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Physical Setting / Chemistry - New York Regents January 2013 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

1.
1 Which particles have approximately the same
  mass?
  (1) alpha particle and beta particle
  (2) alpha particle and proton
  (3) neutron and positron
  (4) neutron and proton
Answer: 4

2.
2 Which phrase describes an atom?
  (1) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by
      positively charged protons
  (2) a negatively charged nucleus surrounded by
      positively charged electrons
  (3) a positively charged nucleus surrounded by
      negatively charged protons
  (4) a positively charged nucleus surrounded by
      negatively charged electrons
Answer: 4

3.
3 An orbital is defined as a region of the most
  probable location of
  (1) an electron         (3) a nucleus
  (2) a neutron           (4) a proton
Answer: 1


4.
4 The bright-line spectrum of an element in the
  gaseous phase is produced as
  (1) protons move from lower energy states to
      higher energy states
  (2) protons move from higher energy states to
      lower energy states
  (3) electrons move from lower energy states to
      higher energy states
  (4) electrons move from higher energy states to
      lower energy states
Answer: 4

5.
5 An atom of lithium-7 has an equal number of
  (1) electrons and neutrons
  (2) electrons and protons
  (3) positrons and neutrons
  (4) positrons and protons
Answer: 2

6.
6 In which type of chemical reaction do two or
  more reactants combine to form one product,
  only?
  (1) synthesis
  (2) decomposition
  (3) single replacement
  (4) double replacement
Answer: 1

7.
7 Which statement explains why neon is a Group 18
  element?
  (1) Neon is a gas at STP.
  (2) Neon has a low melting point.
  (3) Neon atoms have a stable valence electron
      configuration.
  (4) Neon atoms have two electrons in the first
      shell.
Answer: 3

8.
8 Which element has chemical properties that are
  most similar to the chemical properties of
  fluorine?
  (1) boron             (3) neon
  (2) chlorine          (4) oxygen
Answer: 2

9.
9 What occurs as two atoms of fluorine combine
  to become a molecule of fluorine?
  (1) A bond is formed as energy is absorbed.
  (2) A bond is formed as energy is released.
  (3) A bond is broken as energy is absorbed.
  (4) A bond is broken as energy is released.
Answer: 2

10.
10 What is the number of pairs of electrons that are
   shared between the nitrogen atoms in a molecule
   of N2?
   (1) 1                    (3) 3
   (2) 2                    (4) 6
Answer: 3

11.
11 Which set of values represents standard
   pressure and standard temperature?
   (1) 1 atm and 101.3 K
   (2) 1 kPa and 273 K
   (3) 101.3 kPa and 0°C
   (4) 101.3 atm and 273°C
Answer: 3

12.
12 Which statement about one atom of an element
   identifies the element?
   (1) The atom has 1 proton.
   (2) The atom has 2 neutrons.
   (3) The sum of the number of protons and
       neutrons in the atom is 3.
   (4) The difference between the number of
       neutrons and protons in the atom is 1.
Answer: 1

13.
13 A substance is classified as either an element or a
   (1) compound
   (2) solution
   (3) heterogeneous mixture
   (4) homogeneous mixture
Answer: 1

14.
14 A solid element that is malleable, a good
   conductor of electricity, and reacts with oxygen
   is classified as a
   (1) metal                   (3) noble gas
   (2) metalloid               (4) nonmetal
Answer: 1

15.
15 Three forms of energy are
   (1) chemical, exothermic, and temperature
   (2) chemical, thermal, and electromagnetic
   (3) electrical, nuclear, and temperature
   (4) electrical, mechanical, and endothermic
Answer: 2

16.
16 What is the total amount of heat required to
   vaporize 1.00 gram of H2O(ℓ) at 100.°C and
   1 atmosphere?
   (1) 4.18 J             (3) 373 J
   (2) 334 J              (4) 2260 J
Answer: 4

17.
17 What is required for a chemical reaction to
   occur?
   (1) standard temperature and pressure
   (2) a catalyst added to the reaction system
   (3) effective collisions between reactant particles
   (4) an equal number of moles of reactants and
       products
Answer: 3

18.
18 Which compound is soluble in water?
   (1) PbS               (3) Na2S
   (2) BaS               (4) Fe2S3
Answer: 3

19.
19 Compared to a 26-gram sample of NaCl(s) at
   STP, a 52-gram sample of NaCl(s) at STP has
   (1) a different density
   (2) a different gram-formula mass
   (3) the same chemical properties
   (4) the same volume
Answer: 3

20.
20 A gas changes directly to a solid during
   (1) fusion                (3) saponification
   (2) deposition            (4) decomposition
Answer: 2

