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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2015 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Materials are transported within a single-celled
  organism by the
  (1) nucleus              (3) mitochondrion
  (2) cytoplasm            (4) ribosome
Answer: 2

2.
2 Which row in the chart below correctly pairs a
  food molecule with its building block?

Answer: 3

3.
3 The flow of energy in an ecosystem is best
  described as energy moving in
  (1) one direction from the Sun to the producers
      and then to the consumers
  (2) one direction from a consumer to a
      producer and then to the Sun as heat and
      light
  (3) two directions between the producers that
      are present
  (4) two directions, back and forth, between the
      producers and the consumers
Answer: 1


4.
4 Occasionally, during pregnancy, the placenta can
  separate from the uterus. This causes a
  disruption in development and sometimes death
  of the fetus. Harm to the developing fetus might
  occur because the placenta
  (1) transfers oxygen and nutrients to the fetal
      blood
  (2) sends maternal blood into the fetus
  (3) supplies milk for the fetus
  (4) breaks down wastes of the fetus
Answer: 1

5.
5 Which process produces only identical offspring?
  (1) meiotic cell division (3) cloning
  (2) selective breeding    (4) fertilization
Answer: 3

6.
6 A photograph of human cells as seen with a
  compound light microscope is shown below. A
  cell structure is labeled A.
Structure A is most likely a
(1) mitochondrion that synthesizes food for the
    cell
(2) nucleus that is the site of food storage
(3) mitochondrion that absorbs energy from the
    Sun
(4) nucleus that is responsible for the storage of
    information
Answer: 4

7.
7 A land-dwelling organism, A, and an aquatic
  single-celled organism, B, are represented
  below.
Which statement best explains how A and B are
able to survive in their environments?
(1) The organelles in B perform similar functions
    to the organ systems in A.
(2) The transport system in B is more complex
    than the transport system in A.
(3) Both A and B take in oxygen from the water.
(4) Only A can pass on traits to offspring.
Answer: 1

8.
8 A man is exposed to large amounts of ultraviolet
  radiation while sunbathing at the beach. This
  exposure causes a genetic change in the DNA of
  a skin cell. In the future, this change can be
  passed on to
  (1) his male and female children
  (2) his male children, only
  (3) all cells in his body
  (4) his skin cells, only
Answer: 4

9.
9 Palm oil, produced from palm trees, is not only a
  biofuel, but is also used in food additives,
  cosmetics, and lubricants. Palm tree plantations
  are now cultivated in areas that were formerly
  natural forests. One ecological concern raised by
  this expansion is that
  (1) the natural forest ecosystem may harm the
      palm trees
  (2) the use of the land for agriculture will
      increase the biodiversity of the area
  (3) humans are changing the basic processes of
      the palm trees
  (4) planting large expanses of one crop reduces
      the biodiversity of the area
Answer: 4

10.
10 Fishermen have harvested certain fish to the
   point where the population of that fish is
   decreasing. This level of direct harvesting could
   cause
   (1) ecosystems to be improved for future
       generations
   (2) ecosystems to be severely damaged
   (3) the restoration of environmental stability
   (4) all other fish species to increase in number
Answer: 2

11.
11 Which phrase best describes a gene?
   (1) a segment of a DNA molecule found only in
       the body cells of an organism
   (2) a segment of a DNA molecule found only in
       the gametes of an organism
   (3) a segment of a DNA molecule that contains
       the instructions for producing a trait in an
       organism
   (4) a segment of a DNA molecule that contains
       the instructions for producing all the
       characteristics of an organism
Answer: 3

12.
12 The molecule DNA contains the four bases
   listed below.
                 A – adenine
                 C – cytosine
                 G – guanine
                 T – thymine
  Which base pairings normally occur during
  DNA replication?
  (1) Guanine pairs with cytosine. Thymine pairs
      with thymine.
  (2) Adenine pairs with thymine. Cytosine pairs
      with guanine.
  (3) Thymine pairs with guanine. Cytosine pairs
      with adenine.
  (4) Cytosine pairs with cytosine. Thymine pairs
      with thymine.
Answer: 2

13.
13 Evolution of a species could occur as a result of
   changes in the
   (1) DNA in muscle cells
   (2) base sequences in liver cells
   (3) genes in an egg cell
   (4) number of chromosomes in a fetal bone cell
Answer: 3

