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Earth Science - New York Regents January 2005 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. Which planet’s orbit around the Sun is most nearly circular?
(1) Mercury
(2) Neptune  
(3) Pluto
(4) Venus
4

2. How many times will the Sun’s perpendicular rays cross Earth’s Equator between March 1 of one year and March 1 of the next year?
(1) 1
(2) 2 
(3) 3
(4) 4
2

3. Which star’s surface temperature is closest to the temperature at the boundary between Earth's mantle and core?
(1) Sirius
(2) Rigel 
(3) the Sun
(4) Betelgeuse
3


4. Which graph best represents the relationship between soil particle size and the rate at which water infiltrates permeable soil?

4

5. The diagram below shows a standard spectrum compared to a spectrum produced from a distant star.

Which conclusion can be made by comparing the standard spectrum to the spectrum produced from this distant star?
(1) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the ultraviolet end of the spectrum and the star is moving toward Earth.
(2) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the ultraviolet end of the spectrum and the star is moving away from Earth.
(3) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the infrared end of the spectrum and the star is moving toward Earth.
(4) The star’s spectral lines have shifted toward the infrared end of the spectrum and the star is moving away from Earth.
4

6. Scientists are concerned about the decrease in ozone in the upper atmosphere primarily because ozone protects life on Earth by absorbing certain wavelengths of
(1) x-ray radiation
(2) ultraviolet radiation
(3) infrared radiation
(4) microwave radiation
2

7. It is inferred that during the early Archean Era the atmosphere of Earth contained water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and other gases in small amounts. These gases probably came from
(1) precipitation of groundwater
(2) volcanic eruptions
(3) evaporation of Paleozoic oceans
(4) convection currents in the mantle
2

8. Which ocean current flows northeast along the eastern coast of North America?
(1) Gulf Stream
(2) North Equatorial 
(3) California
(4) Labrador
1

9. Which type of land surface would probably reflect the most incoming solar radiation?
(1) light colored and smooth
(2) light colored and rough
(3) dark colored and smooth
(4) dark colored and rough
1

10. There is evidence that an asteroid or a comet crashed into the Cult of Mexico at the end of the Mesozoic Era. Consequences of this impact event may explain the
(1) extinction of many kinds of marine animals, including trilobites
(2) extinction of ammonoids and dinosaurs
(3) appearance of the earliest birds and mammals
(4) appearance of great coal-forming forests and insects
2

11. What is the approximate location of the Canary Islands hot spot?
(1) 32° S 18° W
(2) 32° S 18° E 
(3) 32° N 18° W
(4) 32° N 18° E
3

12. How long would it take for the first S-wave to arrive at a seismic station 4,000 kilometers away from the epicenter of an earthquake?
(1) 5 min 40 sec
(2) 7 min 0 sec 
(3) 12 min 40 sec
(4) 13 min 20 sec
3

13. Which New York State river flows generally southward?
(1) St. Lawrence River
(2) Niagara River 
(3) Genesee River
(4) Hudson River
4

14. The map below shows the stream drainage patterns for a region of Earth’s surface. Points A, B, C, and D are locations in the region.

The highest elevation most likely exists at point
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
2

15. Outwash plains are formed as a result of deposition by
(1) landslides
(2) ocean waves
(3) winds from hurricanes
(4) meltwater from glaciers
4

16. A stream with a velocity of 100 centimeters per second flows into a lake. Which sediment-size particles would the stream most likely deposit first as it enters the lake?
(1) boulders
(2) cobbles 
(3) pebbles
(4) sand
3

17. The cross section below shows a soil profile.

This soil was formed primarily by
(1) erosion by glaciers
(2) erosion by running water
(3) capillarity and human activity
(4) weathering and biological activity
4

18. Which type of rock most likely contains fossils?
(1) scoria
(2) gabbro 
(3) schist
(4) shale
4

19. In which New York State landscape region is most of the surface bedrock composed of metamorphic rock?
(1) Adirondacks
(2) Catskills
(3) Erie-Ontario Lowlands
(4) Newark Lowlands
1

20. A human fingernail has a hardness of approximately 2.5. Which two minerals are softer than a human fingernail?
(1) calcite and halite
(2) sulfur and fluorite
(3) graphite and talc
(4) pyrite and magnetite
3

21. The photograph below shows an escarpment (cliff) located in the western United States. The directions for north and south are indicated by arrows. A fault in the sedimentary rocks is shown on the front of the escarpment.

