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Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2011 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
1 This map illustrates the relationship between
  (1) religion and government
  (2) ironworking and trans-Saharan trade
  (3) humans and environment
  (4) monsoons and flooding
Answer: 3

2.
2 Which process is shown on this map?
  (1) nationalization                   (3) urbanization
  (2) cultural diffusion                (4) social stratification
Answer: 2

3.
3 An economist who focused on ancient societies
  would most likely study the
  (1) development of trade
  (2) evolution of family patterns
  (3) effect of fire on the lives of the people
  (4) role of religion in river valley civilizations
Answer: 1


4.
4 Knowing the latitude of a location would be most
  helpful in determining
  (1) language               (3) population
  (2) temperature            (4) time
Answer: 2

5.
Base your answer to question 5 on the photographs below and on your knowledge of social studies.
5 The cultural contributions shown in these photographs were developed during the
  (1) Mesopotamian civilizations           (3) Tang dynasty
  (2) Pax Romana                           (4) Byzantine Empire
Answer: 4

6.
    Base your answer to question 6 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …The girl and two other children were left on a
   mountaintop to succumb [fall victim] to the cold
   as offerings to the gods, according to the
   archaeologists who found the mummified
   remains in Argentina in 1999….
              — “Frozen Inca Mummy Goes On Display,”
                            National Geographic News,
                                  September 11, 2007
 6 This passage best illustrates the role of
   archaeologists in
   (1) interpreting evidence
   (2) challenging customs
   (3) classifying artifacts
   (4) planning expeditions
Answer: 1

7.
7 Which statement about the Neolithic Revolution
  is an opinion rather than a fact?
  (1) Early peoples made greater cultural
      advancements than did people of later
      civilizations.
  (2) The Neolithic Revolution resulted in changes
      for nomadic peoples.
  (3) New technology was developed during the
      Neolithic Revolution.
  (4) Agricultural developments resulted in the
      establishment of permanent settlements.
Answer: 1

8.
8 The concept of zero, the expansion of the caste
  system, and the creation of the decimal system
  are most closely associated with the
  (1) Inca Empire            (3) Song dynasty
  (2) Tokugawa shogunate (4) Gupta Empire
Answer: 4

9.
9 During the European Middle Ages, guilds were
  created to
  (1) obtain better working conditions in factories
  (2) standardize goods and prices
  (3) regulate the money supply
  (4) increase competition
Answer: 2

10.
10 Both Ibn Battuta and Mansa Musa demonstrated
   their religious values by
   (1) meditating along the banks of the Ganges
       River
   (2) converting Africans to Christianity
   (3) making a pilgrimage to Mecca
   (4) visiting the wailing wall in Jerusalem
Answer: 3

11.
11 Which action is linked to the spread of the Black
   Death to Europe during the 14th century?
   (1) trade with Asia
   (2) conquest of Japan
   (3) trade across the Sahara
   (4) exploration of the Western Hemisphere
Answer: 1

12.
12 What was one ideal of Renaissance humanism?
   (1) training as a knight and practicing chivalry
   (2) obeying divine right monarchs and the
       church
   (3) living apart from the world and taking
       monastic vows
   (4) investigating areas of interest and fulfilling
       one’s potential
Answer: 4

13.
13 • Captured the city of Constantinople in 1453
   • Benefited from rich trade along the
     Mediterranean Sea
   • Ruled by Suleiman the Lawgiver
   Which empire best fits these descriptions?
   (1) Roman                 (3) Mongol
   (2) Ottoman               (4) Songhai
Answer: 2

14.
14 One way in which the Ming dynasty in the early
   140os and the Spanish monarchy in the late 140os
   are similar is that both governments
   (1) promoted religious diversity
   (2) encouraged democratic reforms
   (3) emphasized equal rights for women
   (4) supported the expansion of overseas trade
Answer: 4

15.
    Base your answer to question 15 on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
15 Which conclusion about Spanish colonialism in
   the Americas can be drawn from this diagram?
   (1) The fewest people in the population had the
       greatest power.
   (2) Africans and Native Americans were
       politically powerful.
   (3) The peninsulares made up the majority of the
       population.
   (4) Mestizos and mulattoes controlled the most
       land in the colonies.
Answer: 1

16.
16 What was one effect of the Columbian exchange
   on European society?
   (1) Migration to the Americas declined.
   (2) Horses were acquired for the first time.
   (3) The population increased with the introduction of new foods.
   (4) The Christian Church was divided into
       Roman Catholic and Orthodox.
Answer: 3

