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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2002 Exam


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

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: Multiple choice

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1.

The current knowledge concerning cells is the result of the investigations and observations of many scientists. The work of these scientists forms a well-accepted body of knowledge about cells. This body of knowledge is an example of a
(1) hypothesis
(2) controlled experiment
(3) theory
(4) research plan

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2.

An experimental design included references from prior experiments, materials and equipment, and step-by-step procedures. What else should be included before the experiment can be started?
(1) a set of data
(2) a conclusion based on data
(3) safety precautions to be used
(4) an inference based on results

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3.

In his theory, Lamarck suggested that organisms will develop and pass on to offspring variations that they need in order to survive in a particular environment. In a later theory, Darwin proposed that changing environmental conditions favor certain variations that promote the survival of organisms. Which statement is best illustrated by this information?
(1) Scientific theories that have been changed are the only ones supported by scientists.
(2) All scientific theories are subject to change and improvement.
(3) Most scientific theories are the outcome of a single hypothesis.
(4) Scientific theories are not subject to change.

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4.

The dense needles of Douglas fir trees can prevent most light from reaching the forest floor. This situation would have the most immediate effect on
(1) producers
(2) carnivores
(3) herbivores
(4) decomposers

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5.

Which statement best describes a characteristic of an ecosystem?
(1) It must have producers and consumers but not decomposers.
(2) It is stable because it has consumers to recycle energy.
(3) It always has two or more different autotrophs filling the same niche.
(4) It must have organisms that carry out autotrophic nutrition.

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6.

In a cell, all organelles work together to carry out
(1) diffusion
(2) active transport
(3) information storage
(4) metabolic processes

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7.

The ability of certain hormones to attach to a cell is primarily determined by the
(1) receptor molecules in the cell membrane
(2) proteins in the cytoplasm of the cell
(3) amount of DNA in the cell
(4) concentration of salts outside the cell

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8.

The diagram below represents the organization of genetic information within a cell nucleus.
The circle labeled Z most likely represents
(1) amino acids
(2) chromosomes
(3) vacuoles
(4) molecular bases

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9.

The diagram below represents the change in a sprouting onion bulb when sunlight is present and when sunlight is no longer available.

Which statement best explains this change?
(1) Plants need oxygen to survive.
(2) Environmental conditions do not alter characteristics.
(3)  Plants produce hormones.
(4) The environment can influence the expression of certain genetic traits.

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10.

A human zygote is produced from gametes that are usually identical in
(1) the expression of encoded information
(2) the number of altered genes present
(3) chromosome number
(4) cell size

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11.

Molecule 1 represents a segment of hereditary information, and molecule 2 represents the portion of a molecule that is determined by information from molecule 1.

What will most likely happen if there is a change in the first three subunits on the upper strand of molecule 1?
(1) The remaining subunits in molecule 1 will also change.
(2) A portion of molecule 2 may be different.
(3) Molecule 1 will split apart, triggering an immune response.
(4) Molecule 2 may form two strands rather than one.

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12.

The diagram below shows two different structures, 1 and 2, that are present in many single-celled organisms. Structure 1 contains protein A, but not protein B, and structure 2 contains protein B, but not protein A.

Which statement is correct concerning protein A and protein B?
(1) Proteins A and B have different functions and different amino acid chains.
(2) Proteins A and B have different functions but the same amino acid chains.
(3) Proteins A and B have the same function but a different sequence of bases (A, C, T, and G).
(4) Proteins A and B have the same function and the same sequence of bases (A, C, T, and G).

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13.

Which process is a common practice that has been used by farmers for hundreds of years to develop new plant and animal varieties? (1) cloning
(2) genetic engineering
(3) cutting DNA and removing segments
(4) selective breeding for desirable traits

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14.

Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution?
(1) A new species moves into a habitat when another species becomes extinct.
(2) Every period of time in Earth’s history has its own group of organisms.
(3) Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms.
(4) Every location on Earth’s surface has its own unique group of organisms.

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15.

The diagrams below show the bones in the forelimbs of three different organisms.

Differences in the bone arrangements support the hypothesis that these organisms
(1) are members of the same species
(2) may have descended from the same ancestor
(3) have adaptations to survive in different environments
(4) all contain the same genetic information

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16.

Which situation would most likely result in the highest rate of natural selection?
(1) reproduction of organisms by an asexual method in an unchanging environment
(2) reproduction of a species having a very low mutation rate in a changing environment
(3) reproduction of organisms in an unchanging environment with little competition and few predators
(4) reproduction of organisms exhibiting genetic differences due to mutations and genetic recombinations in a changing environment

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17.