The photograph shows that the fault most likely formed
(1) after the rock layers were deposited, when the north side moved downward
(2) after the rock layers were deposited, when the north side moved upward
(3) before the rock layers were deposited, when the south side moved downward
(4) before the rock layers were deposited, when the south side moved upward
1

22. Which mountain range resulted from the collision of North America and Africa, as parts of Pangea joined together in the late Pennsylvanian Period?
(1) Appalachian Mountains
(2) Acadian Mountains
(3) Taconic Mountains
(4) Grenville Mountains
1

23. Which physical characteristic best describes the rock phyllite?
(1) glassy texture with gas pockets
(2) clastic texture with angular fragments
(3) bioclastic texture with cemented shell fragments
(4) foliated texture with microscopic mica crystals
4

24. The diagram below represents a part of the crystal structure of the mineral kaolinite.

An arrangement of atoms such as the one shown in the diagram determines a mineral’s
(1) age of formation
(2) infiltration rate 
(3) physical properties
(4) temperature of formation
3

25. The map below shows the path of a river. The arrow shows the direction the river is flowing. Letters A and B identify the banks of the river.

The water depth is greater near bank A than bank B because the water velocity near bank A is
(1) faster, causing deposition to occur
(2) faster, causing erosion to occur
(3) slower, causing deposition to occur
(4) slower, causing erosion to occur
2

26. Which home-building material is made mostly from the mineral gypsum?
(1) plastic pipes
(2) window glass
(3) drywall panels
(4) iron nails
3

27. The two most abundant elements by mass in Earth’s crust are oxygen and
(1) potassium
(2) hydrogen 
(3) nitrogen
(4) silicon
4


Base your answers to questions 28 through 30 on the diagram below, which represents the planetary wind and moisture belts in Earth’s Northern Hemisphere.

 
28. The climate at 90° north latitude is dry because the air at that location is usually
(1) warm and rising
(2) warm and sinking 
(3) cool and rising
(4) cool and sinking
4

29. The paths of the surface planetary winds are curved due to Earth’s
(1) revolution
(2) rotation 
(3) circumference
(4) size
2

30. The tropopause is approximately how far above sea level?
(1) 12 mi
(2) 12 km 
(3) 60 mi
(4) 60 km
2


31. The diagram below shows four magnified block-shaped sandstone samples labeled A, B, C, and D. Each sandstone sample contains quartz grains of different shapes and sizes. The quartz grains are held together by hematite cement.

In which sample did the quartz grains undergo the most abrasion during erosional transport?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) D
2

32. On the map below, line AB is drawn across several of Earth's tectonic plates in the South Atlantic Ocean.

Which cross section best represents the plate boundaries and mantle movement beneath line AB?

1

33. The diagrams below show four major types of fault motion occurring in Earth’s crust. Which type of fault motion best matches the general pattern of crustal movement at California’s San Andreas fault?

1

34. The cross section below shows the movement of wind-driven sand particles that strike a partly exposed basalt cobble located at the surface of a windy desert.

Which cross section best represents the appearance of this cobble after many years of exposure to the wind-driven sand?

2

35. Each dot on the graph below shows the result of separate scientific studies of the relationship between the rates of erosion in regions of different relief. Relief is the local difference between the highest and the lowest elevations.

The results of these combined studies indicate that with each 100-meter increase in relief, the rate of erosion generally
(1) decreases at a rate of 10 cm/1,000 years
(2) decreases at a rate of 20 cm/1,000 years
(3) increases at a rate of 10 cm/1,000 years
(4) increases at a rate of 20 cm/1,000 years
3



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the diagram below, which represents a model of the sky (celestial sphere) for an observer in New York State. The curved arrow represents the Sun’s apparent path for part of one day. The altitude of Polaris is also indicated.

 
36. According to this diagram, what is the Sun’s altitude at solar noon?
(1) 23.5°
(2) 42° 
(3) 48°
(4) 90°
3

37. Where is this observer most likely located?
(1) Massena
(2) Oswego 
(3) Slide Mountain
(4) Mt. Marcy
3

38. On which date could this observation of the Sun’s apparent path have been made?
(1) March 21
(2) July 21
(3) October 21
(4) December 21
1


Base your answers to questions 39 through 42 on the weather map below. The map shows a low-pressure system and some atmospheric conditions at weather stations A, B, and C.

 
39. Which type of weather is usually associated with a cP air mass, as shown near weather station C?
(1) moist and cool
(2) moist and warm
(3) dry and cool
(4) dry and warm
3

40. Which cross section best represents the air masses, air movement, clouds, and precipitation occurring behind and ahead of the warm front located between stations A and B?