17.
17 During the first Global Age (A.D. 1450–1770),
   European countries obtained both a source of
   raw materials and a reliable market for their
   finished goods by developing
   (1) the policy of mercantilism
   (2) laissez-faire principles
   (3) trade cooperatives
   (4) forts along the Silk Roads
Answer: 1

18.
18 One way in which Akbar the Great, Ivan the
   Terrible, and Louis XIV are similar is that they
   were all
   (1) theocratic rulers    (3) absolute rulers
   (2) elected leaders      (4) enlightened despots
Answer: 3

19.
19 “The French Revolution is most important for
   having changed subjects to citizens.”
   This statement emphasizes the shift from
   (1) religious traditions to secular values
   (2) divine right rule to people’s participation in
       government
   (3) rural lifestyles to urban lifestyles
   (4) private property ownership to government
       ownership
Answer: 2

20.
20 Which geographic condition contributed to the
   defeat of Napoleon’s troops during the invasion of
   Russia?
   (1) drought               (3) severe flooding
   (2) typhoons              (4) harsh winter
Answer: 4


21.
21 One reason for the mass migration of many Irish
   to North America in the 19th century was
   (1) a series of crop failures
   (2) enforcement of a military draft
   (3) civil war in Ireland
   (4) an outbreak of malaria
Answer: 1

22.
    Base your answer to question 22 on the graphic
organizer below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
22 Which title best completes this graphic
   organizer?
   (1) Reasons for Latin American Independence
       Movements
   (2) Impact of the Scientific Revolution
   (3) Causes of the Industrial Revolution
   (4) Results of Nationalism in Europe
Answer: 1

23.
23 Which statement best reflects an effect of
   imperialism in Africa?
   (1) Land was distributed equally between social
       classes.
   (2) Territorial divisions were primarily established using tribal boundaries.
   (3) Natural resources were exploited for the
       benefit of European powers.
   (4) Timbuktu became the center of great
       learning.
Answer: 3

24.
24 Which event is considered the immediate cause
   of World War I?
   (1) signing of the Treaty of Versailles
   (2) invasion of Poland by Germany
   (3) assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand
   (4) use of unrestricted submarine warfare by
       Germany
Answer: 3

25.
Base your answer to question 25 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
25 Based on the information provided by this map, how did adopting the policy of
   appeasement at the Munich Conference in September 1938 change Europe?
   (1) The Rhineland was occupied by France.
   (2) The Sudetenland was given to Germany.
   (3) Germany transferred control of Memel to Lithuania.
   (4) Austria became an independent state.
Answer: 2

26.
26 Which reform was included in Atatürk’s efforts to
   modernize Turkey?
   (1) reintroducing strict Islamic law
   (2) granting women the right to vote
   (3) adopting Arabic script
   (4) requiring men to wear a fez
Answer: 2

27.
27 Which political leader gained power as a result of
   the failing economy of the Weimar Republic?
   (1) Adolf Hitler           (3) Benito Mussolini
   (2) Francisco Franco       (4) Charles de Gaulle
Answer: 1

28.
28 During the Cold War, nations that adopted a
   policy of nonalignment believed they should
   (1) be exempt from United Nations decisions
   (2) restrict trade with neighboring countries
   (3) reject international environmental treaties
   (4) follow a course independent of the superpowers
Answer: 4

29.
29 The use of the Marshall Plan in Western Europe
   after World War II strengthened the forces of
   (1) democracy             (3) isolationism
   (2) communism             (4) autocracy
Answer: 1

30.
30 What was a direct result of the Four
   Modernizations introduced in China by Deng
   Xiaoping?
   (1) Freedom of speech was guaranteed.
   (2) Goods and services were evenly distributed.
   (3) Economic opportunities were expanded.
   (4) Fewer consumer goods were produced.
Answer: 3

31.
31 Which pair of countries that gained
   independence in the 2oth century experienced
   the migration of millions of people across their
   shared borders due to religious tensions?
   (1) Czech Republic and Slovakia
   (2) Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
   (3) Egypt and Libya
   (4) India and Pakistan
Answer: 4

32.
32 A goal of modern-day religious fundamentalism
   is to
   (1) combine the religious teachings of Islam and
        Christianity
   (2) maintain traditional religious values in society
   (3) encourage the practice of other religions
   (4) adopt secular attitudes instead of religious
        beliefs
Answer: 2

