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Earth Science - New York Regents August 2007 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.
Directions (1−35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.

1. Scientists can plan to photograph a solar eclipse because most astronomical events are
(1) cyclic and predictable
(2) cyclic and unpredictable
(3) random and predictable
(4) random and unpredictable
1

2. The Coriolis effect causes winds in New York State to generally curve
(1) to the right of the direction of travel
(2) to the left of the direction of travel
(3) upward away from Earth’s surface
(4) downward toward Earth’s surface
1

3. In New York State, the constellation Pisces can be seen in the night sky between the middle of summer and the middle of winter. The constellation Scorpio can be seen in the night sky between early spring and early fall. The reason these two constellations can be viewed only at these times is a direct result of Earth’s
(1) spin on its axis
(2) movement around the Sun
(3) axis having a 23.5° tilt
(4) distance from the Sun
2


4. Approximately how many degrees per day does Earth revolve in its orbit around the Sun?
(1) 1°
(2) 13°
(3) 15°
(4) 23.5°
1

5. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is
(1) smaller, hotter, and less luminous
(2) smaller, cooler, and more luminous
(3) larger, hotter, and less luminous
(4) larger, cooler, and more luminous
4

6. Astronomers viewing light from distant galaxies observe a shift of spectral lines toward the red end of the visible spectrum. This shift provides evidence that
(1) orbital velocities of stars are decreasing
(2) Earth’s atmosphere is warming
(3) the Sun is cooling
(4) the universe is expanding
4

7. How many calories are required to evaporate 1 gram of boiling water?
(1) 1
(2) 80
(3) 540
(4) 620
3

8. A weather instrument is shown below.

Which weather variable is measured by this instrument?
(1) wind speed
(2) precipitation
(3) cloud cover
(4) air pressure
4

9. The diagram below represents the Sun’s rays striking Earth and the Moon. Numbers 1 through 4 represent positions of the Moon in its orbit around Earth.


The highest tides on Earth occur when the Moon is in positions
(1) 1 and 3
(2) 2 and 4
(3) 3 and 2
(4) 4 and 1
1

10. Most of the solar radiation absorbed by Earth's surface is later radiated back into space as which type of electromagnetic radiation?
(1) x ray
(2) ultraviolet
(3) infrared
(4) radio wave
3

11. In the United States, most tornadoes are classified as intense
(1) low-pressure funnel clouds that spin clockwise
(2) low-pressure funnel clouds that spin counterclockwise
(3) high-pressure funnel clouds that spin clockwise
(4) high-pressure funnel clouds that spin counterclockwise
2

12. Which type of air mass is associated with warm, dry atmospheric conditions?
(1) cP
(2) cT
(3) mP
(4) mT
2

13. The approximate latitude of Utica, New York, is
(1) 43°05' N
(2) 43°05' S
(3) 75°15' E
(4) 75°15' W
1

14. Earth’s surface winds generally blow from regions of higher
(1) air temperature toward regions of lower air temperature
(2) air pressure toward regions of lower air pressure
(3) latitudes toward regions of lower latitudes
(4) elevations toward regions of lower elevations
2

15. The diagram below shows how prevailing winds cause different weather conditions on the windward and leeward sides of a mountain range.

Clouds usually form on the Windward sides of mountains because this is where air
(1) rises and cools
(2) rises and warms
(3) sinks and cools
(4) sinks and warms
1

16. The diagrams below represent three containers, A, B, and C, which were filled with equal volumes of uniformly sorted plastic beads. Water was poured into each container to determine porosity and infiltration time.

Which data table best represents the porosity and infiltration time of the beads in the three containers?

