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US History and Government - New York Regents August 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 A major reason the American colonists of the
  1600s chose to settle along the seacoast and rivers
  was so that they could
  (1) export slaves
  (2) carry out trade
  (3) protect themselves from Native American
      Indians
  (4) use water power to run factory machinery
Answer: 2

2.
2 Under the British system of mercantilism, the
  American colonies served primarily as a
  (1) self-sufficient trading partner for other
      European nations
  (2) market for British manufactured goods and a
      source of raw materials
  (3) source of manpower for the British army and
      navy
  (4) buffer to the expansion of French and
      Spanish colonies
Answer: 2

3.
3 Which heading best completes the partial outline
  below?
(1)   Early Colonial Documents
(2)   Limits on Representative Government
(3)   Contributions of the Enlightenment
(4)   Foundations of American Democracy
Answer: 4


4.
4 The phrase “consent of the governed” refers to the
  (1) source of the government’s power
  (2) need to create political parties
  (3) commitment to use implied powers
  (4) development of a federal system of govern-
      ment
Answer: 1

5.
5 One weakness of the Articles of Confederation
  was the inability of the central government to
  (1) establish a postal system
  (2) collect adequate taxes from the states
  (3) control western lands
  (4) admit new states to the Union
Answer: 2

6.
6 What was a result of the Great Compromise
  during the Constitutional Convention of 1787?
  (1) creating a two-house legislature
  (2) banning slavery in Southern states
  (3) requiring that the president have a cabinet
  (4) giving the Supreme Court the power to hear
      cases involving states
Answer: 1

7.
7 Based on the United States Constitution,
  the census helps to determine the number of
  (1) presidential candidates
  (2) members of congressional subcommittees
  (3) electoral votes assigned to each state
  (4) senators from each state
Answer: 3

8.
8 A primary reason the Antifederalists opposed
  ratification of the United States Constitution in
  1787 was because the Constitution failed to
  (1) include a bill of rights
  (2) provide for a strong national defense
  (3) restrict immigration
  (4) extend voting rights to women
Answer: 1

9.
9 The power of judicial review was established when
  (1) the original United States Constitution was
      adopted
  (2) an amendment was added to the United
      States Constitution
  (3) President Thomas Jefferson established the
      power in an executive order
  (4) the Supreme Court issued its ruling in
      Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Answer: 4

10.
10 Which quotation is correctly paired with the
   document in which it is found?
   (1) “…the right of the people to keep and bear
        arms, shall not be infringed.”
                       — Washington’s Farewell Address
   (2) “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
        all men are created equal…”
                                    — Monroe Doctrine
   (3) “Four score and seven years ago our fathers
        brought forth, upon this continent, a new
        nation…”
                         — Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address
   (4) “We the people of the United States, in order
        to form a more perfect union…”
                         — Declaration of Independence
Answer: 3

11.
11 During the 1790s, the primary goal of United
   States foreign policy was to
   (1) preserve the nation’s neutrality during
       European conflicts
   (2) increase the nation’s trade with Asia
   (3) expand westward by signing new military
       alliances
   (4) make the nation into a major colonial power
Answer: 1

12.
12 In Gibbons v. Ogden (1824), the Supreme Court
   strengthened the federal government’s role in
   the national economy by
   (1) outlawing the triangular trade
   (2) banning states from issuing money
   (3) upholding the power of Congress to regulate
       interstate commerce
   (4) limiting the growth of corporations
Answer: 3

13.
13 One way in which Frederick Douglass, William
   Lloyd Garrison, and Sojourner Truth are similar
   is that they all supported the
   (1) abolitionist movement
   (2) passage of Black Codes
   (3) nullification theory of States rights
   (4) plantation system in the South
Answer: 1

14.
14 Abraham Lincoln’s 1858 warning that “a house
   divided against itself cannot stand” referred to
   sectional differences over the
   (1) treatment of Native American Indians
   (2) issue of slavery
   (3) funding for internal improvements
   (4) treaties with European nations
Answer: 2