3

41. The arrows on which map best represent the direction of surface winds associated with this low-pressure system?

2

42. If this weather system follows a normal storm track, the low-pressure center (L) will generally move toward the
(1) northeast
(2) northwest
(3) southeast
(4) southwest
1


Base your answers to questions 43 and 44 on the bedrock cross section below. The cross section represents part of Earth’s crust where natural gas, oil, and water have moved upward through a layer of folded sandstone and filled the pore spaces at the top of the sandstone layer.

 
43. The final arrangement of the natural gas, oil, and water within the sandstone was caused by differences in their
(1) density
(2) specific heat 
(3) relative age
(4) radioactive half-life
1

44. The natural gas, oil, and water are trapped within the top of the sandstone and do not move upward through the shale because, compared to the sandstone, the shale has
(1) lower permeability
(2) less foliation 
(3) larger pore spaces
(4) larger particles
1


Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the map below, which shows the drainage basin of the Mississippi River system. Several rivers that flow into the Mississippi River are labeled. The arrow at location X shows where the Mississippi River enters the Cult of Mexico.

 
45. The entire land area drained by the Mississippi River system is referred to as a
(1) levee
(2) watershed
(3) meander belt
(4) floodplain
2

46. Sediments deposited at location X by the Missisippi River most likely have which characteristics?
(1) angular fragments arranged as mixtures
(2) rock particles arranged in sorted beds
(3) rocks with parallel scratches and grooves
(4) high-density minerals with hexagonal crystals
2

47. The structure formed by the deposition of sediments at location X is best described as a
(1) moraine
(2) tributary
(3) delta
(4) drumlin
3


Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the reading passage and the drawing below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

Fossil With Signs of Feathers Is Cited as Bird-Dinosaur Link


Paleontologists have discovered in China a fossil dinosaur with what are reported to be clear traces of feathers from head to tail, the most persuasive evidence so far, scientists say, that feathers predated the origin of birds and that modern birds are descendants of dinosaurs.
Entombed in fine-grained rock, the unusually well-preserved skeleton resembles that of a duck with a reptilian tail, altogether about three feet in length. Its head and tail are edged with the imprint of downy fibers. The rest of the body, except for bare lower legs, shows distinct traces of tufts and filaments that appear to have been primitive feathers. On the backs of its short forelimbs are patterns of what look like modern bird feathers.
Other dinosaur remains with what appear to be featherlike traces have been unearthed in recent years, but nothing as complete as this specimen, paleontologists said. Etched in the rock like a filigree decoration surrounding the skeleton are imprints of where the down and feathers appear to have been.
The 130-million-year-old fossils were found a year ago by farmers in Liaoning Province in northeastern China. After an analysis by Chinese and American researchers, the fossil animal was identified as a dromaeosaur, a small fast-running dinosaur related to velociraptor. The dinosaurs belonged to a group of two-legged predators known as advanced theropods . . .

excerpted from "Fossil With Signs of

Feathers Is Cited as Bird-Dinosaur Link"

John Noble Wilford

New York Times, April 26, 2001



The drawing below shows an artist’s view of the dinosaur, based on the fossilized remains.

48. During which period of geologic time have paleontologists interred that the feathered dinosaur mentioned in the passage existed?
(1) Cambrian
(2) Cretaceous 
(3) Paleogene
(4) Permian
2

49. This feathered dinosaur is not considered an index fossil because it
(1) existed too long ago
(2) was preserved in ash
(3) was a landdwelling animal
(4) was found in only one area
4

50. The reference to the bird-dinosaur link is most likely referring to the concept of
(1) plate tectonics
(2) evolution
(3) dynamic equilibrium
(4) recycling
2



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-62): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 and 52 on the diagram provided in your below. The diagram shows a model of Earth’s orbit around the Sun. Two motions of Earth are indicated. Distances to the Sun are given for two positions of Earth in its orbit.

51. On the diagram provided below, place an X on Earth’s orbit to indicate Earth's position on May 21.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the correct placement of the X on the diagram. The center of the X must be between the brackets indicated on Earth’s orbit, as shown in the diagram below.