1

17. Which ocean current brings warm water to the western coast of Africa?
(1) Agulhas Current
(2) North Equatorial Current
(3) Canaries Current
(4) Guinea Current
4

18. The map below shows the large delta that formed as the Mississippi River emptied into the Gulf of Mexico.

Which process was primarily responsible for the formation of the delta?
(1) glacial erosion
(2) cementation of sediment
(3) deposition of sediment
(4) mass movement
3

19. The diagrams below show the crystal shapes of two minerals.

Quartz and halite have different crystal shapes primarily because
(1) light reflects from crystal surfaces
(2) energy is released during crystallization
(3) of impurities that produce surface variations
(4) of the internal arrangement of the atoms
4

20. A student created the table below by classifying six minerals into two groups, A and B, based on a single property.

Which property was used to classify these minerals?
(1) color
(2) luster
(3) chemical composition
(4) hardness
2

21. Which igneous rock has a vesicular texture and contains the minerals potassium feldspar and quartz?
(1) andesite
(2) pegmatite
(3) pumice
(4) scoria
3

22. Dolostone is classified as which type of rock?
(1) land-derived sedimentary rock
(2) chemically formed sedimentary rock
(3) foliated metamorphic rock
(4) nonfoliated metamorphic rock
2

23. A stream is transporting the particles W, X, Y, and Z, shown below.

Which particle will most likely settle to the bottom first as the velocity of this stream decreases?
(1) W
(2) X
(3) Y
(4) Z
1

24. What is Earth’s inferred interior pressure, in millions of atmospheres, at a depth of 3500 kilometers?
(1) 1.9
(2) 2.8
(3) 5500
(4) 6500
1

25. The map below shows the location of an earthquake epicenter in New York State. Seismic stations A, B, and C received the data used to locate the earthquake epicenter.

The seismogram recorded at station A would show the
(1) arrival of P-waves, only
(2) earliest arrival time of P-waves
(3) greatest difference in the arrival times of P-waves and S-waves
(4) arrival of S-waves before the arrival of P-waves
2

26. An earthquake’s first P-wave arrives at a seismic station at 12:00:00. This P-wave has traveled 6000 kilometers from the epicenter. At what time will the first S-wave from the same earthquake arrive at the seismic station?
(1) 11:52:20
(2) 12:07:40
(3) 12:09:20
(4) 12:17:00
2

27. The movement of tectonic plates is inferred by many scientists to be driven by
(1) tidal motions in the hydrosphere
(2) density differences in the troposphere
(3) convection currents in the asthenosphere
(4) solidification in the lithosphere
3

28. Which two tectonic plates are separated by a mid-ocean ridge?
(1) Indian-Australian and Eurasian
(2) Indian-Australian and Pacific
(3) North American and South American
(4) North American and Eurasian
4

29. The presence of brachiopod, nautiloid, and coral fossils in the surface bedrock of a certain area indicates the area was once covered by
(1) tropical vegetation
(2) glacial deposits
(3) volcanic ash
(4) ocean water
4

30. New York State’s Catskills are classified as which type of landscape region?
(1) mountain
(2) plateau
(3) lowland
(4) plain
2

31. What is the relative humidity if the dry-bulb temperature is 22°C and the wet-bulb temperature is 17°C?
(1) 5%
(2) 14%
(3) 60%
(4) 68%
3

32. The time line below represents the entire geologic history of Earth.

Which letter best represents the first appearance of humans on Earth?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
4

33. Three extinct organisms are shown in the diagrams below.

Which other life-form reached its peak development during the same period in geologic history that these three life-forms first appeared on Earth?
(1) dinosaurs
(2) stromatolites
(3) mastodonts
(4) eurypterids
4

34. The graph below shows the radioactive decay of a 50-gram sample of a radioactive isotope.

According to the graph, what is the half-life of this isotope?
(1) 100 years
(2) 150 years
(3) 200 years
(4) 300 years
3

35. Which diagram represents a landscape where fine-grained igneous bedrock is most likely to be found?

1



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.

Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 and 37 on the graph below, which shows air temperature, dewpoint, and present weather conditions for a 23-hour period at Dallas, Texas.


36. The thunderstorm that occurred between 11 pm. and 12 midnight was most likely the result of
(1) the arrival of a warm front
(2) the arrival of a cold front
(3) an increase in the difference between air temperature and dewpoint
(4) an increase in both air temperature and dewpoint
2

37. Which weather condition was reported at Dallas when the air temperature was equal to the dewpoint?
(1) fog
(2) rain
(3) thunderstorm
(4) drizzle
1


Base your answers to questions 38 and 39 on the isoline map below, which shows the average yearly precipitation, in inches, across New York State.