15.
15 What was a common goal of the 13th, 14th,
   and 15th amendments to the United States
   Constitution?
   (1) punishing the South for seceding from the
       Union
   (2) granting basic rights to formerly enslaved
       persons
   (3) allowing the states to veto federal laws
   (4) creating a “separate but equal” society
Answer: 2

16.
16 In the latter half of the 1800s, a large labor
   supply, an abundance of natural resources, and
   the construction of new railroads contributed
   most directly to the
   (1) growth of American industry
   (2) dependence on imported goods
   (3) demand for limits on immigration
   (4) rejection of high tariffs by the United States
Answer: 1

17.
17 In the late 1800s, many employers used black-
   listing to
   (1) end the use of sweatshops
   (2) discourage workers from joining labor unions
   (3) restrict the use of open shops
   (4) promote child labor reform
Answer: 2

18.
Base your answer to question 18 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
18 Which statement most accurately describes the meaning of this 1896 cartoon?
   (1) Western farmers have no market for their products.
   (2) Grazing and water rights cause conflict in western states.
   (3) Eastern businesses profit from western farming.
   (4) Cattle and grain add little to the wealth of the United States.
Answer: 3

19.
19 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
(1)   Rise of American Imperialism
(2)   Causes of World War I
(3)   Enforcement of the Monroe Doctrine
(4)   Trade Expansion in East Asia
Answer: 1

20.
20 Which statement best expresses President
   Theodore Roosevelt’s philosophy on regulating
   big business?
   (1) Regulation of big business should be left to
       the states.
   (2) Any regulation of big business is undesir-
       able.
   (3) Abusive trusts should be broken up by a
       vigilant federal government.
   (4) Government ownership of key industries will
       benefit consumers.
Answer: 3


21.
Base your answer to question 21 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
21 Based on the map, which region of the United States demonstrated the most
   support for complete voting rights for women before 1919?
   (1) New England                        (3) South
   (2) Midwest                            (4) West
Answer: 4

22.
22 Upton Sinclair, Ida M. Tarbell, and Lincoln Steffens
   were considered muckrakers because they
   (1) opposed railroad monopolies
   (2) criticized the growing power of labor unions
   (3) raised concerns about the negative effects of
       industrialization
   (4) supported the need for reforms in education
Answer: 3

23.
23 In the 1920s, the passage of the Quota Acts and
   the trial of Sacco and Vanzetti illustrate that many
   Americans were
   (1) intolerant of ethnic minorities
   (2) committed to racial integration
   (3) worried about foreign wars
   (4) determined to increase immigration
Answer: 1

24.
    Base your answer to question 24 on the photo-
graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
24 One reason Jacob Riis published many
   photographs similar to this was to
   (1) disprove claims of yellow journalists
   (2) encourage government assistance for poor
       farmers
   (3) promote the use of child labor
   (4) increase public concern over tenement
       conditions
Answer: 4

25.
    Base your answer to question 25 on the quotation
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for
   the American people. Let us all here assembled
   constitute ourselves prophets of a new order of
   competence and of courage. This is more than a
   political campaign; it is a call to arms. Give me
   your help, not to win votes alone, but to win in this
   crusade to restore America to its own people.
              —Franklin D. Roosevelt, Acceptance Speech,
                   Democratic National Convention, 1932
 25 In this statement, Franklin D. Roosevelt
    promised to
    (1) build up the military
    (2) reduce government interference in business
    (3) end an isolationist foreign policy
    (4) provide government assistance to combat the
        Great Depression
Answer: 4

26.
    Base your answer to question 26 on the photo-
graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
26 Which New Deal agency was created to provide
   employment for individuals such as the man in
   the photograph?
   (1) Agricultural Adjustment Administration
       (AAA)
   (2) Social Security Administration (SSA)
   (3) Works Progress Administration (WPA)
   (4) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
       (FDIC)
Answer: 3