21.
21 The phase of a sample of a molecular substance
   at STP is not determined by its
   (1) arrangement of molecules
   (2) intermolecular forces
   (3) number of molecules
   (4) molecular structure
Answer: 3

22.
22 Which atom has the weakest attraction for
   electrons in a chemical bond?
   (1) a boron atom         (3) a fluorine atom
   (2) a calcium atom       (4) a nitrogen atom
Answer: 2

23.
23 Which statement describes a chemical reaction
   at equilibrium?
   (1) The products are completely consumed in
       the reaction.
   (2) The reactants are completely consumed in
       the reaction.
   (3) The concentrations of the products and
       reactants are equal.
   (4) The concentrations of the products and
       reactants are constant.
Answer: 4

24.
24 Which element has atoms that can bond to each
   other in rings and networks?
   (1) aluminum             (3) hydrogen
   (2) carbon               (4) oxygen
Answer: 2

25.
25 In an oxidation-reduction reaction, the total
   number of electrons lost is
   (1) equal to the total number of electrons
       gained
   (2) equal to the total number of protons gained
   (3) less than the total number of electrons
       gained
   (4) less than the total number of protons gained
Answer: 1

26.
26 Which compounds are electrolytes?
   (1) C2H5OH and H2SO4
   (2) C2H5OH and CH4
   (3) KOH and H2SO4
   (4) KOH and CH4
Answer: 3

27.
27 Which compounds yield hydrogen ions as the
   only positive ions in an aqueous solution?
   (1) H2CO3 and HC2H3O2
   (2) H2CO3 and NaHCO3
   (3) NH3 and HC2H3O2
   (4) NH3 and NaHCO3
Answer: 1

28.
28 Nuclei of U-238 atoms are
   (1) stable and spontaneously absorb alpha
       particles
   (2) stable and spontaneously emit alpha particles
   (3) unstable and spontaneously absorb alpha
       particles
   (4) unstable and spontaneously emit alpha
       particles
Answer: 4

29.
29 Which nuclear emission has the greatest
   penetrating power?
   (1) proton          (3) gamma radiation
   (2) beta particle   (4) positron
Answer: 3

30.
30 The dating of geological formations is an example
   of a beneficial use of
   (1) isomers
   (2) electrolytes
   (3) organic compounds
   (4) radioactive nuclides
Answer: 4


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (31–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

31.
31 Which electron configuration represents a
   selenium atom in an excited state?
   (1) 2-7-18-6            (3) 2-8-18-6
   (2) 2-7-18-7            (4) 2-8-18-7
Answer: 2

32.
32 When the hydronium ion concentration of
   a solution is increased by a factor of 10, the pH
   value of the solution
   (1) decreases 1 pH unit
   (2) decreases 10 pH units
   (3) increases 1 pH unit
   (4) increases 10 pH units
Answer: 1

33.
33 In the formula XF2, the element represented by
   X can be classified as a
   (1) Group 1 metal        (3) Group 1 nonmetal
   (2) Group 2 metal        (4) Group 2 nonmetal
Answer: 2

34.
34 Which compound has the smallest percent
   composition by mass of chlorine?
   (1) HCl                 (3) LiCl
   (2) KCl                 (4) NaCl
Answer: 2

35.
35 Given the incomplete equation representing
   a reaction:
     2C6H14 + _______ O2 → 12CO2 + 14H2O
   What is the coefficient of O2 when the equation
   is completely balanced using the smallest
   whole-number coefficients?
   (1) 13                    (3) 19
   (2) 14                    (4) 26
Answer: 3

36.
36 What is the oxidation number of iodine in KIO4?
   (1) +1                   (3) +7
   (2) -1                   (4) -7
Answer: 3

37.
37 What is the chemical formula for zinc carbonate?
   (1) ZnCO3                (3) Zn2CO3
   (2) Zn(CO3)2             (4) Zn3CO2
Answer: 1

38.
38 Which statement explains why a molecule of
   CH4 is nonpolar?
   (1) The bonds between the atoms in a CH4
       molecule are polar.
   (2) The bonds between the atoms in a CH4
       molecule are ionic.
   (3) The geometric shape of a CH4 molecule
       distributes the charges symmetrically.
   (4) The geometric shape of a CH4 molecule
       distributes the charges asymmetrically.
Answer: 3

39.
39 Which atom in the ground state has the same
   electron configuration as a calcium ion, Ca2+, in
   the ground state?
   (1) Ar                    (3) Mg
   (2) K                     (4) Ne
Answer: 1