14.
14 One positive impact that industrialization has
   had is that
   (1) industrialization produces waste gases that
       pollute the air
   (2) fossil fuels used by industries help reduce
       finite resources
   (3) industrialization has been a source of many
       jobs for people
   (4) new technologies have increased acid rain
Answer: 3

15.
15 When receiving x rays, individuals wear a lead
   shield over major organs in order to limit the
   body’s exposure to radiation. One reason for this
   procedure is to
   (1) protect the patient against broken bones
   (2) prevent mutations in gametes
   (3) improve circulation in the patient
   (4) increase the chance of a change in DNA
Answer: 2


16.
16 When an ant in a colony dies, the live ants will
   throw the dead ant out of the anthill. If a live ant
   from the colony, ant X, is sprayed with a chemi-
   cal characteristic of dead ants, the live ants will
   repeatedly throw this ant out of the anthill until
   they can no longer detect the chemical on ant X.
   What is the best explanation for this behavior?
   (1) The ants are responding to a chromosomal
       mutation in ant X.
   (2) The chemical is exhibiting a feedback mech-
       anism.
   (3) The live ants must continue this behavior
       until they have eliminated ant X.
   (4) The chemical acts as a stimulus for a partic-
       ular behavior.
Answer: 4

17.
17 Rabbits produce large numbers of offspring
   during each reproductive season, yet the
   number of rabbits within a given population
   changes very little from year to year. The
   stability of the population size is most likely the
   result of
   (1) the development of mutations in young
       rabbits
   (2) environmental factors that keep the
       population in check
   (3) rabbits continuing to reproduce when the
       population is large
   (4) the survival of more female rabbits than
       male rabbits
Answer: 2

18.
18 Genetic engineering has the potential to correct
   human genetic disorders. In gene therapy, a
   defective gene is replaced by using a virus to
   insert a normal gene into the cells of an
   individual. This treatment will be most
   successful if the virus is inserted into cells that
   (1) lack a nucleus
   (2) are recycled after death, rather than
       removed from the body
   (3) carry out one specific function, rather than
       multiple functions
   (4) continue to divide during the life of the
       patient
Answer: 4

19.
19 In one town, some people support a proposal to
   build a shopping mall on a large, undeveloped
   lot, because it would increase business and
   create new jobs. As a trade-off, the shopping
   mall would cause a decrease in the
   (1) amount of air pollution
   (2) volume of garbage and litter
   (3) amount of wastewater entering the local
       sewage system
   (4) variety of wildlife populations in the area
Answer: 4

20.
20 The human female reproductive system is
   represented below.
Which structure produces chemicals that
regulate the reproductive cycle?
(1) A                    (3) C
(2) B                    (4) D
Answer: 1

21.
21 The diagram below represents a cell structure
   involved in converting energy stored in organic
   molecules into a form used by animal cells.
The arrows represent the movement of which
substances?
(1) carbon dioxide and sugar
(2) oxygen and ATP
(3) ATP and carbon dioxide
(4) oxygen and sugar
Answer: 3

22.
22 The diagram below shows a concept map.
Which label correctly identifies what X represents in the concept map?
(1) nucleus                                                (3) autotrophic cell
(2) chromosome                                             (4) heterotrophic cell
Answer: 3

23.
23 The diagrams below represent two molecules that are involved in metabolic activities in some living cells.
The shape of each of the molecules is important because
(1) molecules having different shapes are always found in different organisms
(2) the shape of a molecule determines how it functions in chemical reactions
(3) the shape of a molecule determines the age of an organism
(4) if the shape of any molecule in an organism changes, the DNA in that organism will also change
Answer: 2

24.
24 In the early 1900s, experiments were conducted on two caterpillar species. The members of the two species
   were each divided into two groups. One group of each species was placed under red light, while the other
   group of each species was kept in the dark. When the caterpillars developed into butterflies, their wings
   showed extreme color differences. Exposure to red light resulted in intensely colored wings, while those
   kept in the dark had paler wing colors. The color differences were most likely due to
   (1) mutations in the color-producing genes
   (2) the caterpillars in the red light producing more DNA
   (3) gene expression being affected by the environment
   (4) the caterpillars in the dark evolving less than those in the light
Answer: 3