52. Explain why New York State experiences summer when Earth is at its greatest distance from the Sun. [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The North Pole is tilted toward the Sun in the summer.
In summer, the Sun is higher in the sky due to the tilt of Earth’s axis.
New York State receives higher angles of insolation in summer when Earth is farthest from the Sun.
New York State receives lower angles of insolation in winter when Earth is closest to the Sun.
greater duration of insolation



Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the field map provided below. The map shows elevations, measured in feet, of a number of points in a certain geographic region. Contour lines have been drawn for the l00-foot and l20-foot elevations. Points A and B represent two spot elevations on the map.

53. On the map provided below, draw the 60-foot contour line. Make sure that the contour line extends to the edges of the map. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit tor correctly drawing the 60-foot contour line. It must extend to the edges of the map to receive credit. It other contour lines are drawn, all lines must be correct to receive credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:


54. Toward which general compass direction docs Elma Creek flow? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
south
southerly direction
north to south


55. Calculate the gradient between points A and B. Label the answer with the correct units. [2]
Gradiant = _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 1 credit for the value of 20 (±1).

and


Allow 1 credit for correct units. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
feet/mile
ft/mi
feet per mile



56. On the weather map station model provided below, using the proper format, record the six weather conditions shown below. [2]
Wind: from the northwest
Wind speed: 10 knots
Barometric pressure: 1022.0 mb
Cloud cover: 50%
Visibility: 5 mi
Precipitation (in the past 6 hours): .45 in

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] An example of a correct response is shown below.

Allow 2 credits if five or six variables are correctly plotted. The feather for wind speed may be on either side of the staff. Allow credit for any overcast indication that shades half of the circle.

Allow only 1 credit if only three or four variables are correctly plotted.

Note: Do not allow credit for 1022.2 or 22.0 or 220 mb; 5 mi; .45 inches or 45.



Base your answers to questions 57 and 58 on the map and table below. The map shows the name and location of the volcanic peaks in the Cascade Mountain Range of the northwestern United States west of the Yellowstone Hot Spot. The table shows the major eruptions of each peak over the past 4,000 years.

 
57. During which geologic epoch did the volcanic activity shown on the table occur? [1]
_______ Epoch
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Holocene Epoch.


58. On the cross section provided below, place an arrow in the continental crust and an arrow in the oceanic crust to show the relative directions of plate movement. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:



59. Which layer of Earth is composed of both the crust and the rigid mantle? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for lithosphere.



Base your answers to questions 60 and 61 on the diagram below, which represents a model of the radioactive decay of a particular element. The diagram shows the decay of a radioactive element into the stable decay element after one half-life period.

 
60. On the diagram provided below, shade in the amount of stable decay element present after the second half-life period. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the correct response shown below


61. It the radioactive element in this model is carbon-14, how much time will have passed after one half-life? [1]
_______ years
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 5.7 × 103 years or 5,700 years.



62. The diagram below shows warm, moist air moving off the ocean and over a mountain, causing precipitation between points 1 and 2.
Describe two changes that occur to the warm, moist air between points 1 and 2 that would cause cloud formation. [2]
(1) _______
(2) _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Air rises.
Air expands.
Air cools.
The temperature reaches the dewpoint.
Water vapor condenses.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (63-80): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the reading passage below and on your knowledge of Earth science.

The Blue Moon


A “Blue Moon” is the name given to the second full moon in a calendar month. Because there are roughly 29.5 days between full moons, it is unusual for two full moons to “fit” into a 30 or 31 day month (and impossible to fit into a 28 or 29 day month, so February can never have a Blue Moon). The saying “Once in a Blue Moon” means a rare occurrence, and predates the current astronomical use of the term, which is quite recent. In fact, Blue Moons are not all that rare, on average there will be one Blue Moon every 2.5 years. After 1999, the next Blue Moons will be in November 2001; July 2004; and June 2007. The last one before 1999 was in July 1996.
The term Blue Moon is believed to have originated in 1883 after the eruption of Krakatoa. The volcano put so much dust in the atmosphere that the Moon actually looked blue in color. This was so unusual that the term “once in a Blue Moon" was coined.

"The Blue Moon"

David R. Williams

nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/lunar/blue_moon.html


63. Explain why a Blue Moon never occurs during the month of February. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:
February has only 28 or 29 days and a complete cycle of the Moon phases takes 29% days.


64. What is the greatest number of full-Moon phases, visible from Earth, that are possible in a span of 1 year? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 13.


