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Physical Setting / Physics - New York Regents June 2014 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–35): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2006 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

1 Which quantity is scalar?
  (1) mass                  (3) momentum
  (2) force                 (4) acceleration
Answer: 1

2 What is the final speed of an object that starts
  from rest and accelerates uniformly at 4.0 meters
  per second2 over a distance of 8.0 meters?
  (1) 8.0 m/s               (3) 32 m/s
  (2) 16 m/s                (4) 64 m/s
Answer: 1

3 The components of a 15-meters-per-second
  velocity at an angle of 60.° above the horizontal
  are
  (1) 7.5 m/s vertical and 13 m/s horizontal
  (2) 13 m/s vertical and 7.5 m/s horizontal
  (3) 6.0 m/s vertical and 9.0 m/s horizontal
  (4) 9.0 m/s vertical and 6.0 m/s horizontal
Answer: 2


4 What is the time required for an object starting
  from rest to fall freely 500. meters near Earth’s
  surface?
  (1) 51.0 s                 (3) 10.1 s
  (2) 25.5 s                 (4) 7.14 s
Answer: 3

5 A baseball bat exerts a force of magnitude F on a
  ball. If the mass of the bat is three times the mass
  of the ball, the magnitude of the force of the ball
  on the bat is
  (1) F                       (3) 3F
  (2) 2F                      (4) F/3
Answer: 1

6 A 2.0-kilogram mass is located 3.0 meters above
  the surface of Earth. What is the magnitude of
  Earth’s gravitational field strength at this
  location?
  (1) 4.9 N/kg             (3) 9.8 N/kg
  (2) 2.0 N/kg             (4) 20. N/kg
Answer: 3

7 A truck, initially traveling at a speed of 22 meters
  per second, increases speed at a constant rate of
  2.4 meters per second2 for 3.2 seconds. What is
  the total distance traveled by the truck during
  this 3.2-second time interval?
  (1) 12 m                     (3) 70. m
  (2) 58 m                     (4) 83 m
Answer: 4

8 A 750-newton person stands in an elevator that is
  accelerating downward. The upward force of the
  elevator floor on the person must be
  (1) equal to 0 N          (3) equal to 750 N
  (2) less than 750 N       (4) greater than 750 N
Answer: 2

9 A 3.0-kilogram object is acted upon by an
  impulse      having    a      magnitude  of
  15 newton•seconds. What is the magnitude of
  the object’s change in momentum due to this
  impulse?
  (1) 5.0 kg•m/s           (3) 3.0 kg•m/s
  (2) 15 kg•m/s            (4) 45 kg•m/s
Answer: 2

10 An air bag is used to safely decrease the
   momentum of a driver in a car accident. The air
   bag reduces the magnitude of the force acting on
   the driver by
   (1) increasing the length of time the force acts
       on the driver
   (2) decreasing the distance over which the force
       acts on the driver
   (3) increasing the rate of acceleration of the
       driver
   (4) decreasing the mass of the driver
Answer: 1

11 An electron moving at constant speed produces
   (1) a magnetic field, only
   (2) an electric field, only
   (3) both a magnetic and an electric field
   (4) neither a magnetic nor an electric field
Answer: 3

12 A beam of electrons passes through an electric
   field where the magnitude of the electric field
   strength is 3.00 × 103 newtons per coulomb.
   What is the magnitude of the electrostatic force
   exerted by the electric field on each electron in
   the beam?
   (1) 5.33 × 10−23 N         (3) 3.00 × 103 N
   (2) 4.80 × 10−16 N         (4) 1.88 × 1022 N
Answer: 2

13 How much work is required to move
   3.0 coulombs of electric charge a distance of
   0.010 meter through a potential difference of
   9.0 volts?
   (1) 2.7 × 103 J         (3) 3.0 J
   (2) 27 J                (4) 3.0 × 10−2 J
Answer: 2

14 What is the resistance of a 20.0-meter-long
   tungsten rod with a cross-sectional area of
   1.00 × 10−4 meter2 at 20°C?
   (1) 2.80 × 10−5 Ω        (3) 89.3 Ω
                
   (2) 1.12 × 10−2 Ω          (4) 112 Ω
Answer: 2

15 Two pieces of flint rock produce a visible spark
   when they are struck together. During this
   process, mechanical energy is converted into
   (1) nuclear energy and electromagnetic energy
   (2) internal energy and nuclear energy
   (3) electromagnetic energy and internal energy
   (4) elastic potential energy and nuclear energy
Answer: 3