33.
33 What have members of the European Union (EU)
   and countries of the North American Free Trade
   Agreement (NAFTA) both attempted to do?
   (1) reduce regional trade barriers
   (2) monopolize iron and steel production
   (3) establish collective farms
   (4) seize control of the production and
       distribution of resources
Answer: 1

34.
    Base your answer to question 34 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 What is the main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) Petroleum is being overproduced.
   (2) The demand for petroleum exceeds production.
   (3) Fossil fuels are unevenly distributed.
   (4) The demands of global environmental groups
       have increased.
Answer: 2

35.
35 The desire of the Kurds and of the Palestinians
   for independent states is based on the principle
   of
   (1) free trade            (3) collective security
   (2) nationalism           (4) modernization
Answer: 2


36.
36 Which leader is most closely associated with
   Desmond Tutu and F. W. de Klerk?
   (1) Jomo Kenyatta      (3) Nelson Mandela
   (2) Kwame Nkruhmah (4) Jawaharlal Nehru
Answer: 3

37.
37 Since the end of the Cold War, what has been the
   primary cause of conflicts in Chechnya,
   Azerbaijan, and Bosnia?
   (1) religious and ethnic tensions
   (2) adoption of capitalism
   (3) poor health care and starvation
   (4) efforts at Russification
Answer: 1

38.
Base your answer to question 38 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
38 Which title best describes the cartoonist’s point of view about globalization?
   (1) Growing Closer Together                (3) An Economic Miracle
   (2) The Road to Stability                  (4) An Uncertain Path
Answer: 4

39.
39 The southern edge of the Sahara is expanding in
   a process called
   (1) annexation           (3) desertification
   (2) conservation         (4) desalination
Answer: 3

40.
40 The Code of Hammurabi and the Twelve Tables
   of Rome are examples of
   (1) written laws
   (2) religious rules of conduct
   (3) economic sanctions
   (4) early constitutions
Answer: 1

41.
41 Which individual is correctly paired with an
   individual who further developed his ideas?
   (1) Pope Urban II → Martin Luther
   (2) Nicolaus Copernicus → Galileo Galilei
   (3) Hernando Cortez → Simón Bolívar
   (4) Louis XVI → Maximilien Robespierre
Answer: 2

42.
42 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
      I. _______
         A. Escape feudal oppression
         B. Earn salvation from sins
         C. Recapture the Holy Land
   (1)   Goals of the Hanseatic League
   (2)   Reasons for Europeans to Fight the Crusades
   (3)   Results of the Reconquista
   (4)   Aims of Charlemagne
Answer: 2

43.
    Base your answer to question 43 on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 Which Chinese philosophy best completes this
   graphic organizer?
   (1) Maoism             (3) legalism
   (2) Daoism             (4) Confucianism
Answer: 4

44.
44 The English Bill of Rights and the political
   philosophy of John Locke both support the idea
   of a
   (1) coalition government
   (2) fascist dictatorship
   (3) Marxist dictatorship
   (4) limited government
Answer: 4

45.
45 Which idea is correctly paired with a document
   that supports it?
   (1) colonialism — The Prince
   (2) militarism — Sadler Report
   (3) capitalism — Wealth of Nations
   (4) monotheism — The Communist Manifesto
Answer: 3

46.
46 One goal of the Congress of Vienna was to
   (1) establish a new balance of power in Europe
   (2) protect Europe from Ottoman advances
   (3) end abuses within the Catholic Church
   (4) redraw the boundaries of Africa
Answer: 1

47.
47 Transportation in the 180os was revolutionized by
   the development of the
   (1) caravel               (3) airplane
   (2) astrolabe             (4) steam engine
Answer: 4

48.
    Base your answer to question 48 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …Indeed whilst on the one hand civil
   disobedience authorises disobedience of unjust
   laws or unmoral laws of a state which one seeks to
   overthrow, it requires meek and willing
   submission to the penalty of disobedience and
   therefore cheerful acceptance of the jail
   discipline and its attendant hardships….
48 Which individual is the author of this passage?
   (1) Otto von Bismarck     (3) Ho Chi Minh
   (2) Mohandas Gandhi       (4) Fidel Castro
Answer: 2

49.
49 Which conflict is most closely associated with
   events in Nanjing, Dunkirk, and Hiroshima?
   (1) Russian Revolution (3) World War II
   (2) Cultural Revolution (4) Korean War
Answer: 3

50.
50 The imaginary line that divided the Western
   European countries from the Eastern European
   countries after World War II was known as the
   (1) prime meridian        (3) Iron Curtain
   (2) line of demarcation (4) Berlin Wall
Answer: 3