27.
    Base your answer to question 27 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
27 What is the main idea of this cartoon?
   (1) President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted
       to end Supreme Court opposition to the
       New Deal.
   (2) Congress refused to pass New Deal legislation.
   (3) President Franklin D. Roosevelt had not
       faced any opposition to his New Deal.
   (4) Congress voted to increase the size of the
       Supreme Court.
Answer: 1

28.
    Base your answer to question 28 on the graph
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
28 Which conclusion about the United States
   economy during World War II is most clearly
   supported by the information in the graph?
   (1) Organized labor conducted frequent strikes
       during the war years.
   (2) The war led to improved economic condi-
       tions.
   (3) The Gross National Product (GNP) steadily
       declined during the war years.
   (4) Unemployment increased throughout the
       war.
Answer: 2

29.
29 One purpose of the GI Bill (Servicemen’s
   Readjustment Act of 1944) was to
   (1) end racial segregation in the military
   (2) replace the draft with an all-volunteer military
   (3) maintain troop strength at World War II levels
   (4) give educational aid to returning veterans
Answer: 4

30.
Base your answers to questions 30 and 31 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
30 This photograph taken during World War II shows the
   (1) deportation of Japanese Americans to Japan
   (2) arrival of new Japanese immigrants in California
   (3) migration of Japanese American families to the East Coast
   (4) relocation of Japanese Americans to internment camps
Answer: 4

31.
31 The situation shown in this photograph was most directly the result of
   (1) legislation in California
   (2) a presidential executive order during World War II
   (3) a Supreme Court decision
   (4) a constitutional amendment
Answer: 2

32.
Base your answers to questions 32 and 33 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
32 The situation shown on the map was primarily the result of the
   (1) continuing disagreement among wartime Allies about Germany’s future
   (2) demand of Great Britain and France that Germany pay harsh reparations
   (3) desire to conduct war crimes trials for Nazi leaders
   (4) need to bring a unified Germany into the United Nations
Answer: 1

33.
33 The air corridors shown on the map were used during the airlift in 1948 and
   1949 to
   (1) bomb the city of Berlin
   (2) fly combat troops into the Soviet sector
   (3) prevent a Soviet invasion of West Germany
   (4) overcome a Soviet blockade of Berlin in East Germany
Answer: 4

34.
    Base your answer to question 34 on the statement
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …We may anticipate a state of affairs in which
   two Great Powers will each be in a position to
   put an end to the civilization and life of the other,
   though not without risking its own. We may be
   likened to two scorpions in a bottle, each capable
   of killing the other, but only at the risk of his own
   life.…
                          — J. Robert Oppenheimer, 1953
 34 In this statement, J. Robert Oppenheimer was
    referring to the
    (1) benefits of neutrality
    (2) dangers of the nuclear arms race
    (3) failures of appeasement
    (4) positive effects of atomic energy
Answer: 2

35.
35 Which event during the civil rights movement is
   most closely associated with President Dwight
   Eisenhower?
   (1) granting permission for the March on
       Washington
   (2) urging the Brooklyn Dodgers to sign Jackie
       Robinson
   (3) supporting the sit-ins in Greensboro, North
       Carolina
   (4) using federal troops to integrate schools in
       Little Rock, Arkansas
Answer: 4


36.
36 “No voting qualification or prerequisite to
   voting, or standard, practice, or procedure shall
   be imposed or applied by any State or political
   subdivision to deny or abridge the right of any
   citizen of the United States to vote on account of
   race or color.”
                   — Section 2, Voting Rights Act of 1965
   The specific goal stated in this section of the
   Voting Rights Act of 1965 was to
   (1) expand the use of property qualifications
   (2) establish voter qualifications such as literacy
       tests
   (3) stop fraudulent voting in large cities
   (4) remove barriers to voting based on racial
       background
Answer: 4