16 A 15-kilogram cart is at rest on a horizontal
   surface. A 5-kilogram box is placed in the cart.
   Compared to the mass and inertia of the cart, the
   cart-box system has
   (1) more mass and more inertia
   (2) more mass and the same inertia
   (3) the same mass and more inertia
   (4) less mass and more inertia
Answer: 1

17 Transverse waves are to radio waves as
   longitudinal waves are to
   (1) light waves           (3) ultraviolet waves
   (2) microwaves            (4) sound waves
Answer: 4

18 As a monochromatic light ray passes from air
   into water, two characteristics of the ray that will
   not change are
   (1) wavelength and period
   (2) frequency and period
   (3) wavelength and speed
   (4) frequency and speed
Answer: 2

19 When a mass is placed on a spring with a spring
   constant of 60.0 newtons per meter, the spring is
   compressed 0.500 meter. How much energy is
   stored in the spring?
   (1) 60.0 J               (3) 15.0 J
   (2) 30.0 J               (4) 7.50 J
Answer: 4

20 A boy pushes his sister on a swing. What is the
   frequency of oscillation of his sister on the swing
   if the boy counts 90. complete swings in 300.
   seconds?
   (1) 0.30 Hz                (3) 1.5 Hz
   (2) 2.0 Hz                 (4) 18 Hz
Answer: 1

21 What is the period of a sound wave having a
   frequency of 340. hertz?
   (1) 3.40 × 102 s         (3) 9.73 × 10−1 s
   (2) 1.02 × 100 s         (4) 2.94 × 10−3 s
Answer: 4

22 An MP3 player draws a current of 0.120 ampere
   from a 3.00-volt battery. What is the total charge
   that passes through the player in 900. seconds?
   (1) 324 C                 (3) 5.40 C
   (2) 108 C                 (4) 1.80 C
Answer: 2

23 A beam of light has a wavelength of 4.5 × 10−7
   meter in a vacuum. The frequency of this light is
   (1) 1.5 × 10−15 Hz       (3) 1.4 × 102 Hz
   (2) 4.5 × 10−7 Hz        (4) 6.7 × 1014 Hz
Answer: 4

24 When x-ray radiation and infrared radiation are
   traveling in a vacuum, they have the same
   (1) speed                 (3) wavelength
   (2) frequency             (4) energy per photon
Answer: 1

25 The diagram below represents two identical
   pulses approaching each other in a uniform
   medium.
As the pulses meet and are superposed, the
maximum displacement of the medium is
(1) −6 cm             (3) 3 cm
(2) 0 cm              (4) 6 cm
Answer: 4

26 As a car approaches a pedestrian crossing the
   road, the driver blows the horn. Compared to
   the sound wave emitted by the horn, the sound
   wave detected by the pedestrian has a
   (1) higher frequency and a lower pitch
   (2) higher frequency and a higher pitch
   (3) lower frequency and a higher pitch
   (4) lower frequency and a lower pitch
Answer: 2

27 When air is blown across the top of an open
   water bottle, air molecules in the bottle vibrate
   at a particular frequency and sound is produced.
   This phenomenon is called
   (1) diffraction            (3) resonance
   (2) refraction             (4) the Doppler effect
Answer: 3

28 An antibaryon composed of two antiup quarks
   and one antidown quark would have a charge of
   (1) +1e                (3) 0e
   (2) −1e                (4) −3e
Answer: 2

29 Which force is responsible for producing a stable
   nucleus by opposing the electrostatic force of
   repulsion between protons?
   (1) strong                (3) frictional
   (2) weak                  (4) gravitational
Answer: 1

30 What is the total energy released when
   9.11 × 10−31 kilogram of mass is converted into
   energy?
   (1) 2.73 × 10−22 J       (3) 9.11 × 10−31 J
   (2) 8.20 × 10−14 J       (4) 1.01 × 10−47 J
Answer: 2

31 A shopping cart slows as it moves along a level floor. Which statement describes the energies of the cart?
   (1) The kinetic energy increases and the gravitational potential energy remains the same.
   (2) The kinetic energy increases and the gravitational potential energy decreases.
   (3) The kinetic energy decreases and the gravitational potential energy remains the same.
   (4) The kinetic energy decreases and the gravitational potential energy increases.
Answer: 3

32 Two identically-sized metal spheres, A and B, are on insulating stands, as shown in the diagram below.
   Sphere A possesses an excess of 6.3 × 1010 electrons and sphere B is neutral.
Which diagram best represents the charge distribution on sphere B?