Some behaviors such as mating and caring for young are genetically determined in certain species of birds. The presence of these behaviors is most likely due to the fact that
(1) birds do not have the ability to learn
(2) individual birds need to learn to survive and reproduce
(3) these behaviors helped birds to survive in the past
(4) within their lifetimes, birds developed these behaviors

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18.

“Dolly” is a sheep developed from an egg cell of her mother that had its nucleus replaced by a nucleus from a body cell of her mother. As a result of this technique, Dolly is
(1) no longer able to reproduce
(2) genetically identical to her mother
(3) able to have a longer lifespan
(4) unable to mate

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19.

Which diagram best represents part of the process of sperm formation in an organism that has a normal chromosome number of eight?

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20.

ATP is a compound that is synthesized when
(1) chemical bonds between carbon atoms are formed during photosynthesis
(2) energy stored in chemical bonds is released during cellular respiration
(3) energy stored in nitrogen is released, forming amino acids
(4) digestive enzymes break amino acids into smaller parts

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21.

Allergic reactions are most closely associated with
(1) the action of circulating hormones
(2) a low blood sugar level
(3) immune responses to usually harmless substances
(4) the shape of red blood cells

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22.

The diagram below represents the human male reproductive system.

Which pair of letters indicates a structure that produces gametes and a structure that makes possible the delivery of gametes for internal fertilization, respectively?
(1) A and D
(2) B and D
(3) C and A
(4) D and C

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23.

Microbes that enter the body, causing disease, are known as
(1) pathogens
(2) antibodies
(3) enzymes
(4) hosts

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24.

The blood of newborn babies is tested to determine the presence of a certain substance. This substance indicates the genetic disorder PKU, which may result in mental retardation. Babies born with this disorder are put on a special diet so that mental retardation will not develop. In this situation, modification of the baby’s diet is an example of how biological research can be used to (1) change faulty genes
(2) cure a disorder
(3) stimulate immunity
(4) control a disorder

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25.

Which statement illustrates a biotic resource interacting with an abiotic resource?
(1) A rock moves during an earthquake.
(2) A sea turtle transports a pilot fish to food.
(3) A plant absorbs sunlight, which is used for photosynthesis.
(4) A wind causes waves to form on a lake.

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26.

Which relationship best describes the interactions between lettuce and a rabbit?
(1) predator — prey
(2) producer — consumer
(3) parasite — host
(4) decomposer — scavenger

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27.

The diagram below represents part of a life process in a leaf chloroplast.

If the process illustrated in the diagram is interrupted by a chemical at point X, there would be an immediate effect on the release of (1) chlorophyll
(2) nitrogen
(3) carbon dioxide
(4) oxygen

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28.

The widest variety of genetic material that can be used by humans for future agricultural or medical research would most likely be found in
(1) a large field of a genetically engineered crop
(2) an ecosystem having significant biodiversity
(3) a forest that is planted and maintained by a forest service
(4) areas that contain only one or two species

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29.

The diagram below shows the interaction between blood sugar levels and pancreatic activity.
This process is an example of
(1) a feedback mechanism maintaining homeostasis
(2) an immune system responding to prevent disease
(3)  the digestion of sugar by insulin
(4) the hormonal regulation of gamete production

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30.

The diagram below represents an energy pyramid.

Which organisms would most likely be found at level A?
(1) birds
(2) worms
(3) mammals
(4) algae

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31.

Which human activity would have the most direct impact on the oxygen-carbon dioxide cycle?
(1) reducing the rate of ecological succession
(2) decreasing the use of water
(3) destroying large forest areas
(4) enforcing laws that prevent the use of leaded gasoline

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32.

The dotted line on the graph below represents the potential size of a population based on its reproductive capacity. The solid line on this graph represents the actual size of the population.

Which statement best explains why the actual population growth is less than the potential population growth?
(1) Resources in the environment are limited.
(2) More organisms migrated into the population than out of the population.
(3) The birthrate gradually became greater than the death rate.
(4) The final population size is greater than the carrying capacity.

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33.

Which concept does the cartoon shown below illustrate?

(1) Fish require certain environmental conditions for survival.
(2) Fish can adapt to any environment.
(3) Fish alter the ecosystems to improve their ability to survive.
(4) Fish can survive abrupt climate changes.

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34.

Fertilizers used to improve lawns and gardens may interfere with the equilibrium of an ecosystem because they
(1) cause mutations in all plants
(2) cannot be absorbed by roots
(3) can be carried into local water supplies
(4) cause atmospheric pollution

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35.

The tall wetland plant, purple loosestrife, was brought from Europe to the United States in the early 1800s as a garden plant. The plant’s growth is now so widespread across the United States that it is crowding out a number of native plants. This situation is an example of
(1) the results of the use of pesticides
(2) the recycling of nutrients
(3) the flow of energy present in all ecosystems
(4) an unintended effect of adding a species to an ecosystem

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