38. Which New York State landscape region receives the greatest average yearly precipitation?
(1) Catskills
(2) Tug Hill Plateau
(3) Adirondack Mountains
(4) Taconic Mountains
1

39. Approximately how many inches of average yearly precipitation does Rochester, New York, receive?
(1) 26
(2) 30
(3) 38
(4) 42
2


Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the graph below, which shows the effect that average yearly precipitation and temperature have on the type of weathering that will occur in a particular region.


40. Which type of weathering is most common where the average yearly temperature is 5°C and the average yearly precipitation is 45 cm?
(1) moderate chemical weathering
(2) very slight weathering
(3) moderate chemical weathering with frost action
(4) slight frost action
4

41. The amount of chemical weathering will increase if
(1) air temperature decreases and precipitation decreases
(2) air temperature decreases and precipitation increases
(3) air temperature increases and precipitation decreases
(4) air temperature increases and precipitation increases
4


Base your answers to questions 42 and 43 on the diagram below, which shows an inferred sequence in which our solar system formed from a giant interstellar cloud of gas and debris. Stage A shows the collapse of the gas cloud, stage B shows its flattening, and stage C shows the sequence that led to the formation of planets.


42. From stage B to stage C, the young Sun was created
(1) when gravity caused the center of the cloud to contract
(2) when gravity caused heavy dust particles to split apart
(3) by outgassing from the spinning interstellar cloud
(4) by outgassing from Earth’s interior
1

43. After the young Sun formed, the disk of gas and dust
(1) became spherical in shape
(2) formed a central bulge
(3) became larger in diameter
(4) eventually formed into planets
4


Base your answers to questions 44 through 46 on the world map below. The shaded portion of the map indicates areas of night, and the unshaded portion indicates areas of daylight on a certain day of the year. Dashed latitude lines represent the Arctic Circle (66.5° N) and the Antarctic Circle (66.50 S). Point A is a location on Earth’s surface.


44. Which diagram shows the position of Earth relative to the Sun’s rays on this day?

4

45. Approximately how many hours of daylight would occur at position A on this day?
(1) 6
(2) 9
(3) 12
(4) 15
3

46. On this day, the duration of daylight from the equator to the Arctic Circle
(1) decreases, only
(2) increases, only
(3) decreases, then increases
(4) increases, then decreases
1


Base your answers to questions 47 through 50 on the cross sections of three rock outcrops, A, B, and C.
Line XY represents a fault. Overturning has not occurred in the rock outcrops.


47. The volcanic ash layer is considered a good time marker for correlating rocks because the volcanic ash layer
(1) has a dark color
(2) can be dated using carbon-14
(3) lacks fossils
(4) was rapidly deposited over a wide area
4

48. Which sedimentary rock shown in the outcrops is the youngest?
(1) black shale
(2) conglomerate
(3) tan siltstone
(4) brown sandstone
3

49. What is the youngest geologic feature in the three bottom layers of outcrop C?
(1) fault
(2) igneous intrusion
(3) unconformity
(4) zone of contact metamorphism
1

50. Which processes were primarily responsible for the formation of most of the rock in outcrop A?
(1) melting and solidification
(2) heating and compression
(3) compaction and cementation
(4) weathering and erosion
3



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-64): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the diagram below, which shows the inferred internal structure of the four terrestrial planets, drawn to scale.


51. How are the crusts of Mars, Mercury, Venus, and Earth similar in composition? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The crusts have a silicate composition.
— The crusts contain the elements oxygen and silicon.


52. Identify the two planets that would allow an S-wave from a crustal quake to be transmitted through the core to the opposite side of the planet. [1]
_______ and _______.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for both Mercury and Mars.


53. Explain why the densities of these terrestrial planets are greater than the densities of the Jovian planets. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The terrestrial planets are rocky and composed of heavier elements.
— The terrestrial planets are closer to the Sun.
— The Jovian planets are not rocky and are composed of lighter elements.



Base your answers to questions 54 through 56 on the information on the four station models shown below.
The weather data were collected at Niagara Falls, Syracuse, Utica, and New York City at the same time.


54. What was the air pressure in Niagara Falls? [1]
_______ mb
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 1020.1 mb.


55. Explain how the weather conditions shown on the station models suggest that Utica had the greatest chance of precipitation. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The air temperature is closest to the dewpoint in Utica.
— The air pressure in Utica is lowest.
— The amount of cloud cover is 100% in Utica.
— The relative humidity is highest in Utica.
— Air pressure is decreasing in Utica.


