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Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2013 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
    Base your answer to question 1 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Europe’s waterways were also a blessing. Its
   rivers flowed gently into sheltered, navigable
   bays. The Rhine is a wide, slow-moving river that
   can be used as a highway for goods and people.
   The Mediterranean is calm, almost a lake, with
   many big ports. Compare this to Africa. Despite
   being the second-largest continent, Africa has the
   shortest coastline, much of which is too shallow to
   build major ports. Most of its big rivers—fastmoving, dramatic, vertiginous [dizzying]—are not
   navigable. Add to that the tropical heat and
   propensity [tendency] for disease and food
   spoilage, and you have a compelling geographic
   explanation for African underdevelopment—
   surely not the only factor, but a significant
   one.…
             — Fareed Zakaria, The Post-American World,
                        W. W. Norton & Company, 2008
 1 Which conclusion about the geography of these
   continents is best supported by this passage?
   (1) Europe and Africa have the same climate.
   (2) Europe and Africa have many deep major
       ports.
   (3) Waterways are a geographic blessing in both
       Europe and Africa.
   (4) River systems have helped development in
       Europe and hindered it in Africa.
Answer: 4

2.
2 Opinion and bias in written historical sources
  illustrate the need to be aware of
  (1) plagiarism             (3) human rights
  (2) turning points         (4) points of view
Answer: 4

3.
3 Which social scientists primarily study the
  scarcity of resources and the distribution of goods
  and services?
  (1) anthropologists         (3) economists
  (2) political scientists    (4) historians
Answer: 3


4.
4 Between 500 B.C. and A.D. 1500, the migration
  of the Bantu people of Africa led to the diffusion
  of
  (1) languages and metallurgical skills
  (2) porcelain and cannons
  (3) camels and Islam
  (4) cuneiform and galley ships
Answer: 1

5.
5 What was one reason for the decline of both the
  Han dynasty and the western Roman Empire?
  (1) outbreak of war between religious groups
  (2) inability to force back foreign invaders
  (3) efforts of the middle class to gain power
  (4) lack of a common currency
Answer: 2

6.
6 The Ten Commandments, the Eightfold Path,
  and the Five Pillars of Faith each serve to
  (1) provide followers with a guide for living
  (2) establish systems of justice
  (3) establish distinctions between social classes
  (4) provide regulations for government workers
Answer: 1

7.
7 Which statement about the early Indus River
  valley civilization is an opinion rather than a fact?
  (1) Farmers grew a surplus of barley, wheat, and
      dates.
  (2) The Indus people developed a system of
      writing.
  (3) Planned cities indicated a use of technology.
  (4) The Indus city-states were the most
      developed of the time period.
Answer: 4

8.
8 The introduction of the Cyrillic alphabet and
  Orthodox Christianity to Russia is most closely
  associated with
  (1) Viking conquests
  (2) Byzantine missionaries
  (3) Alexander the Great’s armies
  (4) Ottoman expansion
Answer: 2

9.
Base your answer to question 9 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
9 Which geographic feature would have most likely hindered the expansion of the Guptas
  into what is modern-day China?
  (1) Thar Desert                       (3) Himalaya Mountains
  (2) Deccan Plateau                    (4) Bay of Bengal
Answer: 3

10.
10 What was one result of the European Commercial
   Revolution?
   (1) a decline in the spice trade
   (2) the destruction of the papacy
   (3) the development of capitalism
   (4) an increased reliance on bartering
Answer: 3

11.
11 • Conquered Ghana
   • Experienced a golden age under Mansa Musa
   • Built mosques and schools in Timbuktu
   Which civilization is most directly associated with
   these descriptions?
   (1) Axum                   (3) Kush
   (2) Benin                  (4) Mali
Answer: 4

12.
12 One way in which Martin Luther’s Ninety-five
   Theses and Henry VIII’s Act of Supremacy are
   similar is that both
   (1) emphasize the importance of the Bible
   (2) caused the Thirty Years War
   (3) challenge the authority of the Catholic Church
   (4) helped to unify Christendom
Answer: 3

13.
13 Niccolò Machiavelli wrote The Prince as a guide
   to success in
   (1) family life
   (2) politics
   (3) economic undertakings
   (4) scholarship
Answer: 2