37.
    Base your answer to question 37 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
37 What is the main idea of this 1967 cartoon?
   (1) Desertion by United States soldiers was
       widespread.
   (2) The domino theory no longer applied to
       Southeast Asia.
   (3) The United States policy of expanding
       the war in Indochina would be filled with
       hazards.
   (4) A bridge into Laos and Cambodia helped
       United States soldiers invade Asia.
Answer: 3

38.
38 A major goal of President Lyndon B. Johnson’s
   Great Society program was to
   (1) contain communism in Southeast Asia
   (2) create a space program
   (3) reduce poverty in the United States
   (4) cut domestic programs to balance the budget
Answer: 3

39.
39 The presidency of Richard Nixon was weakened
   by his
   (1) policies on the environment
   (2) trip to the People’s Republic of China
   (3) foreign policy toward the Soviet Union
   (4) involvement in the Watergate scandal
Answer: 4

40.
    Base your answer to question 40 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
40 Which economic issue is the cartoonist addressing?
   (1) globalization
   (2) high tariffs
   (3) transportation costs
   (4) quality of American cars
Answer: 1

41.
41 President George H. W. Bush’s decisions to
   send military aid to Saudi Arabia in 1990 and
   to conduct the Persian Gulf War in 1991 were
   consistent with the United States
   (1) long-term commitment to protecting oil
       resources
   (2) determination to appease Saddam Hussein
   (3) continued application of the Truman
       Doctrine
   (4) goal of nuclear disarmament
Answer: 1

42.
42 “Somalians Are Still Hungry and at War Despite Efforts
    of United States Troops”
   “United States Troops Help Reinstate Haitian
    President”
   “United States and NATO Allies Use Air Strikes To
    Slow Ethnic Cleansing in Bosnia”
   These 1990s headlines illustrate the efforts of the
   United States to
   (1) support independence movements
   (2) act as an international peacekeeper
   (3) prevent the spread of communism
   (4) protect United States business investments
Answer: 2

43.
43 Which United States foreign policy stated that
   European powers should no longer expect to
   establish colonies in the Western Hemisphere?
   (1) Monroe Doctrine
   (2) Dollar Diplomacy
   (3) Good Neighbor Policy
   (4) Alliance for Progress
Answer: 1

44.
44 Brinkmanship, the domino theory, and massive
   retaliation are elements of United States foreign
   policy associated with the
   (1) Revolutionary War (3) Cold War
   (2) Civil War              (4) War on Terror
Answer: 3

45.
    Base your answers to questions 45 and 46 on the
speakers’ statements below and on your knowledge of
social studies.
Speaker A: United States expansion should not end
           when we reach the Pacific Coast.
Speaker B: The navy of the United States needs to
           increase in size to defend our overseas
           interests.
Speaker C: The United States must serve as the
           military protector of the Western Hemi-
           sphere.
Speaker D: The United States needs to avoid inter-
           national commitments in order to protect
           our national interests.
 45 Which speaker’s statement best expresses the
    reason that many United States senators rejected
    the Treaty of Versailles after World War I?
    (1) A                       (3) C
    (2) B                       (4) D
Answer: 4

46.
46 Which president’s decision demonstrated a
   commitment to the idea expressed by Speaker A?
   (1) James K. Polk going to war with Mexico
   (2) Abraham Lincoln signing the Homestead
       Act
   (3) William McKinley annexing the Hawaiian
       Islands
   (4) Woodrow Wilson sending troops to pursue
       Pancho Villa in Mexico
Answer: 3

47.
47 One way in which the elections of President
   Rutherford B. Hayes (1876) and President
   George W. Bush (2000) are similar is that in both
   instances the
   (1) third-party candidate won electoral votes in
       several states
   (2) winner of the electoral vote failed to win the
       popular vote
   (3) eventual winner was selected by Congress
   (4) elections were settled by a special prosecutor
Answer: 2

