74° W longitude
(2) 42° 10' N latitude, 74° 30' W longitude
(3) 43° 30' N latitude, 76° W longitude
(4) 44° 30' N latitude, 75° 30' W longitude

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26.

Geologic cross sections A through F shown below represent different stages in the development of one part of Earth’s crust over a long period of geologic time.

What is the correct order of development from the original (oldest) stage to the most recent (youngest) stage?
(1)BDCFAE
(2)BFCDEA
(3)EADFCB
(4)EAFCDB

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27.

The list below shows characteristics that vary from place to place on Earth.
a Radioactive substances
b Bedrock structures
c Duration of insolation
d Hillslopes
e Stream patterns
f Atmospheric composition
Observations and measurements of which three characteristics would be most useful in describing landscapes?
(1) a, b, and c
(2) b, c, and f  
(3) b, d, and e
(4) d, e, and f

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28.

Uranium-238 that crystallized at the same time Earth formed has undergone approximately how many half-lives of radioactive decay?
(1) one half-life
(2) two half-lives
(3) three half-lives
(4) four half-lives

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29.

The photograph below shows a piece of halite that has been recently broken.

Which physical property of halite is demonstrated by this pattern of breakage?
(1) hardness
(2) streak
(3) cleavage
(4) luster

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30.

The diagram below shows a meandering stream flowing across nearly flat topography and over loose sediments.

If arrow length represents stream velocity, which diagram best shows the relative stream velocities in this section of the stream?

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31.

Bedrock located near Old Forge, New York, would most likely have which characteristics?
(1) clastic texture consisting of angular sediments of mostly quartz and feldspar cemented together
(2) crystalline texture composed predominantly of gypsum
(3) noncrystalline, glassy texture with a dark color
(4) foliated texture with mica and feldspar separated into bands

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32.

Bedrock of which four consecutive geologic periods is best preserved in New York State?
(1) Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian
(2) Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic
(3) Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous
(4) Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary, Quaternary

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33.

The diagram below represents bedrock layers found in an outcrop. Three index fossils are found within the bedrock layers.

Which evidence best suggests that this outcrop has undergone crustal movement?
(1) The same rock layers appear twice within the outcrop.
(2) The trilobite fossil is not found in all five layers.
(3) The sedimentary layers have the same thickness.
(4) The eurypterid fossil is absent in the middle layer.

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34.

A student determines the density of a mineral to be 1.5 grams per cubic centimeter. It the accepted value is 2.0 grams per cubic centimeter, what is the student’s percent deviation (percent error)?
(1) 25.0%
(2) 33.3%
(3) 40.0%
(4) 50.0%

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35.

What is the best way to determine if a mineral sample is calcite or quartz?
(1) Observe the color of the mineral.
(2) Place the mineral near a magnet.
(3) Place a drop of acid on the mineral.
(4) Measure the mass of the mineral.

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