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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2003 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

A student observes that an organism is green. A valid conclusion that can be drawn from this observation is that
(1) the organism must be a plant
(2) the organism cannot be single celled
(3) the organism must be an animal
(4) not enough information is given to determine whether the organism is a plant or an animal

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2.

Why do scientists consider any hypothesis valuable?
(1) A hypothesis requires no further investigation.
(2) A hypothesis may lead to further investigation even if it is disproved by the experiment.
(3) A hypothesis requires no further investigation if it is proved by the experiment.
(4) A hypothesis can be used to explain a conclusion even if it is disproved by the experiment.

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3.

Which letter indicates a cell structure that directly controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell?

(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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4.

A great deal of information can now be obtained about the future health of people by examining the genetic makeup of their cells. There are concerns that this information could be used to deny an individual health insurance or employment. These concerns best illustrate that
(1) scientific explanations depend upon evidence collected from a single source
(2) scientific inquiry involves the collection of information from a large number of sources
(3) acquiring too much knowledge in human genetics will discourage future research in that area
(4) while science provides knowledge, values are essential to making ethical decisions using this knowledge

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5.

The diagram below represents one metabolic activity of a human.

Letters A and B are best represented by which row in the chart?

(1) respiration oxygen molecules
(2) reproduction hormone molecules
(3) excretion simple sugar molecules
(4) digestion amino acid molecules

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6.

When a person does strenuous exercise, small blood vessels (capillaries) near the surface of the skin increase in diameter. This change allows the body to be cooled. These statements best illustrate
(1) synthesis
(2) homeostasis
(3) excretion
(4) locomotion

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7.

Which ecological term includes everything represented in the illustration below?

(1) ecosystem
(2) community
(3) population
(4) species

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8.

Which sequence represents the correct order of levels of organization found in a complex organism?
(1) cells → organelles → organs → organ systems → tissues
(2) tissues → organs → organ systems → organelles → cells
(3) organelles → cells → tissues → organs → organ systems
(4) organs → organ systems → cells → tissues → organelles

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9.

Scientific studies show that identical twins who were separated at birth and raised in different homes may vary in height, weight, and intelligence. The most probable explanation for these differences is that
(1) original genes of each twin increased in number as they developed
(2) one twin received genes only from the mother while the other twin received genes only from the father
(3) environments in which they were raised were different enough to affect the expression of their genes
(4) environments in which they were raised were different enough to change the genetic makeup of both individuals

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10.

When DNA separates into two strands, the DNA would most likely be directly involved in
(1) replication
(2) fertilization
(3) differentiation
(4) evolution

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11.

The instructions for the traits of an organism are coded in the arrangement of
(1) glucose units in carbohydrate molecules
(2) bases in DNA in the nucleus
(3) fat molecules in the cell membrane
(4) energy-rich bonds in starch molecules

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12.

Which statement is true regarding an alteration or change in DNA'?
(1) It is always known as a mutation.
(2) It is always advantageous to an individual.
(3) It is always passed on to offspring.
(4) It is always detected by the process of chromatography.

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13.

In heterotrophs, energy for the life processes comes from the chemical energy stored in the bonds of
(1) water molecules
(2) oxygen molecules
(3) organic compounds
(4) inorganic compounds

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14.

The diagram below represents the chemical pathway of a process in a human liver cell.
A particular liver cell is unable to make substance C. One possible explanation for the inability of this cell to make substance C is that
(1) excess energy for step 2 prevented the conversion of substance B to substance C
(2) an excess of enzyme X was present, resulting in a decrease in the production of substance B
(3) nuclear DNA was altered resulting in the cell being unable to make enzyme Y
(4) a mutation occurred causing a change in the ability of the cell to use substance C

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15.

The diagram below shows a process that can occur during meiosis.

The most likely result of this process is
(1) a new combination of inheritable traits that can appear in the offspring
(2) an inability to pass either of these chromosomes on to offspring
(3) a loss of genetic information that will produce a genetic disorder in the offspring
(4) an increase in the chromosome number of the organism in which this process occurs

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16.

Structures in a human female are represented in the diagram below.

A heavy dose of radiation would have the greatest impact on genetic information in future offspring if it reached gametes developing within structure
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D

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17.

Organism X appeared on Earth much earlier than organism Y. Many scientists believe organism X appeared between 3 and 4 billion years ago, and organism Y appeared approximately 1 billion years ago. Which row in the chart below most likely describes organisms X and Y?

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18.

The sequence of diagrams below represents some events in a reproductive process.
To regulate similar events in human reproduction, what adaptations are required?
(1) the presence of genes and chemicals in each cell in stages 1 to 7
(2) an increase in the number of genes in each cell in stages 3 to 5
(3) the removal of all enzymes from the cells in stage 7
(4) the elimination of mutations from cells after stage 5

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19.