25.
25 A student used a microscope to observe a single-celled organism. As he watched, it looked as if the
   organism split into two cells. He made drawings, shown below, of the organism over a short period of time.
Which process did the student record in his drawings?
(1) genetic engineering                                 (3) selective breeding
(2) asexual reproduction                                (4) gamete formation
Answer: 2

26.
26 Medical professionals are concerned with the
   increase in the number of bacterial species that
   are resistant to antibiotics. Once resistance
   appears in a bacterial population, it spreads
   rapidly. This is most likely because
   (1) populations of resistant bacteria are small
   (2) exposure to antibiotics increases the rate of
       reproduction in bacteria
   (3) resistant bacteria are small when compared
       to non-resistant bacteria.
   (4) resistant bacteria survive in greater numbers
       and pass the trait to their offspring
Answer: 4

27.
27 When getting a vaccination, which substance is
   injected into the body?
   (1) bacteria to combat a pathogen
   (2) white blood cells to engulf a pathogen
   (3) a weakened form of a virus
   (4) antibiotics to kill a virus
Answer: 3

28.
28 Many beverage companies are required to
   recycle bottles and cans because this activity
   directly reduces
   (1) air pollution and destruction of the ozone
       shield
   (2) overpopulation and soil erosion
   (3) solid waste and depletion of resources
   (4) thermal pollution and extinction of wildlife
Answer: 3

29.
29 The diagram below shows some of the DNA in a
   bacterium into which a human gene, X, has been
   successfully inserted.
The bacteria that result from reproduction of
this cell will most likely have the ability to
(1) replicate all of the genetic instructions found
    in humans
(2) produce vaccines to be used to immunize
    humans
(3) produce a human blood cell according to
    instructions in gene X
(4) produce the human protein coded for by
    gene X
Answer: 4

30.
30 The Eurasian water milfoil is a nonnative
   species, which was once commonly sold as an
   aquarium plant, and is now found growing in
   many lakes in New York State. It has few
   natural enemies, and grows rapidly, crowding
   out many native species. This plant ruins fishing
   areas and interferes with boating and other
   water sports. This is an example of
   (1) human consumption of finite resources
   (2) an unintended consequence of adding an
       organism to an ecosystem
   (3) an abiotic factor having a negative effect on
       an ecosystem
   (4) the introduction of a species that has
       increased the long-term biodiversity of an
       ecosystem
Answer: 2


31.
                                                  Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
 31 The graph below shows the size of a population of foxes over a period of years.
If the line did not stay around the carrying capacity, but continued to rise, which concept would this graph
best illustrate?
(1) environmental stability                                  (3) behavioral change
(2) genetic variety                                          (4) overproduction
Answer: 4

32.
32 A food web is represented below.
Which organism would receive the least amount of transferred solar energy?
(1) grasses                                             (3) frogs
(2) owls                                                (4) field mice
Answer: 2

33.
33 Birch bolete is a fungus that normally grows on the roots of birch trees in New York State. During the life
   of the fungus and the birch, each organism receives nutrients from the various biochemical processes of the
   other. According to this information, it can be inferred that these two species
   (1) are both predators                                      (3) require a similar soil pH
   (2) require the same amount of sunlight                     (4) recycle the remains of dead organisms
Answer: 3

34.
34 The photographs below show different varieties of cattle and characteristics of each variety.
Which statement best explains the development of variety C?
(1) Nuclei from body cells taken from variety A were inserted into egg cells lacking nuclei taken from
    variety B.
(2) Selective breeding was used to combine desirable traits from both varieties A and B.
(3) The need to adapt to changes in the environment led to the selection of advantageous characteristics in
    the offspring of variety B.
(4) Mutations that occurred in the body cells of variety A were passed on to the offspring generation after
    generation.
Answer: 2

35.
35 The diagram below represents a remora fish attached to a shark.
A remora fish has an adhesive disk or sucker on its head, which it uses to attach itself to larger fishes, such
as sharks. This attachment causes the shark no harm. The remora fish eat scraps of food that the sharks drop
as they feed. This is an example of
(1) an adaptation to a specialized niche
(2) an adaptation of a successful parasite
(3) competition between two fish species for food
(4) competition for abiotic resources
Answer: 1

36.
36 Each row in the chart below represents a different population of the same species of insect. Which row
   shows the population with the greatest chance of survival in a changing environment?