14.
    Base your answer to question 14 on the diagram
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
14 Which concept is best illustrated by this diagram?
   (1) dynastic cycle         (3) social hierarchy
   (2) guild system           (4) cultural diffusion
Answer: 3

15.
15 Which event marked the rise in power of the
   Ottoman Empire in 1453?
   (1) birth of Muhammad
   (2) conquest of Constantinople
   (3) siege of Vienna
   (4) death of Saladin
Answer: 2

16.
16 The restoration of Chinese rule, the voyages of
   Zheng He, and the reintroduction of civil service
   examinations are all associated with the
   (1) Ming dynasty           (3) Songhai Empire
   (2) Abbassid dynasty       (4) Delhi sultanate
Answer: 1

17.
17 Which step did Catherine the Great take that is
   consistent with Enlightenment ideas?
   (1) ordering the burning of books
   (2) strengthening the institution of serfdom
   (3) expanding Russian territory into Ukraine
   (4) considering a law code that would treat all
       citizens equally
Answer: 4

18.
18 Which statement best describes Aztec civilization
   at the time of the Encounter?
   (1) Small groups of nomadic clans competed for
       food.
   (2) Various ethnic groups had representation in a
       legislative body.
   (3) Absence of a social class structure created
       unsettled living conditions.
   (4) Advanced agricultural practices supported
       large urban centers.
Answer: 4

19.
19 • The Americas are referred to as the “New
     World.”
   • Eastern Asia is referred to as the “Far East.”
   • Southwest Asia is referred to as part of the
     “Middle East.”
   Whose perspective is best represented by these
   regional place names?
   (1) Chinese              (3) European
   (2) African              (4) Indian
Answer: 3

20.
20 Why is Catholicism a major religion practiced in
   Latin America?
   (1) Spain conquered and colonized much of
       Latin America.
   (2) Disputes over international boundaries
       within Latin America were settled by the
       pope.
   (3) The traditional beliefs of Africans were
       incorporated into the cultures of Latin
       America.
   (4) The Church provided Latin America with a
       strong central government.
Answer: 1


21.
21 Which geographic feature presented an obstacle
   to Simón Bolívar’s forces?
   (1) Sahara Desert          (3) Great Rift Valley
   (2) Andes Mountains        (4) Strait of Malacca
Answer: 2

22.
22 One way in which the Industrial Revolution in
   Great Britain in the 18th century and the potato
   blight in Ireland in the 19th century are similar is
   that they both led directly to
   (1) significant human migrations
   (2) more equitable distribution of wealth
   (3) growth in the number of subsistence farmers
   (4) rapid increases in food production
Answer: 1

23.
Base your answers to questions 23 and 24 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
23 Based on this map of 13th-century world systems, which of these circuits was limited to
   one continent?
   (1) I                                    (3) V
   (2) II                                   (4) VI
Answer: 1

24.
24 The information on this map implies that trade made these regions
   (1) militaristic                         (3) isolationist
   (2) interdependent                       (4) ethnocentric
Answer: 2

25.
25 Which action did Japan take during the Meiji
   Restoration?
   (1) established a social system to benefit the
       samurai
   (2) sent experts to learn from modern Western
       nations
   (3) allowed communist ideas to dominate its
       government
   (4) started an ambitious program to expel foreign
       manufacturers
Answer: 2

26.
26 What was a major reason European nations
   competed for control of Africa during the second
   half of the 180os?
   (1) Africa had a wealth of natural resources.
   (2) Slave labor was needed in the Americas.
   (3) African nations offered religious and political
       freedom.
   (4) Europeans needed land for their excess
       population.
Answer: 1

27.
    Base your answer to question 27 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
27 This cartoon refers to events immediately after
   which war?
   (1) Franco-Prussian       (3) World War I
   (2) Russo-Japanese        (4) World War II
Answer: 3

28.
28 The belief that workers of the world would unite
   to overthrow their oppressors is central to
   (1) Social Darwinism
   (2) Marxism
   (3) conservatism
   (4) laissez-faire capitalism
Answer: 2

29.
29 The terms spheres of influence, extraterritoriality, and mandates are most closely
   associated with
   (1) collective security  (3) imperialism
   (2) militarism           (4) self-sufficiency
Answer: 3