40.
40 In the compound KHSO4, there is an ionic bond
   between the
   (1) KH+ and SO42- ions
   (2) KHSO3+ and O2- ions
   (3) K+ and HS- ions
   (4) K+ and HSO4- ions
Answer: 4

41.
41 Given the balanced equation representing a
   reaction:
Which type of reaction is represented by this
equation?
(1) combustion         (3) saponification
(2) decomposition      (4) transmutation
Answer: 4

42.
42 A 220.0-mL sample of helium gas is in a cylinder
   with a movable piston at 105 kPa and 275 K.
   The piston is pushed in until the sample has a
   volume of 95.0 mL. The new temperature of the
   gas is 310. K. What is the new pressure of the
   sample?
   (1) 51.1 kPa             (3) 243 kPa
   (2) 216 kPa              (4) 274 kPa
Answer: 4

43.
43 Given the cooling curve of a substance:
During which intervals is potential energy
decreasing and average kinetic energy remaining
constant?
(1) AB and BC            (3) DE and BC
(2) AB and CD            (4) DE and EF
Answer: 3

44.
44 Which metal will spontaneously react with
   Zn2+(aq), but will not spontaneously react with
   Mg2+(aq)?
   (1) Mn(s)                (3) Ni(s)
   (2) Cu(s)                (4) Ba(s)
Answer: 1

45.
45 Which particle diagram represents the arrangement
   of F2 molecules in a sample of fluorine at 95 K
   and standard pressure?

Answer: 2

46.
46 Given the formulas of four organic compounds:
Which compounds have the same molecular
formula?
(1) A and B         (3) D and B
(2) A and C         (4) D and C
Answer: 2

47.
47 Given the incomplete equation representing a reaction:
                           2Na(s) + 2H2O(ℓ) → 2Na+(aq) + 2 _______ (aq) + H2(g)
               What is the formula of the missing product?
               (1) O2-                                     (3) OH-
               (2) O2                                      (4) OH
Answer: 3

48.
48 Given the equation representing a reaction where the masses are expressed in atomic mass units:
                       hydrogen-2 + hydrogen-1 → helium-3 + 8.814 ϫ 10-16 kJ
                       2.014 102 u 1.007 825 u      3.016 029 u
               Which phrase describes this reaction?
               (1) a chemical reaction and mass being converted to energy
               (2) a chemical reaction and energy being converted to mass
               (3) a nuclear reaction and mass being converted to energy
               (4) a nuclear reaction and energy being converted to mass
Answer: 3

49.
49 Given the diagram representing a process being used to separate the colored dyes in food coloring:
Which process is represented by this diagram?
(1) chromatography                         (3) distillation
(2) electrolysis                           (4) titration
Answer: 1

50.
50 Given the diagram representing a reaction:
According to one acid-base theory, the water acts as
(1) a base because it accepts an H+         (3) an acid because it accepts an H+
(2) a base because it donates an H+         (4) an acid because it donates an H+
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

51.
51 Draw a Lewis electron-dot diagram for an atom of silicon. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
51 [1] Allow 1 credit.
        Examples of 1-credit responses:


52.
Base your answers to questions 52 through 54 on the information below.
         The potential energy diagram and balanced equation shown below represent a reaction
      between solid carbon and hydrogen gas to produce 1 mole of C2H4(g) at 101.3 kPa and
      298 K.
                               2C(s) + 2H2(g) + 52.4 kJ → C2H4(g)
52 State what interval 3 represents. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Interval 3 represents the difference in potential energy between the products and the reactants.
             Interval 3 represents the heat of reaction, +52.4 kJ.
             ΔH


53.
53 Determine the net amount of energy absorbed when 2.00 moles of C2H4(g) are
   produced. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 104.8 kJ. Significant figures do not need to be shown.


54.
54 Identify one change in the reaction conditions, other than adding a catalyst, that can
   increase the rate of this reaction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Increase the temperature.
             Increase the pressure.
             Increase the concentration of H2(g).
             Increase the surface area of the carbon.


55.
Base your answers to questions 55 through 58 on the information below.
         The atomic number and corresponding atomic radius of the Period 3 elements are
      shown in the data table below.
                                              Data Table
                                      
                                      Atomic         Atomic
                                      Number         Radius   
                                                      (pm)
                                         11            160.
                                         12            140.
                                         13            124
                                         14            114
                                         15            109
                                         16            104
                                         17            100.
                                         18            101
      55 On the grid in your answer booklet, mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled
         “Atomic Radius (pm).” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
55 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale. An appropriate scale is linear and allows a trend to
       be seen.