Answer: 1

37.
37 The development of nerve, muscle, and skin cells is represented in the diagram below.
Which statement best explains how each of the different cell types can develop from the same embryo?
(1) The cells have identical genetic instructions, but different parts of these instructions are being
    expressed in each cell.
(2) The cells have identical genetic instructions, and all parts of these instructions are being expressed in
    each cell.
(3) The cells are produced by asexual reproduction and contain identical genetic instructions.
(4) The cells contain genetic instructions from two different parents and will express the instructions from
    one parent, only.
Answer: 1

38.
38 The graph below represents the effect of pH on three different enzymes at normal body temperature.
The graph illustrates that enzymes 1, 2, and 3
(1) are not affected by pH                       (3) work best in an acidic environment
(2) work best at different pH levels             (4) work best in a basic environment
Answer: 2

39.
39 The human male reproductive system is represented below.
Which structure produces cells that have the potential to become gametes?
(1) A                                                     (3) C
(2) B                                                     (4) D
Answer: 1

40.
40 Some scientists have collected and stored seeds for many types of food-producing plants. The purpose of
   this is to
   (1) increase the destruction of environments            (3) decrease the dependence on plants for food
   (2) continue the deforestation of world ecosystems      (4) preserve the diversity of plant species
Answer: 4

41.
41 Which diagram best illustrates the relationship between the number of cells, tissues, and organs in a
   complex multicellular organism?

Answer: 4

42.
   Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below, which represents an ameba engulfing
bacteria, and on your knowledge of biology.
42 This ameba would most likely be classified as a
   (1) decomposer                                    (3) consumer
   (2) producer                                      (4) pathogen
Answer: 3

43.
43 The activity taking place is
   (1) photosynthesis             (3) autotrophic nutrition
   (2) differentiation            (4) heterotrophic nutrition
Answer: 4


44.
                                                    Part B–2
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 48 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
                                            The Enzyme Catalase
             Catalase is an enzyme found in nearly all living organisms that breathe or are exposed
         to oxygen. According to recent scientific studies, low levels of catalase may play a role in the
         graying process of human hair. The body naturally produces hydrogen peroxide, and
         catalase breaks it down into water and oxygen. If there is a dip in catalase levels, hydrogen
         peroxide cannot be broken down. This causes hydrogen peroxide to bleach hair from the
         inside out. Scientists believe this finding may someday be used in anti-graying treatments
         for hair.
             A pharmaceutical company, investigating ways to prevent hair from turning gray, took
         tissue samples from two different individuals. Both individuals were the same age. Each of
         the samples was placed in a solution of hydrogen peroxide. The volume of oxygen gas
         produced was measured every 5 minutes for 25 minutes. The data the company collected
         are shown below.
                               Oxygen Production in the Breakdown of
                                     Hydrogen Peroxide by Catalase
   Directions (44–46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next
page, following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each labeled
axis.


45.
45 Plot the data from the data table for the sample from person A on the grid. Connect the points and
   surround each point with a small circle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for person A, connecting the points and
surrounding each point with a small circle.


46.
46 Plot the data from the data table for the sample from person B on the grid. Connect the points and
   surround each point with a small triangle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for person B, connecting the points, and surrounding
each point with a small triangle.
Note: Allow credit only if circles and triangles are used.
      Make no assumptions about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.
      Do not deduct more than 1 credit for plotting points that are not in the data table or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


47.
47 If the temperature of the tissue samples used in the experiment had been raised from 37°C (body
   temperature) to 50°C, the results would have been different because
   (1) more enzymes are produced at higher temperatures, increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide
   (2) more hydrogen peroxide is released at higher temperatures, increasing the activity of catalase
   (3) increasing temperatures altered the structure of catalase, decreasing oxygen production
   (4) increasing temperatures decreased the synthesis of amino acids, increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide
Answer: 3

48.
48 According to the data provided, which person, A or B, is more likely to be the first to have gray hair?
   Support your answer. [1]
   Person: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for person A and supporting your answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — because their tissue sample produced a lower amount of oxygen, indicating a lower amount
     of catalase
   — They have less catalase than person B because less oxygen is being released.
   — They have less catalase so more peroxide is present.