48.
48 The Federal Reserve System and the Securities
   and Exchange Commission (SEC) were both
   established to
   (1) fund retirement pensions
   (2) promote economic stability
   (3) break up business monopolies
   (4) create public jobs
Answer: 2

49.
49 Which principle was dealt with in the Supreme
   Court decisions in Schenck v. United States
   (1919) and Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)?
   (1) States rights        (3) freedom of speech
   (2) voting rights        (4) freedom of assembly
Answer: 3

50.
50 The war crimes trials of German military officials
   after World War II and of Saddam Hussein during
   the Iraq War (2003–2011) both demonstrate the
   principle that
   (1) only nations are considered responsible for
       wartime actions
   (2) international law may not be applied to
       national leaders
   (3) protection of civil liberties depends on the
       circumstances at the time
   (4) leaders can be held accountable for crimes
       against humanity
Answer: 4


51.
            Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
        (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
        (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
            argument; to present in some detail”
                                                    Part II
                                      THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Economic Policy
                  Throughout United States history, the federal government has taken actions
                  to strengthen or reform the nation’s economy. These actions have had varying
                  degrees of success.
        Task:
                  Select two federal government actions that have affected the United States
                  economy and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the government action
                  • Discuss the extent to which the government action was successful in
                    strengthening or reforming the United States economy
            You may use any government action related to the economy from your study of United
        States history. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include creation of the Bank of the
        United States in 1790, passage of the Pacific Railway Act (transcontinental railroad) in 1862,
        passage of the Homestead Act in 1862, passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act in 1890, adoption
        of the income tax (16th) amendment in 1913, formation of the Tennessee Valley Authority in
        1933, creation of the Social Security system in 1935, passage of the Interstate Highway Act in
        1956, and ratification of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993.
                                 You are not limited to these suggestions.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to:
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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52.
NAME _______ SCHOOL _______
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
        Historical Context:
               Large-scale migrations of Americans have occurred throughout United States
               history. These migrations have had economic, social, and political effects on the
               nation. These migrations include the movement of settlers westward during
               the 1800s, the movement of African Americans to northern cities in the
               early 20th century, and the movement of people to the Sun Belt since
               World War II.
        Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
              history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
              the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two migrations mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the migration
                • Discuss the effects of this migration on the United States and/or on American
                  society
In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
        (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
        (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
            argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1a
This 1869 poster advertised the different ways people could acquire land in Nebraska.
1a Based on this poster, state one reason people might choose to move west to Nebraska in 1869. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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54.
Document 1b
         The rich romantic place names of the big rolling land beyond the Mississippi echoed across
      the eastern United States. Broadsides [posters] in all the languages of Europe made the strange
      Indian names of the faraway country familiar to emigrants long before they reached New York
      en route to the free lands extending to the “shining mountains” and the Pacific. The slow march
      of settlement which had followed the Homestead Act of 1862 turned into a stampede during the
      1870s and 1880s.…
         The new settlers used different words to explain why they moved west, but beyond all their
      words was the old American vision of a better life beyond the far horizon. “We wanted to come
      to a new country,” said Susan Frances Lomax, “so our children could grow up with the country.
      We were living on a good farm [in Mississippi]. My husband said he would live ten years longer
      by coming to a new country. You hardly ever saw a gray headed man. I did not want to come to