56.
56 On the grid in your answer booklet, plot the data from the data table. Circle and
   connect the points. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
56 [1] Allow 1 credit for plotting all eight points correctly ± 0.3 grid space. Plotted points do not need to
       be circled or connected.
        Example of a 2-credit response for questions 55 and 56:
                 Atomic Radius Versus Atomic Number


57.
57 State the general relationship between the atomic number and the atomic radius for the
   Period 3 elements. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
57 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             As atomic number increases, there is a decrease in atomic radius.


58.
58 Explain, in terms of electrons, the change in radius when a sodium atom becomes a
   sodium ion. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
58 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             The radius of a sodium ion is smaller because the sodium atom lost one electron.
             An Na+ ion is smaller because it has one fewer electron shell.


59.
Base your answers to questions 59 through 61 on the information below.
          The equation below represents the reaction between 1-butene and bromine to form
      the compound 1,2-dibromobutane, C4H8Br2.
59 Explain, in terms of bonding, why the hydrocarbon reactant is an unsaturated
   hydrocarbon. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Each reactant hydrocarbon molecule has a double carbon-carbon bond.
             There is a multiple carbon-carbon bond in each molecule.
             More hydrogen atoms can be bonded with this hydrocarbon.


60.
60 Determine the gram-formula mass of 1-butene. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 56 g/mol. Significant figures do not need to be shown.


61.
61 Write the empirical formula for the product. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for C2H4Br. The order of the elements can vary.


62.
Base your answers to questions 62 through 65 on the information below.
          Ammonium chloride is dissolved in water to form a 0.10 M NH4Cl(aq) solution. This
      dissolving process is represented by the equation below.
62 Determine the number of moles of NH4Cl(s) used to produce 2.0 liters of this solution. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 0.20 mol. Significant figures do not need to be shown.


63.
63 State evidence that indicates the dissolving of ammonium chloride is an endothermic
   process. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             The process requires heat to dissolve NH4Cl.
             Energy is absorbed as NH4Cl dissolves.
             The energy term is positive on the left side of the equation arrow.
             The heat of reaction is positive.


64.
64 Explain, in terms of ions, why a 10.0-milliliter sample of 0.30 M NH4Cl(aq) is a better
   conductor of electricity than a 10.0-milliliter sample of the 0.10 M NH4Cl(aq). [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             The 0.30 M NH4Cl(aq) sample has more mobile ions in solution.
             The 0.10 M NH4Cl solution has a lower concentration of ions.


65.
65 Determine the minimum mass of NH4Cl(s) required to produce a saturated solution in
   100. grams of water at 40.°C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 47 g ± 1 g.



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2011 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry.

66.
Base your answers to questions 66 through 69 on the information below.
          Nitrogen gas and oxygen gas make up about 99% of Earth’s atmosphere. Other
      atmospheric gases include argon, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone, hydrogen, etc.
          The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere can vary. Data for the concentration
      of CO2(g) from 1960 to 2000 are shown in the table below.
                               Atmospheric Concentration of CO2(g)
                                     Year      Concentration (ppm)
                                     1960              316.9
                                     1980              338.7
                                     2000              369.4
      66 Identify one diatomic element found in the atmosphere. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             H2
             oxygen
             nitrogen


67.
67 Explain, in terms of types of matter, why methane can be broken down by chemical
   means, but argon can not be broken down by chemical means. Your response must
   include both methane and argon. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Methane is a compound consisting of two elements, so it can be broken down by chemical
             means, but argon is an element, which cannot be broken down.
             Methane is a compound and argon is an element.


68.
68 Show a numerical setup for calculating the mass of carbon dioxide in a 100.0-gram
   sample of air taken in 1980. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
68 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:


69.
69 Explain why the atmosphere is classified as a mixture. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             The gases in a mixture can be separated by physical means.
             The gases in the atmosphere are separate elements or compounds that are not chemically
             combined with each other.
             The proportions of the gases in the atmosphere can vary.
             more than one substance


70.
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below.
          Metallic elements are obtained from their ores by reduction. Some metals, such as zinc,
      lead, iron, and copper, can be obtained by heating their oxides with carbon.
          More active metals, such as aluminum, magnesium, and sodium, can not be reduced by
      carbon. These metals can be obtained by the electrolysis of their molten (melted) ores. The
      diagram below represents an incomplete cell for the electrolysis of molten NaCl. The
      equation below represents the reaction that occurs when the completed cell operates.
                              2NaCl(ℓ) → 2Na(ℓ) + Cl2(g)
70 Identify the component required for the electrolysis of molten NaCl that is missing
   from the cell diagram. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             source of electrical energy
             battery