Answer: 4

33 Two points, A and B, are located within the electric field produced by a −3.0 nanocoulomb charge. Point A
   is 0.10 meter to the left of the charge and point B is 0.20 meter to the right of the charge, as shown in the
   diagram below.
Compared to the magnitude of the electric field strength at point A, the magnitude of the electric field
strength at point B is
(1) half as great                                       (3) one-fourth as great
(2) twice as great                                      (4) four times as great
Answer: 3

34 The diagram below represents two waves, A and B, traveling through the same uniform medium.
Which characteristic is the same for both waves?
(1) amplitude                                      (3) period
(2) frequency                                      (4) wavelength
Answer: 1

35 The diagram below shows a periodic wave.
Which two points on the wave are 180.° out of phase?
(1) A and C                                            (3) F and G
(2) B and E                                            (4) D and H
Answer: 1


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (36–50): For each statement or question, choose the word or expression that, of those given, best
completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the 2006 Edition
Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics. Record your answers on your separate answer sheet.

36 The height of a 30-story building is approximately
   (1) 100 m                 (3) 102 m
   (2) 101 m                 (4) 103 m
Answer: 3

37 Two identically-sized metal spheres on insulating
   stands are positioned as shown below. The
   charge on sphere A is −4.0 × 10−6 coulomb and
   the charge on sphere B is −8.0 × 10−6 coulomb.
The two spheres are touched together and then
separated. The total number of excess electrons
on sphere A after the separation is
(1) 2.5 × 1013           (3) 5.0 × 1013
(2) 3.8 × 1013           (4) 7.5 × 1013
Answer: 2

38 A 1.0 × 103 -kilogram car travels at a constant
   speed of 20. meters per second around a
   horizontal circular track. The diameter of the
   track is 1.0 × 102 meters. The magnitude of the
   car’s centripetal acceleration is
   (1) 0.20 m/s2               (3) 8.0 m/s2
   (2) 2.0 m/s2                (4) 4.0 m/s2
Answer: 3

39 Which combination of units can be used to
   express electrical energy?
  (1) volt / coulomb
  (2) coulomb / volt
  (3) volt•coulomb
  (4) volt•coulomb•second
Answer: 3

40 The total amount of electrical energy used by a
   315-watt television during 30.0 minutes of
   operation is
   (1) 5.67 × 105 J         (3) 1.05 × 101 J
   (2) 9.45 × 103 J         (4) 1.75 × 10-1 J
Answer: 1

41 Which graph best represents the relationship
   between the absolute index of refraction and the
   speed of light ( f = 5.09 × 1014 Hz) in various
   media?

Answer: 2

42 A 25-gram paper cup falls from rest off the edge
   of a tabletop 0.90 meter above the floor. If the
   cup has 0.20 joule of kinetic energy when it hits
   the floor, what is the total amount of energy
   converted into internal (thermal) energy during
   the cup’s fall?
   (1) 0.02 J                (3) 2.2 J
   (2) 0.22 J                (4) 220 J
Answer: 1

43 Which electron transition between the energy
   levels of hydrogen causes the emission of a
   photon of visible light?
   (1) n = 6 to n = 5       (3) n = 5 to n = 2
   (2) n = 5 to n = 6       (4) n = 2 to n = 5
Answer: 3

44 Which graph best represents an object in
   equilibrium moving in a straight line?

Answer: 4

45 A body, B, is moving at constant speed in a
   horizontal circular path around point P. Which
   diagram shows the direction of the velocity (v)
   and the direction of the centripetal force (Fc)
   acting on the body?

Answer: 3

46 Which graph best represents the relationship
   between photon energy and photon wavelength?

Answer: 1

47 Which combination of initial horizontal velocity,
   (vH) and initial vertical velocity, (vv) results in the
   greatest horizontal range for a projectile over
   level ground? [Neglect friction.]

Answer: 4

48 Which graph best represents the greatest amount of work?

Answer: 2

49 When a ray of light traveling in water reaches a boundary with air, part of the light ray is reflected and part
   is refracted. Which ray diagram best represents the paths of the reflected and refracted light rays?