Which statement best describes human insulin that is produced by genetically engineered bacteria?
(1) This insulin will not function normally in humans because it is produced by bacteria.
(2) This insulin is produced as a result of human insulin being inserted into bacteria cells.
(3) This insulin is produced as a result of exposing bacteria cells to radiation, which produces a mutation.
(4) This insulin may have fewer side effects than the insulin previously extracted from the pancreas of other animals.

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20.

Which population of organisms would be in greatest danger of becoming extinct?
(1) A population of organisms having few variations living in a stable environment.
(2) A population of organisms having few variations living in an unstable environment.
(3) A population of organisms having many variations living in a stable enviroment.
(4) A population of organisms having many variations living in an unstable environment.

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21.

In animals, the normal development of an embryo is dependent on
(1) fertilization of a mature egg by many sperm cells
(2) production of new cells having twice the number of chromosomes as the zygote
(3) production of body cells having half the number of chromosomes as the zygote
(4) mitosis and the differentiation of cells after fertilization has occurred

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22.

The relationship of some mammals is indicated in the diagram below.

Which statement about the African elephant is correct?
(1) It is more closely related to the mammoth than it is to the West African manatee.
(2) It is more closely related to the West Indian manatee than it is to the mastodon.
(3) It is not related to the Brazilian manatee or the mammoth.
(4) It is the ancestor of Steller’s sea cow.

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23.

Which process normally occurs at the placenta?
(1) Oxygen diffuses from fetal blood to maternal blood.
(2) Materials are exchanged between fetal and maternal blood.
(3) Maternal blood is converted into fetal blood.
(4) Digestive enzymes pass from maternal blood to fetal blood.

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24.

Individual cells can be isolated from a mature plant and grown with special mixtures of growth hormones to produce a number of genetically identical plants. This process is known as
(1) cloning
(2) meiotic division
(3) recombinant DNA technology
(4) selective breeding

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25.

A single-celled organism is represented in the diagram below. An activity is indicated by the arrow. 


If this activity requires the use of energy, which substance would be the source of this energy?
(1) DNA
(2) ATP
(3) a hormone
(4) an antibody

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26.

Which activity would stimulate the human immune system to provide protection against an invasion by a microbe?
(1) receiving antibiotic injections after surgery
(2) choosing a well-balanced diet and following it throughout life
(3) being vaccinated against chicken pox
(4) receiving hormones contained in mother’s milk while nursing

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27.

In an ecosystem, the presence of many different species is critical for the survival of some forms of life when
(1) ecosystems remain stable over long periods of time
(2) significant changes occur in the ecosystem
(3) natural selection does not occur
(4) the finite resources of Earth increase

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28.

The most immediate response to a high level of blood sugar in a human is an increase in the
(1) muscle activity in the arms
(2) blood flow to the digestive tract
(3) activity of all cell organelles
(4) release of insulin

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29.

Which ecological term best describes the polar bears in the cartoon below?

(1) herbivores
(2) parasites
(3) carnivores
(4) producers

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30.

A new island formed by volcanic action may eventually become populated with biotic communities as a result of
(1) a decrease in the amount of organic material present
(2) decreased levels of carbon dioxide in the area
(3) the lack of abiotic factors in the area
(4) the process of ecological succession

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31.

Certain microbes, foreign tissues, and some cancerous cells can cause immune responses in the human body because all three contain
(1) antigens
(2) enzymes
(3) fats
(4) cytoplasm

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32.

Decomposers are important in the environment because they
(1) convert large molecules into simpler molecules that can then be recycled
(2) release heat from large molecules so that the heat can be recycled through the ecosystem
(3) can take in carbon dioxide and convert it into oxygen
(4) convert molecules of dead organisms into permanent biotic parts of an ecosystem

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33.

An environment can support only as many organisms as the available energy, minerals, and oxygen will allow. Which term is best described by this statement?
(1) biological feedback
(2) carrying capacity
(3) homeostatic control
(4) biological diversity

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34.

Communities have attempted to control the size of mosquito populations to prevent the spread of certain diseases such as malaria and encephalitis. Which control method is most likely to cause the least ecological damage?
(1) draining the swamps where mosquitoes breed
(2) spraying swamps with chemical pesticides to kill mosquitoes
(3) spraying oil over swamps to suffocate mosquito larvae
(4) increasing populations of native fish that feed on mosquito larvae in the swamps

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35.

Which animal has modified ecosystems more than any other animal and has had the greatest negative impact on world ecosystems?
(1) gypsy moth
(2) zebra mussel
(3) human
(4) shark

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