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Living Environment - New York Regents June 1999 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, select the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review
: Multiple choice

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1.

What occurs during the digestion of proteins?
(l) Specific enzymes break down proteins into amino acids.
(2) Specific hormones break down proteins into simple sugars.
(3) Specific hormones break down proteins into complex starches.
(4) Specific enzymes break down proteins into simple sugars.

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2.

Two organisms are shown in the diagrams below.

The arrows in the diagrams indicate structures that help these organisms to
(1) carry out respiration
(2) carry out photosynthesis
(3) obtain food
(4) excrete wastes

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3.

During a long—distance run on a hot day, an athlete produces large quantities of sweat. As a result, the kidneys change the rate of urine production. Why is this change important?
(1) Decreased urine production increases the amino acids in the blood.
(2) Increased urine production removes amino acids produced as a result of running.
(3) Decreased urine production allows the body to conserve water.
(4) Increased urine production allows more water to remain in the bloodstream.

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4.

An important method of communication between cells in an organism is shown in the diagram below.


What is the chemical referred to in the diagram?
(1) a hormone important in maintaining homeostasis
(2) an enzyme detected by u cell membrane receptor
(3) DNA necessary tor regulating cell functions
(4) a food molecule taken in by an organism

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5.

All of the cell shapes shown in the diagrams below have the same volume. Which form could absorb nutrients most efficiently and quickly?

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6.

Molecules A and B come in contact with the cell membrane of the same cell. Molecule A passes through the membrane readily, but molecule B does not. Which statement could describe molecules A and B ?
(1) Molecule A is a protein, and molecule B is a fat.
(2) Molecule A is a starch, and molecule B is a simple sugar.
(3) Molecule A is an amino acid, and molecule B is a simple sugar.
(4) Molecule A is a simple sugar, and molecule B is a starch.

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7.

When the bacterium Serratia marcescens is grown on a sterile culture medium in a petri dish at 30°C, the bacterial colonies are cream colored. When this same bacterium is cultured under identical conditions, except at a temperature of 25°C, the colonies are brick red. This difference in color is most likely due to the
(1) type of nutrients in the culture medium
(2) sterilization of the culture medium
(3) effect of temperature on the expression of the gene for color
(4) effect of colony size on the synthesis of color pigments

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8.

Note that question 8 has only three choices.
Which statement best describes the relationship between the number of genes and the number of chromosomes in human skin cells?
(1) There are more genes than chromosomes in skin cells.
(2) There are more chromosomes than genes in skin cells.
(3) There are equal numbers of genes and chromosomes in skin cells.

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9.

A colony of red bacteria is allowed to reproduce for 16 generations. A scientist examines the colony at the end of this time and notes that all the individuals are almost identical in all characteristics . This evidence suggests that the bacteria
(1) did not receive the proper nutrients
(2) reproduced sexually
(3) exchanged genetic material
(4) reproduced asexually

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10.

A woman has a gene that causes a visual disorder. To prevent the disorder from appearing in future generations, the defective gene would have to be repaired in the mother’s
(1) nervous system
(2) reproductive cells
(3) eye
(4) uterus

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11.

According to modern evolutionary theory, genes responsible for new traits that help a species survive in a particular environment will usually
(1) not change in frequency
(2) decrease gradually in frequency
(3) decrease rapidly in frequency
(4) increase in frequency

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12.

Thousands of years ago, a large flock of hawks was driven from its normal migratory route by a severe storm. The birds scattered and found shelter on two distant islands, as shown on the map below. The environment of island A is very similar to the hawks original nesting region. The environment of island B is very different from that of island A. The hawks have survived on these islands to the present day with no migration between the populations.

Which statement most accurately predicts the present-day condition of these island hawk populations?
(1) The hawks that landed on island B have evolved more than those on island A.
(2) The hawks that landed on island A have evolved more than those on island B.
(3) The populations on islands A and B have undergone identical mutations.
(4) The hawks on island A have given rise to many new species.

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13.

Exposure to cosmic rays, x rays, ultraviolet rays, and radiation from radioactive substances may promote
(1) the production of similar organisms
(2) diversity among organisms
(3) an increase in population size
(4) a change from sexual to asexual reproduction

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14.

Which statement best explains the significance of meiosis in the evolution of a species?
(1) Meiosis produces eggs and sperm that are alike.
(2) Meiosis provides for chromosomal variation in the gametes produced by an organism.
(3) Equal numbers of eggs and sperm are produced by meiosis.
(4) The gametes produced by meiosis ensure the continuation of any particular species by asexual reproduction.

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15.

The diagram below represents the mule reproductive system in humans.


If structure X was cut and tied off at the arrow, which change would occur immediately?
(1) Hormones would no longer be produced.
(2) Sperm would no longer be produced.
(3) Sperm would be produced but no longer released from the body.
(4) Urine would be produced but no longer released from the bladder.

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16.