49.
    Base your answers to questions 49 through 52 on the information and graph below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             An investigation was carried out to determine the effect of drinking an excessive amount
         of water on urine flow. A subject drank 1 liter of water in 5 minutes, and then urine output
         was measured. The graph shows how the human adult kidneys responded to regulate water
         balance in the body. Urine output was measured every 10 minutes for a little over 3 hours.
         Normal output for an average adult is approximately 0.5–1 mL/min.
                                        Urine Production in an Adult
                                        with Normal Kidney Function
49 One half-hour after the liter of water was consumed, the urine produced by the kidneys was
   (1) between 2 and 3 mL/min                                (3) eight times greater than normal
   (2) between 4 and 5 mL/min                                (4) below the normal range
Answer: 1

50.
50 The change in urine production during this 3-hour period was most likely the result of
   (1) antibody production
   (2) homeostatic feedback
   (3) enzymatic breakdown of the water consumed
   (4) nerve cell malfunctions of the kidneys
Answer: 2

51.
51 Identify a structure, in organisms that do not have kidneys, that is adapted to regulate water balance. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — cell membrane
   — guard cells/stomate
   — vacuole/contractile vacuoles


52.
52 Approximately how long did it take, in minutes, for the body to return to normal after the intake of water?
   [1]
   _______ minutes
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for an answer between 150 minutes and 190 minutes.
Note: Do not accept 3 hours.


53.
   Base your answers to questions 53 through 55 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
              The data table summarizes the changes that occurred to farmland in the years
         immediately following its abandonment. The land is located in a very stable ecosystem. It
         was abandoned after years of overuse and weathering, which resulted in the depletion of
         soil nutrients.
                               Common Types of Vegetation Present
53 Which type of vegetation appears to have the lowest soil nutrient requirements? Support your answer with
   information from the data table. [1]
   Lowest soil nutrient requirement vegetation: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for grasses or weeds or grasses and weeds and supporting the answer. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They are the first plants/vegetation to grow on the abandoned farmland.
   — They grow in soil depleted of nutrients.


54.
54 Assuming the ecosystem remains undisturbed, which type of vegetation would you expect to be most
   common in this area 200 years after it was first abandoned? Support your answer. [1]
   Most common vegetation: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for hardwood forest and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but
are not limited to:
   — They make up the climax community and will remain the most common plant until the
     environment changes.
   — The hardwood forest will remain because it is the most stable.
   — They were the climax species because they replaced all the others and existed from year 70
     on.


55.
55 Describe how the types of vegetation present on this farmland would change if a fire burned down all the
   trees 120 years after the land was abandoned. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Grasses and weeds would become the most common plants once again.
   — Ecological succession would start again with grasses and weeds growing.
   — The trees would be gone and replaced by grasses and weeds.



56.
                                                  Part C
                                 Answer all questions in this part.     [17]
   Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
    Base your answer to question 56–58 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of
biology.
            The photograph below is part of an advertisement used by a company selling solar
         panels. The company claims that their panels, like plants, provide clean, renewable energy.
         They also claim that using solar panels will have a positive effect on the biosphere by
         reducing global warming.
56–58 Explain why these claims are valid. In your answer, be sure to:
      • explain why both plants and solar panels provide renewable energy, rather than nonrenewable
        energy [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for explaining why both plants and solar panels provide renewable energy, rather
than nonrenewable energy. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The Sun provides energy for both solar panels and plants that is continually being released.
   — The Sun is the energy source for both solar panels and plants and the energy is renewable.


57.
• state how the widespread use of solar panels to generate electricity can help to reduce global
  warming [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how the widespread use of solar panels to generate electricity can help
to reduce global warming. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Fewer fossil fuels would be used, resulting in a decrease of global warming.
   — Using solar panels would decrease the amount of greenhouse gasses/carbon dioxide.


58.
• state how the energy-capturing process used by plants worldwide can help to reduce global
  warming [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating how the energy-capturing process used by plants worldwide can help to
reduce global warming. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Carbon dioxide increases global warming and photosynthesis takes carbon dioxide out of
     the air.
   — Plants remove carbon dioxide from the air.
   — Photosynthesis removes carbon dioxide from the air.


59.
  Base your answers to questions 59 and 60 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology
            Fungi are interesting organisms that interact with humans in many ways. Yeasts are
        fungi used in the food industry to produce products such as bread and certain beverages.
        Some fungi are valuable in medicine. For example, the drug cyclosporine, which is capable
        of suppressing the response of the immune system to foreign antigens, and the antibiotic
        penicillin are both products from fungi. Other fungi are less welcomed by humans.
        The irritation of athlete’s foot is caused by a fungus, and a number of allergies are caused
        by reproductive spores released by fungi.
59 Describe the role of a drug like cyclosporine when transplanting organs from one person to another
   person. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The transplanted organ contains foreign antigens. Cyclosporine suppresses the immune
     response to these antigens.
   — It stops rejection of the organ.
   — It suppresses the response of the immune system.