Answer: 2

50 The graph below represents the work done against gravity by a student as she walks up a flight of stairs at
   constant speed.
Compared to the power generated by the student after 2.0 seconds, the power generated by the student
after 4.0 seconds is
(1) the same                                          (3) half as great
(2) twice as great                                    (4) four times as great
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (51–65): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2006 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics.

  Base your answers to questions 51 through 54 on the information below and the scaled vector diagram in your
answer booklet and on your knowledge of physics.
              Two forces, a 60.-newton force east and an 80.-newton force north, act concurrently on an
          object located at point P, as shown.
       51 Using a ruler, determine the scale used in the vector diagram. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 1.0 cm = 10. N ± 1 N.


52 Draw the resultant force vector to scale on the diagram in your answer booklet. Label the vector “R.”
   [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
52 [1] Allow 1 credit for drawing the resultant vector 10.0 cm ± 0.2 cm long at an angle of 37° ± 2° east of
       north.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit if the vector is not labeled.
      Do not allow credit if the arrowhead is missing.


53 Determine the magnitude of the resultant force, R. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
53 [1] Allow 1 credit for 100. N ± 3 N.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 51 or 52.


54 Determine the measure of the angle, in degrees, between north and the resultant force, R. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
54 [1] Allow 1 credit for 37° ± 2°.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 52 or 53.


55–56 A 3.00-newton force causes a spring to stretch 60.0 centimeters. Calculate the spring constant of this
      spring. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
55 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Examples of 1-credit responses:
56 [1] Allow 1 credit for a correct answer with units.
        Examples of 1-credit responses:
            k = 5.00 N/m     or     k = 0.0500 N/cm
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 55.
              Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 55 and 56.


57 A 7.28-kilogram bowling ball traveling 8.50 meters per second east collides head-on with a
   5.45 kilogram bowling ball traveling 10.0 meters per second west. Determine the magnitude of the
   total momentum of the two-ball system after the collision. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
57 [1] Allow 1 credit for 7.4 kg•m/s   or   7.3 kg•m/s


58–59 Calculate the average power required to lift a 490-newton object a vertical distance of 2.0 meters in
      10. seconds. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
58 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
59 [1] Allow 1 credit for the correct answer with units.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
            P = 98 W
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 58.
              Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 58 and 59.


60 The diagram in your answer booklet shows wave fronts approaching an opening in a barrier. The size
   of the opening is approximately equal to one-half the wavelength of the waves. On the diagram in
   your answer booklet, draw the shape of at least three of the wave fronts after they have passed through
   this opening. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
60 [1] Allow 1 credit for at least three curved wavefronts that extend beyond the width of the opening.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Do not deduct credit for drawing wavefronts with an incorrect wavelength or not in contact
      with the barrier. If more than three lines are drawn, all must be correct to receive credit.


61 The diagram in your answer booklet shows a mechanical transverse wave traveling to the right in a
   medium. Point A represents a particle in the medium. Draw an arrow originating at point A to
   indicate the initial direction that the particle will move as the wave continues to travel to the right in
   the medium. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
61 [1] Allow 1 credit for an arrow drawn upward at point A.
        Example of a 1-credit response:


62 Regardless of the method used to generate electrical energy, the amount of energy provided by the
   source is always greater than the amount of electrical energy produced. Explain why there is a
   difference between the amount of energy provided by the source and the amount of electrical energy
   produced. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
62 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — Energy is needed to overcome friction.
            — Energy is converted into internal (thermal) energy in the moving parts.
            — Energy is converted into sound.


  Base your answers to questions 63 through 65 on the graph below, which represents the relationship between
velocity and time for a car moving along a straight line, and your knowledge of physics.
                                               Velocity vs. Time
63 Determine the magnitude of the average velocity of the car from t = 6.0 seconds to t = 10. seconds. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
63 [1] Allow 1 credit for 15 m/s.


64 Determine the magnitude of the car’s acceleration during the first 6.0 seconds. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
64 [1] Allow 1 credit for 2.5 m/s2.


65 Identify the physical quantity represented by the shaded area on the graph. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
65 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — displacement
            — distance
            — how far the car traveled



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
    Directions (66–85): Record your answers in the spaces provided in your answer booklet. Some questions
may require the use of the 2006 Edition Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics.