      Texas at all; I dreaded the Indians in those days.… It was a hard time on weman [women]; they
      staid [stayed] at home and did the work while the men were on their ponies hunting or looking
      after stock.”…
                                          Source: Dee Brown, The American West, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1994
1b According to Dee Brown, what was one reason settlers moved west of the Mississippi River during the 1870s
   and 1880s? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 2
     …During the second half of the nineteenth century the direction of American expansion shifted
     from the countryside to the city. The West was popularly known as the land of wide-open spaces,
     but by the 1890s the typical westerner lived in an urban oasis like Omaha, Denver, or San Francisco.
     The American West included the fastest-growing cities in the nation, and by 1890 had become
     more heavily urban than any other region except the Northeast. When we think of the astounding
     growth of nineteenth-century American cities, most of us think of the flood of immigration from
     abroad; yet the single most important source of the expanding population of western cities came
     from the countryside. With the expansion of the commercial economy, farming and ranching
     became a significantly more capital-intensive [costly] business. After the Civil War a western
     settler needed an average of a thousand dollars to purchase land, the equipment necessary to
     work it, and the transportation to get the family there. Although railroads and land speculators
     continued to promote the West as a safety valve for the urban working class, as the “free range”
     disappeared and the number of tenant farmers and hired hands grew larger, it is more accurate
     to say that it was the cities that provided the safety valve for rural discontent. As one historian has
     put it, for every industrial worker who became a farmer, twenty farm boys moved to the city.…
                         Source: Geoffrey C. Ward, The West: An Illustrated History, Little, Brown and Company, 1996
 2 According to Geoffrey C. Ward, what was one way migration affected the American West? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
Document 3
      …As settlers migrated westward [after the Civil War], federal troops systematically subdued
      Native American tribes and by successive treaties required that they reside on reservations
      isolated from American settlers. Eastern tribes were [earlier] forced to resettle west of the
      Mississippi by legal chicanery [trickery] and military force. The Cherokees of Georgia, for
      instance, were forcibly removed in 1837 and 1838, in a migration known as the “Trail of Tears.”
      The post–Civil War years saw continued pressure on Native Americans, this time in the plains
      and mountain states. Despite armed resistance, Native Americans found themselves increasingly
      relegated [removed] to reservations on the least desirable western lands.…
                                           Source: Thomas Dublin, “Internal Migration,” in Foner and Garraty, eds.,
                                             The Reader’s Companion to American History, Houghton Mifflin, 1991
 3 According to Thomas Dublin, what was one effect of the westward migration of settlers on Native American
   Indians? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 4a
This Langston Hughes poem, written in 1949, is about
the migration of African Americans during the first
half of the 20th century.
                 One-Way Ticket
            I pick up my life
            And take it with me
            And I put it down in
            Chicago, Detroit,
            Buffalo, Scranton,
            Any place that is
            North and East—
            And not Dixie.
            I pick up my life
            And take it on the train
            To Los Angeles, Bakersfield,
            Seattle, Oakland, Salt Lake,
            Any place that is
            North and West—
            And not South.
            I am fed up
            With Jim Crow laws,
            People who are cruel
            And afraid,
            Who lynch and run,
            Who are scared of me
            And me of them.
            I pick up my life
            And take it away
            On a one-way ticket—
            Gone up North,
            Gone out West,
            Gone!
       Source: Langston Hughes, in Rampersad
       and Roessel, eds., The Collected Poems
         of Langston Hughes, Vintage Classics
Document 4b
  …From the early years of the twentieth centu-
  ry to well past its middle age, nearly every black
  family in the American South, which meant
  nearly every black family in America, had a
  decision to make. There were sharecroppers
  losing at settlement. Typists wanting to work
  in an office. Yard boys scared that a single
  gesture near the planter’s wife could leave them
  hanging from an oak tree. They were all stuck
  in a caste system as hard and unyielding as the
  red Georgia clay, and they each had a decision
  before them. In this, they were not unlike
  anyone who ever longed to cross the Atlantic or
  the Rio Grande.
     It was during the First World War that a silent
  pilgrimage took its first steps within the borders
  of this country. The fever rose without warning
  or notice or much in the way of understand-
  ing by those outside its reach. It would not end
  until the 1970s and would set into motion
  changes in the North and South that no one, not
  even the people doing the leaving, could have