60.
60 Explain the difference between an infection caused by a fungus and an allergy caused by a fungus. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — An infection involves an actual pathogen that attacks the human organism. An allergy is an
     immune response to a harmless substance in the environment.
   — An infection is caused by a microbe and an allergy is an immune response.
   — An infection is usually caused by a harmful organism and an allergy is a response to a
     substance that is not usually harmful.


61.
  Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Female mosquitoes need a meal of blood from a person or other animal in order to
        produce eggs. It has been discovered that mosquitoes have cells on their antennae that can
        detect the insect repellent known as DEET. The repellent is not harmful to mosquitoes, but
        when mosquitoes detect DEET, they will not land on the surface where the DEET has
        been applied. This protects people from being bitten by mosquitoes.
            Recently, scientists found some mosquitoes that are resistant to DEET because they do
        not detect its presence. They bred these mosquitoes and eventually produced a population
        consisting of about 50% DEET-resistant insects.
61 Identify the process most likely responsible for a mosquito initially becoming resistant to DEET. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — mutation
   — recombination during fertilization
   — sexual reproduction


62.
62 Mosquitoes with DEET resistance have been found in natural environments. Explain how the continued
   use of this repellent may cause the percentage of these resistant mosquitoes to increase in the future. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
      — Mosquitoes resistant to DEET will land on people and bite them and be able to reproduce
        successfully, while some of those not resistant will not be able to get blood and reproduce.
      — Mosquitoes that do not detect the presence of DEET will land on people and bite them
        and then be able to reproduce.
  Note: Do not accept answers indicating that “DEET kills the mosquitoes, so DEET-resistant
        mosquitoes survive and reproduce.”


63.
  Base your answers to questions 63 through 67 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Ocean-dwelling (marine) iguanas and land iguanas inhabit the Galapagos Islands. Some
        scientists believe that both types of iguanas diverged from a common ancestor. Marine
        iguanas eat algae. Land iguanas feed on cacti. Algae are more abundant in the ocean than
        cacti are on the islands. Both species lay their eggs in the sand.
            Rats, cats, and goats have been introduced to the islands by humans. Rats feed on
        iguana eggs, cats eat baby iguanas, and goats eat cacti.
63 Identify the process by which ancestral iguanas developed into the present-day marine iguanas and land
   iguanas of the Galapagos Islands. [1]
   Process: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — evolution/natural selection
   — adaptive radiation
   — speciation


64.
64 Identify one organism in the Galapagos Islands that directly limits the population of both the marine
   iguanas and land iguanas. [1]
   Organism: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for rats or cats.
Note: Do not allow credit for goats since they do not compete with marine iguana for food.


65.
65 Which population of iguanas, marine or land, would you expect to be larger? Support your answer. [1]
   Population of iguana:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marine and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — The population is larger because their food supply is greater than that of the land iguanas.


66.
66 Would the introduction of goats have a greater effect on the population of the marine iguanas or the land
   iguanas? Support your answer. [1]
   Population of iguana:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for land and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not
limited to:
   — These iguanas would be affected more because the goats are land animals and would
     compete for the cacti.
   — Goats will also eat cacti.


67.
67 Identify one technique that can be used to support the conclusion that these two species of iguana
   developed from a common ancestor. [1]
   Technique:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — gel electrophoresis
   — chromatography
   — electrophoresis
   — DNA fingerprinting


68.
    Base your answer to question 68–72 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             The presence of air is believed to be important for root growth in bean plants. The
         apparatus available to conduct an investigation is shown below. There are enough bottles and
         other materials to have multiple setups. Air (for aeration) can be bubbled into the bottle
         through the rubber tube.
68–72 Design an experiment to test the effect of aeration on the growth of roots of bean seedlings. In your
      answer, be sure to:
      • state one hypothesis the experiment would test [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one hypothesis the experiment would test. Acceptable responses include,
but are not limited to:
   — Roots of bean plant seedlings grown in aerated nutrient solution will grow faster than roots
     of seedlings grown without aeration of the nutrient solution.
   — Bubbling air into the nutrient solution will lead to more root growth.
   — If air is bubbled into the nutrient solution, then the roots will grow more rapidly.
   — Air is important for root growth in bean plants.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


69.
• describe how the control group will be treated differently from the experimental group [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing how the control group will be treated differently from the
experimental group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The control group will have no aeration.
   — No air will be pumped through the rubber tube.