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Technology
                  Throughout history, societies have developed significant technological
                  innovations. These technological innovations have had both positive and negative
                  effects on a society or on humankind.
        Task:
                  Select two technological innovations and for each
                  • Discuss why the technological innovation was important during a specific time
                    period
                  • Discuss the positive and/or negative effects this technological innovation had
                    on a society or on humankind
           You may use any technological innovation from your study of global history. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include irrigation systems, stirrup, astrolabe, printing
        press, factory systems, nuclear weapons, chemical pesticides, and satellites launched into
        space.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                       Do not use the United States as the focus of your answer.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout history, governments have adopted policies or have taken actions that
              have contributed to the denial of human rights to certain groups. These groups
              include Ukrainians, Cambodians, and Rwandans. This denial of human rights
              has had an impact on the region in which it occurred as well as on the international
              community.
        Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
              answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the
              questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two groups mentioned in the historical context whose human rights have
                been denied and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that contributed to the denial of this
                  group’s human rights
                • Explain how a specific policy or action contributed to the denial of this group’s
                  human rights
                • Discuss the impact this denial of human rights has had on the region in which
                  it occurred and/or on the international community
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
       …Stalin came to power after Lenin’s death in 1924, inheriting a government that was still
       struggling to control an unwieldy empire. The new premier [leader] soon turned his attention
       toward Ukraine, the largest and most troublesome of the non-Russian Soviet republics. The
       Ukrainians were a fiercely independent people, given to ignoring directives from Moscow and
       stubbornly maintaining their individualistic, agrarian way of life.
         That independent spirit made them a problem. At a time when Stalin wanted to build a strong
       industrial base, they clung to their rural peasant traditions. At a time when he wanted to abolish
       private ownership of land, they refused to surrender their farms. In short, the Ukrainians had
       become a threat to the revolution….
                        Source: Linda Jacobs Altman, Genocide: The Systematic Killing of a People, Enslow Publishers
 1 What was one way in which the Ukrainian people were a threat to Stalin’s power according to Linda
   Jacobs Altman? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 2
In 1929, Stalin’s policy of all-out collectivization had disastrous effects on agricultural productivity. He increased
the amount of grain to be exported from Ukraine. This action resulted in famine among the Ukrainian peasants
and resistance among the landowners.
        Addendum to the minutes of [December 6, 1932] Politburo [meeting] No. 93.
          The Council of People’s Commissars and the Central Committee resolve:
          To place the following villages on the black list for overt disruption of the grain collection plan
        and for malicious sabotage, organized by kulak [wealthy Ukrainian farmers] and
        counterrevolutionary elements: …
          The following measures should be undertaken with respect to these villages:
          1. Immediate cessation [stoppage] of delivery of goods, complete suspension of cooperative
        and state trade in the villages, and removal of all available goods from cooperative and state
        stores.…
          The Council of People’s Commissars and the Central Committee call upon all collective and
        private farmers who are honest and dedicated to Soviet rule to organize all their efforts for a
        merciless struggle against kulaks and their accomplices in order to: defeat in their villages the
        kulak sabotage of grain collection; fulfill honestly and conscientiously their grain collection
        obligations to the Soviet authorities; and strengthen collective farms.
        CHAIRMAN OF THE COUNCIL OF PEOPLE’S COMMISSARS OF THE UKRAINIAN
        SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC — V. CHUBAR.
        SECRETARY OF THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE COMMUNIST PARTY
        (BOLSHEVIK) OF UKRAINE — S. KOSIOR.
          6 December 1932.
                                                        Source: Soviet Archives Exhibit, Library of Congress (adapted)
 2 According to this document, what was one action the Soviet government proposed to enforce its policies of
   collectivization and grain quotas? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 3
This is an excerpt from a speech given by Dr. Oleh W. Gerus in 2001 at the unveiling of a monument in
Manitoba, Canada, to the victims of the famine-genocide in Ukraine.
      …What have been the historical consequences of the Great Famine-Genocide?
        By ravaging the country side, the famine not only destroyed millions of innocent human
      beings—estimates range from 4 to 10 million—but also retarded [slowed] by generations the
      natural evolution [development] of Ukrainian nationhood. The traditional Ukrainian values of
      hope, individualism and hard work disappeared. Fear, apathy and alcoholism became the
      hallmarks of the collective farm. Cities of Ukraine remained bastions [strongholds] of
      Russification. In general, the traumatized survivors found themselves voiceless cogs in the huge
      bureaucratic machine that the Soviet Union had become….
                                               Source: Dr. Oleh W. Gerus, “The Great Ukrainian Famine-Genocide,”
                           Centre for Ukrainian Canadian Studies, University of Manitoba, August 4, 2001 (adapted)
 3 What were two consequences of the great famine-genocide in Ukraine according to Oleh W. Gerus? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 4
In 1970, Lon Nol overthrew Prince Norodom Sihanouk and became the leader of Cambodia. The Vietnam War
had destabilized Cambodia’s government and Lon Nol used this situation to gain power.
      …Richard Nixon’s May 1970 invasion of Cambodia (undertaken without informing Lon Nol’s
      new government) followed simultaneous invasions by Saigon and Vietnamese Communist forces.
      It created 130,000 new Khmer [Cambodian mountain people] refugees, according to the
      Pentagon. By 1971, 60 percent of refugees surveyed in Cambodia’s towns gave U.S. bombing as
      the main cause of their displacement. The U.S. bombardment of the Cambodian countryside
      continued until 1973, when Congress imposed a halt. Nearly half of the 540,000 tons of bombs
      were dropped in the last six months.
      From the ashes of rural Cambodia arose Pol Pot’s Communist Party of Kampuchea (CPK). It
      used the bombing’s devastation and massacre of civilians as recruitment propaganda and as an
      excuse for its brutal, radical policies and its purge of moderate Communists and Sihanoukists.
      This is clear from contemporary U.S. government documents and from interviews in Cambodia
      with peasant survivors of the bombing….
                               Source: Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power, and Genocide in Cambodia
                                                under the Khmer Rouge, 1975–79, Yale University Press (adapted)
4 According to Ben Kiernan, what were two problems Cambodia faced during Lon Nol’s rule that enabled
  Pol Pot to rise to power? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