Base your answers to questions 66 through 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of physics.
           A student constructed a series circuit consisting of a 12.0-volt battery, a 10.0-ohm lamp, and a
       resistor. The circuit does not contain a voltmeter or an ammeter. When the circuit is operating, the
       total current through the circuit is 0.50 ampere.
    66 In the space in your answer booklet, draw a diagram of the series circuit constructed to operate the
       lamp, using symbols from the Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
66 [1] Allow 1 credit for drawing a series circuit containing a source of potential difference (a battery or
       a cell), a lamp, and one resistor.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit if the student uses two resistor symbols or two lamp symbols, instead of a lamp
      symbol and a resistor symbol.
      Do not allow credit if the student adds a voltmeter and/or an ammeter improperly to the
      circuit.


67 Determine the equivalent resistance of the circuit. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
67 [1] Allow 1 credit for 24 Ω.


68 Determine the resistance of the resistor. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
68 [1] Allow 1 credit for 14 Ω.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to questions 66 and 67.


69–70 Calculate the power consumed by the lamp. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution
      with the units.] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
69 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
70 [1] Allow 1 credit for the correct answer with units.
            P = 2.5 W
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 69.
              Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 69 and 70.


Base your answers to questions 71 through 75 on the information below and on your knowledge of physics.
          Pluto orbits the Sun at an average distance of 5.91 × 1012 meters. Pluto’s diameter is 2.30 × 106
       meters and its mass is 1.31 × 1022 kilograms.
           Charon orbits Pluto with their centers separated by a distance of 1.96 × 107 meters. Charon has
       a diameter of 1.21 × 106 meters and a mass of 1.55 × 1021 kilograms.
71–72 Calculate the magnitude of the gravitational force of attraction that Pluto exerts on Charon. [Show all
      work, including the equation and substitution with units.] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
71 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
72 [1] Allow 1 credit for a correct answer with units.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
            Fg = 3.53 × 1018 N
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 71.
              Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 71 and 72.


73–74 Calculate the magnitude of the acceleration of Charon toward Pluto. [Show all work, including the
      equation and substitution with units.] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
73 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Examples of 1-credit responses:
Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 72.
74 [1] Allow 1 credit for a correct answer with units.
        Examples of 1-credit responses:
            a = 2.28 × 10−3 m/s2    or     2.27 × 10−3 m/s2
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to questions 73 and
              74. Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 73 and 74.


75 State the reason why the magnitude of the Sun’s gravitational force on Pluto is greater than the
   magnitude of the Sun’s gravitational force on Charon. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
75 [1] Allow 1 credit for indicating that Pluto has a greater mass than Charon.
        Note: Do not allow credit for indicating only that Pluto is larger than Charon.


Base your answers to questions 76 through 80 on the information below and on your knowledge of physics.
           A horizontal 20.-newton force is applied to a 5.0-kilogram box to push it across a rough,
       horizontal floor at a constant velocity of 3.0 meters per second to the right.
    76 Determine the magnitude of the force of friction acting on the box. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
76 [1] Allow 1 credit for 20. N.


77–78 Calculate the weight of the box. [Show all work, including the equation and substitution with units.]
      [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
77 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
 Examples of 1-credit responses:
       
78 [1] Allow 1 credit for a correct answer with units.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
            Fg = 49 N
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to questions 77 and
              78. Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 77 and 78.


79–80 Calculate the coefficient of kinetic friction between the box and the floor. [Show all work, including
      the equation and substitution with units] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
79 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to questions 77 and 78.
80 [1] Allow 1 credit for a correct answer with no units.
        Examples of 1-credit responses:
            μ = 0.41     or    0.40
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 79.
              Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 79 and 80.


Base your answers to questions 81 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of physics.
           An electron traveling with a speed of 2.50 × 106 meters per second collides with a photon
       having a frequency of 1.00 × 1016 hertz. After the collision, the photon has 3.18 × 10−18 joule of
       energy.
81–82 Calculate the original kinetic energy of the electron. [Show all work, including the equation and
      substitution with units.] [2]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
81 [1] Allow 1 credit for the equation and substitution with units. Refer to Scoring Criteria for Calculations
       in this rating guide.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
82 [1] Allow 1 credit for a correct answer with units.
        Example of a 1-credit response:
            KE = 2.85 × 10−18 J
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 81.
              Do not penalize the student more than 1 credit for errors in units in questions 81 and 82.


83 Determine the energy in joules of the photon before the collision. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 6.63 × 10−18 J.


84 Determine the energy lost by the photon during the collision. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for 3.45 × 10−18 J.
        Note: Allow credit for an answer that is consistent with the student’s response to question 83.


85 Name two physical quantities conserved in the collision. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
            — mass
            — charge
            — momentum
            — energy



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