30.
30 In Europe during the 193os, economic instability
   led to the
   (1) rise of fascist dictatorships
   (2) development of nuclear arms
   (3) abandonment of colonial territories
   (4) establishment of the League of Nations
Answer: 1

31.
    Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   The privilege of opening the first trial in history
   for crimes against the peace of the world imposes
   a grave responsibility. The wrongs which we seek
   to condemn and punish have been so calculated,
   so malignant, and so devastating, that civilization
   cannot tolerate their being ignored, because it
   cannot survive their being repeated. That four
   great nations, flushed with victory and stung with
   injury stay [stop] the hand of vengeance and
   voluntarily submit their captive enemies to the
   judgment of the law is one of the most significant
   tributes that Power has ever paid to Reason.…
                  — Chief Prosecutor Robert H. Jackson,
                        November 21, 1945, Nuremberg
31 The wrongs referred to in this passage include
   the
   (1) occupation of Ethiopia by Italy
   (2) invasion of Afghanistan by the Soviet Union
   (3) mass murder of Jews and others in
       concentration camps
   (4) deaths of American soldiers during the
       Bataan Death March
Answer: 3

32.
32 The speaker maintains that the guiding principle
   of the trial will be the
   (1) payment of reparations
   (2) denial of responsibility
   (3) celebration of victory
   (4) judgment of the law
Answer: 4

33.
Base your answers to questions 33 and 34 on the photographs below and on your knowledge of social studies.
33 The clothes worn by Mohandas Gandhi of India and by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk of
   Turkey indicate the desire of these leaders to
   (1) conform to traditional religious beliefs
   (2) adapt to the cultural norms of urban life
   (3) protest the oppression of communist rule
   (4) make a political statement to their respective nations
Answer: 4

34.
34 Both leaders were known for their commitment to
   (1) Islamic fundamentalism             (3) civil disobedience
   (2) nationalist movements              (4) five-year plans
Answer: 2

35.
Base your answer to question 35 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
35 Based on the information provided by this map, how did the growth of the Japanese
   Empire affect China?
   (1) China acquired Japanese military technology.
   (2) China invaded French Indochina.
   (3) China was forced to adopt Korean culture.
   (4) China lost control of many of its eastern seaports.
Answer: 4


36.
36 Which development in the history of Cuba
   occurred first?
   (1) The United States imposed a naval
       quarantine against Cuba.
   (2) The Soviet Union built missile sites in Cuba.
   (3) Fidel Castro forcibly took power in Cuba.
   (4) The communist government in Cuba seized
       foreign properties.
Answer: 3

37.
37 The creation of the European Union (EU) and of
   the North American Free Trade Agreement
   (NAFTA) was intended to
   (1) benefit member nations through the
       reduction of tariffs
   (2) implement sustainable energy policies
   (3) institute a system of impartial courts
   (4) establish stronger regional military alliances
Answer: 1

38.
Base your answer to question 38 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
38 Which issue is the focus of this 2004 cartoon?
   (1) global warming                         (3) ethnic tensions
   (2) global migration                       (4) nuclear proliferation
Answer: 4

39.
39 • The United States offered aid to Turkey (1947).
   • The Soviet Union helped finance the Aswan
     Dam in Egypt (1956).
   • A coup d’état in Iraq was supported by the
     United States (1963).
   Which conclusion about the Middle East can be
   drawn from these situations that occurred during
   the Cold War?
   (1) It served as a key ally for the Soviet Union.
   (2) It developed a policy of appeasement.
   (3) It became a site of strategic competition
       between the superpowers.
   (4) It allowed the United Nations to establish the
       region’s foreign policies.
Answer: 3

40.
40 In which geographic region has Aung San Suu
   Kyi labored to bring about democratic reform?
   (1) Southeast Asia        (3) Central Asia
   (2) Middle East           (4) West Africa
Answer: 1

41.
    Base your answer to question 41 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … Once thought of as a model for other young
   African democracies, Nigeria has buckled under
   the weight of persistent enmities [hostilities]
   among four major tribes—the Moslem Hausas
   and Fulanis in the North, the Yorubas in the West
   and the clever Ibos in the East. In January 1966,
   five years after independence, a group led by
   Eastern army officers toppled the Northerndominated regime of Sir Abubakar Tafawa
   Balewa and exposed the raw nerves of those
   ancient rivalries. Northerners countered with a
   coup that installed [General Yakubu] Gowon, and
   their pent-up fury exploded in the massacre of
   thousands of Ibos living in the North.…
                                  — Time, June 9, 1967
41 This passage illustrates the impact ethnic loyalties
   can have on
   (1) maintaining colonial control
   (2) sustaining nonalignment
   (3) building national unity
   (4) preserving traditional religions
Answer: 3