65. In the space provided below, draw the relative positions of Earth, the Moon, and the Sun, as viewed from space, so that a full-Moon phase would be visible to an observer on Earth. Label Earth, the Moon, and the Sun in your drawing. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Earth being located between the Sun and the Moon. Shading of Earth and the Moon is not necessary. The Sun, the Moon, and Earth must be identified but do not need to be drawn to scale. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:



66. The Moon has many more impact craters visible on its surface than Earth has on its surface. State two reasons that Earth has so few visible impact craters. [2]
(1) _______
(2) _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits, 1 credit for each of two correct responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Friction from Earth’s atmosphere causes many meteors to burn up.
Many meteors hill into the ocean so craters aren’t visible.
Old craters are eroded away.
Vegetative growth may hide evidence of a crater.
Plate tectonics has destroyed some craters.
Deposition has buried some craters.



Base your answers to questions 67 and 68 on the map and data table shown below. The map shows some tectonic plates and the boundaries between them. Letters A and B are locations on Earth’s surface. The data table shows the depth below Earth’s surface of five earthquakes measured from location A toward location B.

 
67. On the grid below, plot the depths of the five earthquakes from location A toward location B. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if four or five points are correctly plotted (±10 km). Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, this example:


68. Identify the type of plate boundary or geologic feature found at location B. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Mariana Trench
trench
convergent plate boundary
subduction zone
overriding plate
subduction plate



Base your answers to questions 69 through 71 on the cross section below, which shows several rock formations found in New York State. The rock layers have not been overturned.

 
69. How does this cross section indicate that the Stockton sandstone is the oldest rock layer? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Stockton sandstone is on the bottom.
Law of Superposition


70. State one piece of evidence that supports the fact that the Palisade Sill is younger than the Brunswick sandstone. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Contact metamorphism can be found on both sides of the Palisade Sill within the Brunswick sandstone.
An intrusion is younger than the rock it intrudes.


71. State one tectonic event affecting North America that occurred at the same time as the Palisade Sill intrusion. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
earthquakes
volcanic eruptions
The rifting of North America occurred.
Pangea began to break up.
North America and Africa began to separate.



Base your answers to questions 72 through 74 on the map below, the graph on the next page, and your knowledge of Earth science. The map shows the length of the growing season in New York State, expressed in days. The growing season is the average number of days between the last frost in spring and the first frost in fall. The graph line shows the relationship between the latitudes of Riverhead, New York; Albany, New York; and Massena, New York; and the length of the growing season at these three locations.


 
72. For Riverhead, Albany, and Massena, state the relationship between latitude and the length of the growing season shown by the graph. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The lower latitudes have longer growing seasons.
As latitude increases, the length of the growing season decreases.


73. The data for Oswego, New York, have been plotted separately on the graph. Explain why the location of Oswego causes it to have a growing season longer than other cities at the same latitude. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
modifying influence of a large body of water
Prevailing winds off the lake keep temperatures warmer.
nearness to a large body of water


74. Compare the length of the growing season in a lowland region with the length of the growing season in a mountain region at a approximately the same latitude. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
As elevation increases, the growing season is shorter.
The growing season is shorter in the mountain region than in the lowland region.



Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the cross section below and on your knowledge of Earth science. The cross section shows a portion of Earth’s crust. The age, in millions of years, of each boundary between the different sedimentary rock layers is shown. The age of boundary X between the sedimentary rock and the metamorphic rock is not shown. Assume no overturning has occurred.

 
75. Identify the geologic feature represented by boundary X. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
unconformity
nonconformity
time gap in the rock record
buried erosional surface


76. Describe how the rock type below boundary X was formed. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
heat and pressure
recrystallizing of preexisting rock
metamorphism


77. Identify by name one index fossil that existed when the limestone rock shown in the cross section was being formed. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Hexameroceras
Eucalyptocrinus
Eurypterus
Cooksonia
Cystiphyllum
Eospirifer



Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the diagram and table below. The diagram represents a felsic igneous rock. Letters A, B, and C represent three different minerals in the rock sample. The table describes the physical properties of minerals A, B, and C found in the igneous rock sample.

 
78. State the texture of this igneous rock. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
coarse
nonvesicular
large grains
big crystals


79. On the table provided below, state the names of minerals A, B, and C . [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Examples of correct responses are shown below.
Mineral A — potassium Feldspar or orthoclase
Mineral B — plagioclase Feldspar or Na-Ca Feldspar
Mineral C — quartz
Allow 2 credits if all three minerals are correctly identified.
Allow only 1 credit if only one or two minerals are correctly identified.


80. State two processes responsible for the formation of an igneous rock. [1]
_______ and _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
melting and solidification
melting and crystallization
cooling and crystallization



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents January 2005 Exam


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