57.
Document 5
Pol Pot came to power in April 1975. He overthrew Lon Nol in a coup d’état and attempted to create a utopian
agrarian society.
       …He [Pol Pot] began by declaring, “This is Year Zero,” and that society was about to be
       “purified.” Capitalism, Western culture, city life, religion, and all foreign influences were to be
       extinguished in favor of an extreme form of peasant Communism.
         All foreigners were thus expelled, embassies closed, and any foreign economic or medical
       assistance was refused. The use of foreign languages was banned. Newspapers and television
       stations were shut down, radios and bicycles confiscated, and mail and telephone usage curtailed.
       Money was forbidden. All businesses were shuttered, religion banned, education halted, health
       care eliminated, and parental authority revoked. Thus Cambodia was sealed off from the outside
       world.
        All of Cambodia’s cities were then forcibly evacuated. At Phnom Penh, two million inhabitants
       were evacuated on foot into the countryside at gunpoint. As many as 20,000 died along the way.…
                          Source: “Genocide in the 2oth Century: Pol Pot in Cambodia 1975-1979,” The History Place
5 Based on this History Place article, what was one action taken by Pol Pot’s government that contributed
  directly to human rights violations against the Cambodian people? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


58.
Document 6
Teeda Butt Mam is a survivor of the Khmer Rouge. This excerpt is an eyewitness account of her experience in
Cambodia.
       …I traveled with my family from the heart of the country to the border of Thailand. It was
       devastating to witness the destruction of my homeland that had occurred in only four years.
       Buddhist temples were turned into prisons. Statues of Buddha and artwork were vandalized.
       Schools were turned into Khmer Rouge headquarters where people were interrogated, tortured,
       killed, and buried. School yards were turned into killing fields. Old marketplaces were empty.
       Books were burned. Factories were left to rust. Plantations were without tending and bore no
       fruit….
                                                                                  — Teeda Butt Mam
           Source: Teeda Butt Mam, “Worms from Our Skin,” Children of Cambodia’s Killing Fields, Yale University Press
 6 According to this eyewitness account, what were two results of Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