42.
Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
42 A central theme of this cartoon is that those most able to assist poor countries
   (1) have too many commitments              (3) offer great strength
   (2) contribute little of substance         (4) agree to share the burden
Answer: 2

43.
43 One purpose of this cartoon is to
   (1) arouse public opinion           (3) justify neutrality
   (2) explain foreign programs        (4) expose environmental issues
Answer: 1

44.
44 One way in which Hammurabi and Justinian are
   similar is that they successfully
   (1) established public education systems
   (2) codified the laws of their empire
   (3) instituted democratic governments
   (4) separated church and state
Answer: 2

45.
45 One way in which the Treaty of Nanking and the
   Treaty of Versailles are similar is that in both
   treaties the provisions called for
   (1) monarchs to be returned to their rightful
       places
   (2) reparations to be paid by defeated countries
   (3) existing borders to be maintained
   (4) peacekeeping organizations to be established
Answer: 2

46.
46 The Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall
   were both intended to
   (1) halt the spread of communism
   (2) isolate unpopular governments
   (3) limit the movement of peoples
   (4) keep people from smuggling illegal goods
Answer: 3

47.
47 One way in which Miguel Hidalgo, Ho Chi Minh,
   and Jomo Kenyatta are similar is that they all
   were
   (1) leaders of independence movements
   (2) communist dictators
   (3) enlightened despots
   (4) advocates of liberation theology
Answer: 1

48.
48 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
      I. _______
         A. Decentralized governments
         B. Widespread usage of manorialism
         C. Increased power of the Roman
            Catholic Church
   (1)   Results of the Spanish Reconquista
   (2)   Characteristics of Feudal Europe
   (3)   Essential Traits of the Italian City-States
   (4)   Outcomes of the Glorious Revolution
Answer: 2

49.
49 The Columbian exchange is most closely
   associated with the beginnings of
   (1) mercantilism          (3) mass production
   (2) humanism              (4) scientific socialism
Answer: 1

50.
50 Which form of government is associated with the
   reigns of Suleiman the Magnificent, Akbar the
   Great, and Peter the Great?
   (1) constitutional monarchy
   (2) direct democracy
   (3) theocracy
   (4) absolute monarchy
Answer: 4