  imagined at the start of it or dreamed would
  take nearly a lifetime to play out.…
     Source: Isabel Wilkerson, The Warmth of Other Suns:
             The Epic Story of America’ s Great Migration,
                                   Random House, 2010
4 Based on these documents, state two reasons for the migration of African Americans to the North and
  the West. [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 5
     …During World War I and in the years just after, a new racial climate began to emerge. Blacks
     [African Americans] seemed more willing to express their opposition to racial oppression and
     to act against it. One reason was that the Great Migration increased the number of blacks in
     the North and West, where they were free to protest and to vote. Changes in employment
     also had an impact. In their traditional service jobs (servants, waiters, barbers), blacks served
     individual whites on a personal basis and therefore could not escape close white supervision.
     But now blacks were moving into factories with thousands of workers, where their relationship to
     white employers was much less personal. Under these conditions, blacks may have felt less
     controlled and freer to express themselves. Similarly, as black neighborhoods grew into ghettos,
     blacks had less contact with whites. For all the evils of the ghettos, they did create an environ-
     ment in which black pride and self-expression could emerge. Also, many returning black soldiers
     were ready to claim their rights after having fought in what had supposedly been, after all, a war
     to make the world safe for democracy.…
             Source: Michael L. Levine, African Americans and Civil Rights: From 1619 to the Present, Oryx Press, 1996
 5 According to Michael Levine, what was one effect of the Great Migration on African Americans? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 6
         The [Great] migration of a million and a half African Americans from the South to the North
      between 1915 and 1930 initiated a new era in black—and American—political life. Once
      overwhelmingly southern, the African-American population would become national; once
      overwhelmingly rural and agricultural, it would become urban and industrial; once overwhelmingly
      subject to formal and informal repression, coercion, and exclusion, it would find precious new space
      for civic and political activism. The results would be seen not simply in the extension and recon-
      stitution [rebuilding] of black communities, but also in the changing social and political face of the
      country as a whole. Many of the landmark political developments of twentieth-century America—
      electoral realignments, the New Deal, industrial unionism, the Great Society, and, of course,
      the battle for civil rights—would be difficult to imagine outside of this massive demographic shift
      that then continued, and accelerated, over the next three decades.…
                Source: Steven Hahn, “Epilogue: ‘Up, You Mighty Race’,” A Nation Under Our Feet, Belknap Press, 2003
 6 According to Steven Hahn, what was one effect of the Great Migration on the United States? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 7
                                           Growth of the Sun Belt
      …The trend became crystal clear in the next decade [the 1970s] when the South surpassed the West
      as a leading migration destination. People moving into the region outnumbered those leaving by
      3.5 million during the 1970s, by 3 million in the 1980s, and by more than 2 million in the 1990s.
      Mostly they were coming from the same northern states that for half a century had been the
      prime destination for departing southerners. The Mid-Atlantic states suffered an actual population
      decline in the 1970s, as out-migrants exceeded in-migrants by almost 2 million. The East North
      Central states [IN, IL, MI, OH, WI] lost 1.3 million more people than they received through
      migration.
         The turnaround seemed more abrupt than in fact it was. The South had been attracting people
      in growing numbers since World War II, and throughout the second phase of the exodus
      something of an exchange had been going on between North and South. Mostly blue-collar
      southerners had been going north, and mostly white-collar northerners had been coming south.
      The fast-developing economy of the postwar South had been the key. The building of new
      industries, military facilities, educational institutions, transportation systems, and urban
      infrastructure had attracted the services of engineers, managers, professors, technicians, and
      others with high-end skills. Equally important, the region had been attracting capital. Fortune
      500 companies had been opening offices and branch plants and sometimes moving whole
      operations to Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Texas, and Virginia, which were the key growth
      nodes [centers] of the new South.…
                      Source: James N. Gregory, The Southern Diaspora, The University of North Carolina Press, 2005
 7 According to James N. Gregory, what is one reason people moved to the Sun Belt after World War II? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 8a
        A crucial piece of the Rust Belt’s political clout headed south Thursday, as the U.S. Census
     Bureau released the first numbers from its 2000 count of the nation’s population.