59.
Document 7
In 1998, President Bill Clinton traveled to Rwanda to pay America’s respects to those who suffered and died
in the Rwandan genocide. During the visit, a panel discussion was held and later aired by Frontline. This is an
excerpt from the transcript of that broadcast.
       …NARRATOR: In 1993, Rwanda, one of Africa’s smallest countries with just seven million
       citizens, was a deeply troubled country with a deeply troubled past. Decades earlier, under
       colonial rule, the Belgians had used the Tutsis, Rwanda’s aristocracy, to enforce their rule over
       the Hutu majority, who were mostly poor farmers.
       PHILIP GOUREVITCH, “The New Yorker”:
       The Belgians created an idea whereby the Tutsi were a master race, the Hutu an inferior race.
       And ethnic identity cards were issued. Much like in South Africa, an apartheid-like system was
       imposed. All privileges went to the Tutsi minority, and the Hutu majority was almost in bondage.
       At independence in the late ’5os and early ’6os, this system was reversed. The majority Hutu
       rebelled, seized power, in the name of majority rule imposed an apartheid-like system in reverse
       and oppressed the Tutsi bitterly.
       NARRATOR: Faced with discrimination and increasing Hutu violence, most Tutsis fled to
       neighboring countries, where they formed a guerrilla army, the Rwandan Patriotic Front.
       In 1990, the rebel Tutsis invaded Rwanda and forced peace talks with Juvenal Habyarimana, the
       Hutu president. Anxious to stay in power himself, Habyarimana signed a peace treaty agreeing
       to share power with the Tutsis….
                                                        Source: “The Triumph of Evil,” Frontline, January 26, 1999
 7 According to this Frontline transcript excerpt, what were two causes of conflict between the Hutus and the
   Tutsi in Rwanda? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


60.
Document 8
After the assassination of President Juvenal Habyarimana on April 6, 1994, radical Hutus attempted to exert
control over Rwanda.
       …The Hutu officials who took over the government organized the murders [of Tutsis]
       nationwide. They used the government-run radio and press to do this. They also used the private
       newspapers and a private radio station, known as Radio Television des Mille Collines (RTLM).
       RTLM told the population to look for the “enemies” and to kill them. Those Tutsi and Hutu
       [opposing the government] who could, fled to safety in neighboring countries, to Europe, or to
       Canada and the United States. Meanwhile, when the murders started, the RPF [Tutsi-led
       Rwandan Patriotic Front] in Uganda invaded Rwanda again….
                                        Source: Aimable Twagilimana, Teenage Refugees from Rwanda Speak Out,
                                                                            Globe Fearon Educational Publisher
 8 According to Aimable Twagilimana, what was one action taken by Hutu officials against their “enemies”? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


61.
Document 9a
     …Over the course of the genocide nearly one million people were killed, and more than three
     million fled to other countries, creating the world’s worst ever refugee crisis. Only then did the
     West respond, launching the largest aid effort in human history, which finally concluded two
     years later in March of 1996. Soon after, war broke out in several neighboring countries causing
     almost all of the refugees to return home by 1997.
       Post-genocide, a Unity government was formed [in Rwanda], and in 2000, Paul Kagame,
     former head of the RPF, was elected transition president. Kagame was then elected to a regular
     term in the country’s first standard elections in 2003. The United Nations established the
     International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which has been trying high-level Hutu officials for
     crimes against humanity, while local governments have resorted to tribal councils, called gacaca,
     to sanction the estimated 80,000 people involved in the genocide….
                                                    Source: Terry George, ed., Hotel Rwanda, Newmarket Press
Document 9b
REFUGEE CAMP POPULATIONS (December 1994)
                                                          UGANDA
                      Gama
 DEM. REP.              Gisenyi
   of the
  CONGO
                                                   KIGALI
                                                                                   TANZANIA
                                        RWANDA            Kibongo
     Bukaru     Cyangugu            Gikongoro
                                                Kluande             Ngara
                                  Butare
                                      Ngozi                                  Refugee camp
                                                                             Refugee population
                                                                                     250,000
                            BUJUMBURA                                                150,000
                                                                                     100,000
                                           BURUNDI                                    50,000
                                                                                      25,000
                                                                                      10,000
   50 km                                                                               5,000
                                                                                       1,000
                            Total                         Total                        Total
 Dem. Rep. of the Congo 1.5 million           Burundi 240,000               Tanzania 600,000
              Source: UN High Commissioner for Refugees, December 1994 (adapted)
9 Based on these documents, state two effects of genocide on Rwanda. [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


62.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout history, governments have adopted policies or have taken actions that
                have contributed to the denial of human rights to certain groups. These groups
                include Ukrainians, Cambodians, and Rwandans. This denial of human rights
                has had an impact on the region in which it occurred as well as on the international
                community.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
               write an essay in which you
                   Select two groups mentioned in the historical context whose human rights have
                   been denied and for each
                   • Describe the historical circumstances that contributed to the denial of this
                     group’s human rights
                   • Explain how a specific policy or action contributed to the denial of this group’s
                     human rights
                   • Discuss the impact this denial of human rights has had on the region in which
                     it occurred and/or on the international community
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2011 Exam


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