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Change—Revolution
                 Throughout history, revolutions have developed in response to a variety of
                 conditions. These revolutions have often resulted in significant political,
                 economic, and social change.
        Task:
                 Select two revolutions and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances leading to this revolution
                 • Discuss the political, economic, and/or social effects of this revolution
           You may use any revolution from your study of global history and geography. Some
        suggestions you might wish to consider include the Neolithic Revolution, French Revolution,
        Haitian Revolution, Industrial Revolution, Russian Revolution, Mexican Revolution, Chinese
        Cultural Revolution, and Green Revolution in Agriculture.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                  Do not use a revolution from United States history in your answer.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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52.
                                               Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document.
       Historical Context:
              Technological advancements such as the combined use of the bow and the
              stirrup by the Mongols, the use of the caravel by the Spanish, and the use of
              the railroad in India have affected how certain civilizations and societies have
              interacted with each other. Changes have resulted from these interactions.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
             answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the
             questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
               Select two technological advancements mentioned in the historical context and
               for each
               • Explain how this technological advancement affected the interactions of a
                  specific civilization or society with another group
               • Discuss changes that resulted from these interactions
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1b
 … The Mongols had developed a composite
 bow made out of sinew and horn and were
 skilled at shooting it while riding, which gave
 them the upper hand against ordinary foot
 soldiers. With a range of more than 350 yards,
 the bow was superior to the contemporaneous
 [co-existing] English longbow, whose range
 was only 250 yards. A wood-and-leather saddle,
 which was rubbed with sheep’s fat to prevent
 cracking and shrinkage, allowed the horses to
 bear the weight of their riders for long periods
 and also permitted the riders to retain a firm
 seat. Their saddlebags contained cooking pots,
 dried meat, yogurt, water bottles, and other
 essentials for lengthy expeditions. Finally, a
 sturdy stirrup enabled horsemen to be steadier
 and thus more accurate in shooting when
 mounted. A Chinese chronicler recognized the
 horse’s value to the Mongols, observing that
 “by nature they [the Mongols] are good at
 riding and shooting. Therefore they took
 possession of the world through this advantage
 of bow and horse.”…
        Source: Morris Rossabi, “All the Khan’s Horses,”
                          Natural History, October 1994
1a Based on these documents, what advantage did the stirrup give to Mongol warriors? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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54.
b Based on these documents, what did the combined technology of the composite bow and the stirrup enable
  the Mongols to do? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 2
       … Though much of what the Mongols wrought [brought about] on their westward march was
       destructive, some benefits were reaped from their forays [raids] into Europe and conquests in
       Muslim areas. By example, they taught new ways of making war and impressed on their Turkic
       and European enemies the effectiveness of gunpowder.
       As we have seen, Mongol conquests facilitated [aided] trade between the civilizations at each
       end of Eurasia, making possible the exchange of foods, tools, and ideas on an unprecedented
       scale. The revived trade routes brought great wealth to traders such as those from north Italy,
       who set up outposts in the eastern Mediterranean, along the Black Sea coast, and as far east
       as the Caspian Sea. Because the establishment of these trading empires by the Venetians and
       Genoese provided precedents [examples] for the later drives for overseas expansion by
       peoples such as the Portuguese and English, they are of special significance in global
       history.…
                      Source: Robert Guisepi, “The Last Great Nomadic Challenges – From Chinggis Khan to Timur,”
                                                            The Mongols, International World History Project online
2 According to Robert Guisepi, what was one change that resulted from the interaction between Europeans
  and Mongols? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
Document 3
       … Diplomatic exchanges between Christian Europe and Mongol Asia led to the emergence
       of the first Western eye-witness accounts of far-off East Asia. For the first time, Western
       Europeans were exposed to the true size and scope of the Eurasian landmass; they were
       exposed to different cultures, beliefs, values, attitudes, and institutions; the papacy and
       Europe were thus forced out of their narrow religious-geographic perspective; they began to
       realize that they had to deal with and relate to the non-Christian world with its many different
       peoples, religions, and cultures. The Europeans gradually assigned the Mongols and other
       Asians a permanent place in the natural order of things; they no longer tried to force all
       peoples into a specific Biblical niche or role as they initially did during Europe’s narrow
       Christian view of the world and all people in it. The Westerners realized that they could not
       refuse to recognize and deal with the rest of the world simply because it was non-Christian
       [and] that they could not ignore and pretend that all non-Christian peoples and cultures did
       not exist. Thus the Mongols and Asians were incorporated into the West’s intellectual
       framework in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.…
                                                   Source: Gregory Guzman, “Christian Europe and Mongol Asia:
                                                    First Medieval Intercultural Contact Between East and West,”
                                                                            Essays in Medieval Studies, Volume 2,
                                                           Proceedings of the Illinois Medieval Association online
3 According to Gregory Guzman, what was one effect the Mongols had on the European view of the world?
  [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 4a
Document 4b
                Advantages of Caravel                             Uses of Caravel
     •   Fast                                       •   Carrying cargo
     •   Maneuverable                               •   Fighting wars
     •   Easy to sail in shallow waters             •   Pirating
     •   Able to sail downwind using square sails   •   Exploring the Americas