70.
• identify the dependent variable in the experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for identifying the dependent variable in the experiment. Acceptable responses
include, but are not limited to:
   — number of roots
   — length of roots
   — rate of root growth
Note: Allow credit for an answer consistent with the student’s hypothesis in question 68.


71.
• state one reason why many setups should be used in both the experimental and control groups [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why many setups should be used in both the experimental and
control groups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Many setups provide more data for drawing a valid conclusion.
   — so your conclusion will be valid


72.
• state one reason why several different kinds of seedlings were not tested in this experiment [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why several different kinds of seedlings were not tested in this
experiment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
       — This experiment was done to test the presence of air on root growth in bean seedlings
         only.
       — There should be only one variable.



73.
                                                   Part D
                                 Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
73 The buildup of waste products in muscle cells that are active might cause
   (1) digestion                                             (3) increased fatigue
   (2) cellular respiration                                  (4) decreased heart rate
Answer: 3

74.
74 The diagram below shows the evolutionary relationships among several types of mammals.

Answer: 2

75.
    Base your answers to questions 75 and 76 on the information and data table below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             A group of students obtained the following data while trying to determine the effect of
         exercise on pulse rate.
                                  Effect of Exercise on Pulse Rate
75 Which statement is an example of an observation the students could have made?
   (1) Pulse rates in beats per minute decrease for all people after exercise.
   (2) Student A most likely exercises regularly.
   (3) The pulse rate of student C was dangerously low.
   (4) The pulse rate of student F increased by 30 beats per minute.
Answer: 4

76.
76 Which two body systems were most actively involved in this experiment?
   (1) respiratory and immune                              (3) respiratory and circulatory
   (2) digestive and endocrine                             (4) immune and circulatory
Answer: 3

77.
77 The diagram below represents a green plant cell viewed with the high power of a compound light
   microscope before and after a particular substance was added.
Identify a substance that could have been added to the slide to bring about the change shown. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — salt
   — salt solution


78.
78 Using the DNA base sequences below, identify which two species are more closely related. Support your
   answer. [1]
Species: _______ and _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for A and B and for supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — They have more bases in common.
   — Their DNA sequences are more similar.
   — They have only one difference.


79.
79 A student observing onion cells using a microscope was having difficulty seeing any detail in the cells. State
   one action the student could take to improve the detail. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — add stain
   — adjust the diaphragm
   — use a higher magnification
   — adjust fine/coarse adjustment knob
   — add water to the slide
   — clean the lens


80.
   Base your answers to questions 80 and 81 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents the results of paper chromatography performed on extracts from five organisms.
80 Identify one pigment molecule common to all five organisms. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — beta carotene
   — chlorophyll a
   — the pigment molecule that causes the yellow-orange band


81.
81 Which two organisms are most closely related?
   (1) cyanobacteria and green algae               (3) brown algae and red algae
   (2) red algae and spinach                       (4) red algae and cyanobacteria
Answer: 4

82.
   Base your answers to questions 82 through 84 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram shows variations in the beaks of finches in the Galapagos Islands.
82 In this diagram, the variety of beak sizes and shapes are adaptations directly related to successful
   (1) feeding                                                (3) defense
   (2) camouflage                                             (4) singing
Answer: 1

83.
83 State one reason why the large ground finch and the woodpecker finch can live successfully on the same
   island. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The two finches eat different kinds of food.
   — The woodpecker finch eats insects and the large ground finch eats seeds.
   — They do not compete for the same resources.


84.
84 Identify one finch in the diagram that is least likely to compete with any of the other finches. Support your
   answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for the cactus finch or vegetarian tree finch and supporting the answer. Acceptable
responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The cactus finch, because it is the only one that eats cactus.
   — The vegetarian tree finch is the only one that is a fruit eater.


85.
85 State one reason why a molecule may not be able to pass into or out of a cell. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — too large to pass through the cell membrane
   — no receptor site
   — faulty receptor site
   — molecule is charged



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