It was once thought that decaying meat turned into maggots (fly larvae). Careful experimentation by scientists demonstrated that maggots actually come from fly eggs and not meat. These experiments illustrate that new individuals result only from
(1) genetic engineering
(2) reproduction and development
(3) nutrition and replication
(4) metabolic homeostasis

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17.

Which event occurring in the life cycle of a bacterium most directly involves the replication of DNA?
(1) The bacterium copies its single chromosome.
(2) As the cell grows, the two copies of the chromosome separate.
(3) The cell divides as a partition separates it into equal halves.
(4) Each new cell receives one copy of the chromosome.

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18.

The graph below shows data on the average life expectancy of humans.

The change in life expectancy from 1910 to 1970 is most likely the result of
(1) an increase in poor land—use management that affected the quality of topsoil
(2) the introduction of technology that had a negative impact on air quality
(3) a decrease in natural checks, such as disease, on the population
(4) a widespread increase in the presence of lead and other heavy metals in water supplies

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19.

What will most likely result it a diabetic injects an overdose of insulin?
(1) a serious infection in the pancreas
(2) an increase in the production of pancreatic enzymes
(3) an accumulation of wastes in the bloodstream
(4) a dangerous drop in blood sugar levels

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20.

Cyanide is a poison that limits the ability of an animal cell to manufacture ATP. In a cell containing a small amount of cyanide, which process would be least affected?
(1) movement
(2) cell division
(3) active transport
(4) diffusion

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21.

One similarity between cell receptors and anti- bodies is that both
(1) are produced by nerve cells
(2) are highly specific in their actions
(3) slow the rates of chemical reactions
(4) are involved in digestion

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22.

Which phrase does not describe a way the human body responds to fight disease?
l destruction of infectious agents by white blood cells
(2) production of antibodies by white blood cells
(3) increased production of white blood cells
(4) production of pathogens by white blood cells

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23.

The diagram below illustrates the relationships between organisms in an ecosystem.

In addition to sunlight, which factor would need to be added to make this a stable ecosystem?
(1) predators
(2) prey
(3) decompers
(4) herbivores

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24.

Which event does not occur between stages 2 and 11 in the process represented in the diagram below?


(l ) a decrease in cell size
(2) DNA replication
(3) the development of embryonic layers
(4) fertilization

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25.

The table below shows the rate of water loss in three different plants.


One reason each plant loses a different amount of water is that each has
(1) different guard cells adapted to maintain homeostasis
(2) different types of insulin-secreting cells that regulate water levels
(3) the same number of chloroplasts but different rates of photosynthesis
(4) the same rate of photosynthesis but different numbers of chloroplasts

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26.

A person with AIDS is likely to develop infectious diseases because the virus that causes AIDS
(1) destroys cancerous cells
(2) damages the immune system
(3) increases the rate of antibody production
(4) increases the rate of microbe destruction

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27.

Two test tubes were filled with a solution of bromthymol blue. A student exhaled through a straw into each tube, and the bromthymol blue turned yellow. An aquatic green plant was placed into each tube, and the tubes were corked. One tube was placed in the dark, and one was placed in direct sunlight. The yellow solution in the tube in sunlight turned blue, while the one in the dark remained yellow. Which statement best explains why the solution in the tube placed in sunlight returned to a blue color?
(1) Oxygen was produced by photosynthesis.
(2) Oxygen was removed by respiration.
(3) Carbon dioxide was removed by photo- synthesis.
(4) Carbon dioxide was produced by respiration.

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28.

Organisms that eat cows obtain less energy from the cows than the cows obtain from the plants they eat because the cows
(1) pass on most of the energy to their offspring
(2) convert solar energy to food
(3) store all their energy in milk
(4) use energy for their own metabolism

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29.

Which human activity is most responsible for the other three human activities?
(1) increasing demand for food
(2) increasing loss of farmland
(3) increasing human population
(4) increasing air pollution

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30.

Endangered peregrine falcons have been bred in captivity and released in areas where they prey on pigeons and rodents. These activities are examples of
(1) species preservation and biological control
(2) overhunting and direct harvesting
(3) recycling and technological development
(4) conservation of resources and habitat destruction

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31.

Which change would usually increase competition among the squirrel population in a certain area?
(1) an epidemic of rabies among squirrels
(2) an increase in the number of squirrels killed on the highways
(3) an increase in the number of hawks that prey on squirrels
(4) a temporary increase in the squirrel reproduction rate

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32.

Monocystis is an organism that feeds on the sperm cells of earthworms. The activities of Monocystis eventually cause the infected earthworm to become sterile. The relationship between the earthworm and Monocystis is classified as
(1) host — parasite
(2) predator — prey
(3) producer — consumer
(4) scavenger — decomposer

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33.

Base your answer to question 33 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology.

If the environment were to change dramatically or a new plant disease were to break out, which plant type would most likely survive?
(l ) wild wheat
(2) domestic wheat
(3) wild corn
(4) domestic corn

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