4 Based on these documents, what were two ways the caravel affected European interaction with other
  groups? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 5
       … It all began in Española [Hispaniola] with sugar, which was already a profitable plantation
       crop in the Canaries and Portugal’s Atlantic islands in the fifteenth century. Columbus himself
       had shipped sugar from Madeira to Genoa in 1478, and the mother of his first wife owned a
       sugar estate on that island. He brought sugar cane with him to Española in 1493, and the cane
       grew well in American soil. But the growth of the sugar industry was painfully slow until
       Charles V intervened, ordering that sugar masters and mill technicians be recruited from the
       Canaries, and authorizing loans to build sugar mills on Española. There were thirty-four mills
       on the island by the late 153os and sugar was one of the two staples of the island’s economy
       (the other being cattle ranching) until the latter part of the sixteenth century.…
               Source: Alfred W. Crosby Jr., The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492,
                                                                                   Greenwood Publishing (adapted)
5 According to Alfred W. Crosby, what was one effect of Spanish colonization on the island of Española? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 6
       … Growing sugar cane became a large business. At first, Native Americans were forced to
       work on sugar plantations, large estates run by an owner or overseer. They were treated
       cruelly, and many died. The Spanish then brought slaves from Africa to do the work.
          A new social structure developed. People born in Spain made up the highest social class.
       Those of European descent born in the colonies were next. People of mixed European and
       Indian or African descent were in the middle. Native Americans and people of African
       descent were in the lowest classes.…
                                                 Source: Guide to the Essentials of World History, Prentice Hall
6 Based on this document, what were two changes in the Americas that resulted from interactions with the
  Spanish? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 7a
Document 7b
  The age of railroads played a role in and supported the growth of a new period of imperialism.
       … Thus, colonial railways were part of this process of the spread of empire, its economic
       patterns, its ideas and its institutions. The process was essentially the same throughout the
       world: production of new commodities to feed the burgeoning [quickly growing] industries of
       the West; new populations to produce them; new patterns of land ownership, often involving
       the dispossession of previous inhabitants; new legal codes to make the conquered lands safe
       for investment and exploitation. Such was the story everywhere empires expanded.…
                               Source: Robert Lee, “Potential Railway World Heritage Sites in Asia and the Pacific,”
                                          Institute of Railway Studies and Transport History, The University of York
7 Based on these documents, what do railroads enable colonial powers to do? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 8
   This excerpt analyzes the Indian railway system from the Indian nationalist point of view between 1880 and
1905.
        … A review of the existing railway policy led them [Indian nationalist leaders] to conclude that
        it was not primarily regulated in the interests of the Indian people; and that it largely ignored
        Indian needs, particularly industrial needs, and was mainly meant to serve British economic
        and political interests. They noted that railways played an important role in imparting colonial
        character to the Indian economy. They were even able to glimpse the growing connection
        between railway development in a backward country and the growing power of finance in the
        advanced metropolitan country and the consequent political complications.
            They wanted railways to serve national economic interest by stimulating economic
        development, which was in turn seen as consisting of industrial and agricultural growth. To
        them the proper railway policy was one that promoted Indian industry and a proper public
        works policy one that gave priority to irrigation and agriculture. They desired railway policy to
        give due weight to the state of Indian finances and Indian economy.…
                          Source: Bipan Chandra, “Economic Nationalism and the Railway Debate, circa 1880–1905,”
                                                                in Our Indian Railway, Foundation Books (adapted)
 8 According to Bipan Chandra, what is one concern the Indian nationalist leaders had regarding British
   railway policy? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 9
       … The railroads facilitated, linked, and coordinated a wide variety of socioeconomic processes
       and cooperated with other large-scale transportation and communication systems. For
       example, the railroads enabled national markets with converging prices for food grains
       [to reduce the gap between prices] to emerge in the 188os; the same railroads made it possible
       for peasant villagers to undertake quick pilgrimages (within a few days or less) during their
       brief respites [relief] from the demands of agriculture. The hard backbone of British colonial
       rule in India, the British soldier and his weaponry, could be quartered in fewer places in the
       knowledge that the railroads could transport troops rapidly to trouble spots. The publications
       of what became the outpourings of many presses owned by Indians and printed in Indian
       languages and in English found profitable markets. The railroads synergistically [mutually]
       cooperating with the post office facilitated the inexpensive, bulk shipments of books,
       magazines, and newspapers, among which many came to have nationalist orientations.…
                                   Source: Ian J. Kerr, Engines of Change: The Railroads That Made India, Praeger
9 According to Ian Kerr, what were two changes that resulted from the British building railroads? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


63.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Technological advancements such as the combined use of the bow and the
                stirrup by the Mongols, the use of the caravel by the Spanish, and the use of
                the railroad in India have affected how certain civilizations and societies have
                interacted with each other. Changes have resulted from these interactions.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
               write an essay in which you
                  Select two technological advancements mentioned in the historical context and
                  for each
                  • Explain how this technological advancement affected the interactions of a
                     specific civilization or society with another group
                  • Discuss changes that resulted from these interactions
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents June 2013 Exam


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