        The numbers show that, for the first time, the Sun Belt outstrips the Northeast and Midwest
     in population. And for that reason, starting in 2002, the states stretching south and west from
     Virginia to California for the first time will have more representatives in the House of Representa-
     tives than the Northeast and Midwest.
        It’s all part of a decades-long trend that has seen the Northeast and Midwest lose 20 percent of
     their congressional representation since 1970.
        “It is a massive and, I think, unprecedented shift in political power from the Northeast and
     Midwest to the South and West,” said Richard Munson, executive director of the Northeast-
     Midwest Institute in Washington.
        And it’s a shift, experts say, that could affect everything from the amount of federal aid coming
     to Buffalo to the future of policies affecting the Great Lakes.
        No state has been hurt more by the shifting population than New York, which has lost 29 percent
     of its House seats since 1970.…
                            Source: Jerry Zremski, “Sun Belt Gains Political Clout,” Buffalo News, December 29, 2000
8 Based on these documents, what is one effect of the population shift from the Rust Belt to the Sun Belt on
  congressional representation between 1970 and 2000? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 9a
      …The Interior Department’s Bureau of Reclamation has issued a new report called “Water 2025,”
      intended to guide local and regional planning for water use in the West. It comes not a moment
      too soon. The ongoing drought inspired the project, but so has the dramatic population growth
      in arid regions over the past decade, particularly in Nevada and Arizona. If the West were still
      sparsely settled, the severity of the drought would be serious enough. Now, the drought is bearing
      down on an enormous number of people—cattle ranchers, farmers, vacationers and city dwellers
      alike. Brown lawns aren’t the same, in economic impact, as parched rangeland, desiccated [dried-
      up] farmland or ashen forests, but they make themselves felt nonetheless. What “Water 2025”
      recognizes is that unless the right plans are made, the potential for future conflict over water
      rights is very high.…
                                                   Source: “Dry Prospects,” New York Times, editorial, July 7, 2003
9a Based on this New York Times editorial, what is one problem related to population growth in the West?
   [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
Document 9b
      …Why are people moving to what the media tends to see as a backwater? In part, it’s because
      economic growth in the South has outpaced the rest of the country for a generation and the area
      now constitutes by far the largest economic region in the country. A recent analysis by Trulia
      projects the edge will widen in the rest of this decade, sparked by such factors as lower costs and
      warmer weather.…
         A portent [indication] of the future can be seen in new investment from U.S.-based and foreign
      companies. Last year Texas, Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina were four of the six leading
      destinations for new corporate facilities.
         Some of this growth is centered on the automobile industry, which is increasingly focused on
      the southern tier from South Carolina to Alabama. The other big industrial expansion revolves
      around the unconventional oil and gas boom. The region that spans the Gulf Coast from Corpus
      Christi to New Orleans includes the country’s largest concentration of oil refineries and petro-
      chemical facilities. In 2011 the two largest capital investments in North America — both tied to
      natural gas production — were in Louisiana.…
         Growth in the South, as elsewhere, is concentrated in their suburban rings but there’s also been
      something of central city revivals in Houston, Raleigh, Atlanta and Charlotte. Increasingly these
      places boast the amenities to compete with the bastions of hipness in everything from medicine
      and banking to technology and movies. The new owners of the New York Stock Exchange are
      based in Atlanta and some financial professionals are moving to low-tax states such as Florida.…
                             Source: Joel Kotkin, “How the South Will Rise to Power Again,” Forbes, January 31, 2013
9b According to Joel Kotkin, what is one way migration has contributed to economic growth in the Sun Belt?
   [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant
            facts, examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Large-scale migrations of Americans have occurred throughout United States
                history. These migrations have had economic, social, and political effects on the
                nation. These migrations include the movement of settlers westward during
                the 1800s, the movement of African Americans to northern cities in the
                early 20th century, and the movement of people to the Sun Belt since
                World War II.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two migrations mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the migration
                  • Discuss the effects of this migration on the United States and/or on American
                    society
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site



  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents August 2016 Exam


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