71.
71 Identify one metal from the passage that is more active than carbon and one metal from
   the passage that is less active than carbon. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for identifying one metal from the passage that is more active than carbon and
       one metal from the passage that is less active than carbon.
        More active than carbon:
             aluminum
             Mg
             Na
        Less active than carbon:
             zinc
             Pb
             Fe
             copper


72.
72 Write a balanced half-reaction equation for the reduction of the iron ions in iron(III) oxide
   to iron atoms. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Fe3+ + 3e- → Fe


73.
Base your answers to questions 73 through 76 on the information below.
          The element boron, a trace element in Earth’s crust, is found in foods produced from
      plants. Boron has only two naturally occurring stable isotopes, boron-10 and boron-11.
      73 Compare the abundance of the two naturally occurring isotopes of boron. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Boron-11 is about four times more abundant than boron-10.
             The B-10 is less abundant.


74.
74 Write an isotopic notation of the heavier isotope of the element boron. Your response
   must include the atomic number, the mass number, and the symbol of this isotope. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 115B.
                           


75.
75 State, in terms of subatomic particles, one difference between the nucleus of a carbon-11
   atom and the nucleus of a boron-11 atom. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             The carbon-11 nucleus has one more proton than the nucleus of boron-11.
             A B-11 atom has a different number of neutrons than a C-11 atom.


76.
76 One sample of a green vegetable contains 0.0035 gram of boron. Determine the total
   number of moles of boron in this sample. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 0.000 32 mol or 3.2 × 10-4 mol. Significant figures do not need to be shown.


77.
Base your answers to questions 77 through 79 on the information below.
          The active ingredient in the pain reliever aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid. This compound
      can be produced by reacting salicylic acid with acetic acid. The label of one aspirin bottle
      indicates that the accepted mass of acetylsalicylic acid in each tablet is 325 milligrams.
          In a laboratory, an aspirin tablet is crushed and mixed with water to dissolve all of the
      acetylsalicylic acid. The measured pH of the resulting solution is 3.0.
      77 Write the chemical formula for the acetic acid. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             HC2H3O2(aq)
             CH3COOH


78.
78 State the color of methyl orange indicator after the indicator is placed in the solution. [ 1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
78 [1] Allow 1 credit for red.


79.
79 The mass of acetylsalicylic acid in one aspirin tablet is determined to be 320. milligrams.
   Show a numerical setup for calculating the percent error for the mass of acetylsalicylic
   acid in this aspirin tablet. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
79 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:


80.
Base your answers to questions 80 through 82 on the information below.
          A student investigated heat transfer using a bottle of water. The student placed the
      bottle in a room at 20.5°C. The student measured the temperature of the water in the
      bottle at 7 a.m. and again at 3 p.m. The data from the investigation are shown in the table
      below.
                                     Water Bottle Investigation Data
                                     7 a.m.                      3 p.m.
                           Mass of                      Mass of
                           Water      Temperature       Water          Temperature
                             (g)         (°C)            (g)               (°C)
                             800.         12.5           800.            20.5
      80 Compare the average kinetic energy of the water molecules in the bottle at 7 a.m. to the
         average kinetic energy of the water molecules in the bottle at 3 p.m. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             The average kinetic energy of the water molecules at 7 a.m. is less than the average kinetic
             energy of the water molecules at 3 p.m.
             The average kinetic energy of the molecules is greater at 3 p.m.


81.
81 State the direction of heat transfer between the surroundings and the water in the
   bottle from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Heat was transferred from the surroundings to the water in the bottle.
             The water absorbed energy from the surroundings.


82.
82 Show a numerical setup for calculating the change in the thermal energy of the water
   in the bottle from 7 a.m. to 3 p.m. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             q = (800. g)(4.18 J/g•°C)(20.5°C - 12.5°C)
             (800)(4.18)(8)


83.
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below.
          In one method of making bread, starch is broken down into glucose. Zymase, an enzyme
      present in yeast, acts as a catalyst for the reaction in which the glucose reacts to produce
      ethanol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide gas causes the bread dough to rise. The
      balanced equation below represents the catalyzed reaction.
83 Identify the type of organic reaction represented by this equation. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             fermentation


84.
84 Identify the functional group in an ethanol molecule. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             -OH
             alcohol group
        Note: Do not allow credit for hydroxide or OH-.


85.
85 State how the catalyst, zymase, increases the rate of this reaction. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
             Zymase provides an alternate reaction pathway.
             A reaction that involves zymase has a lower activation energy.



  Try the Quiz :     Physical Setting / Chemistry - New York Regents January 2013 Exam


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