56. New York City was experiencing a wind blowing from the south at 10 knots with hazy conditions limiting visibility to 2 of a mile. On the station model for New York City below, place, in the proper location and format, the information below. [2]
• wind direction
• wind speed
• present weather
• visibility

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits allocated as follows:
• Allow 2 credits if three or four variables are placed in their proper locations and in the correct format.
• Allow 1 credit if only two variables are placed in their proper locations and in the correct format.

Note: The feather for the wind speed may be placed on either side of the staff.



Base your answers to questions 57 through 59 on the graph below, which shows the average monthly temperatures for a year for city X and city Y. Both cities are located at the same latitude.


57. What was the range in the average monthly temperatures for city Y during the year? [1]
_______ °C to _______°C
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 10°C to 15°C.


58. Explain why city X has a greater difference between summer and winter temperatures than city X [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— City X is located farther inland from the ocean.
— City Y is located closer to a large body of water.


59. What evidence shown on the graph indicates that both cities, X and Y, are located in the Northern Hemisphere? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Both cities have their highest temperatures in June, July, and August.



Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the diagram below, which represents a part of the rock cycle. The igneous rock, granite, and the characteristics of sedimentary rock X and metamorphic rock Y are shown.


60. Identify sedimentary rock X. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for sandstone.


61. Identify metamorphic rock Y. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for gneiss.


62. Complete the table below, with descriptions of the observable characteristics used to identify granite. [1]
 Characteristics of Granite  Description
 Texture  
 Colour  
 Density  

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a correct description of two or more characteristics. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:



Base your answers to questions 63 and 64 on the block diagram below The diagram shows the tectonic plate boundary between Africa and North America 300 million years ago, as these two continents united into a single landmass. The arrows at letters A, B, C, and D represent relative crustal movements. Letter X shows the eruption of a volcano at that time.


63. Identify the type of tectonic plate motion represented by the arrow shown at D. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— subduction
— convergence


64. Identity the type of tectonic motion represented by the arrows shown at A, B, and C. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— transform movement
— faulting
— The plates slide past each other.




Part C
Answer all questions in this part.
Directions (65−82): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the diagram below. The diagram shows the positions of Halley’s Comet and Asteroid 134340 at various times in their orbits. Specific orbital positions are shown for certain years.


65. The eccentricity of the asteroid’s orbit is 0.250. On the orbital diagram below, mark the position of the second focus of the asteroid’s orbit by placing an X on the major axis at the proper location. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the student’s X is within the bracket shown below.
Example of a 1-credit response:


66. Determine which was traveling faster, Halley’s Comet or the asteroid, between the years 1903 and 1908. State one reason for your choice. [1]
Traveling faster: _______
Reason: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Halley’s Comet and an acceptable reason. Acceptable reasons include, but are not limited to:
— The comet traveled a greater distance during that time.
— Halley’s orbit is closer to the Sun.


67. Explain why Halley’s Comet is considered to be part of our solar system. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Halley’s Comet Orbits the Sun.



Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the barogram below, which shows air pressure recorded in millibars at Green Bay, Wisconsin, from April 2 through April 4, 1982.


68. Calculate the rate of change in air pressure from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. on April 3. Label your answer with the correct units. [2]
Rate of change = _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for any value from 2.8 to 3.2.
• Allow 1 credit for the correct units. Acceptable units include, but are not limited to:
— mb/h
— millibars/hour


69. What most likely caused the changes in air pressure for the period of time shown on the graph? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— passage of low-pressure system
— passage of a cold front
— arrival of a warm air mass followed by the arrival of a cold air mass



Base your answers to questions 70 through 74 on the passage and the cross section below. The passage describes the geologic history of the Pine Bush region near Albany, New York. The cross section shows the bedrock and overlying sediment along a southwest to northeast diagonal line through a portion of this area. Location A shows an ancient buried stream channel and location B shows a large sand dune.

The Pine Bush Region


The Pine Bush region, just northwest of Albany, New York, is a 40-square mile area of sand dunes and wetlands covered by pitch pine trees and scrub oak bushes. During the Ordovician Period, this area was covered by a large sea. Layers of mud and sand deposited in this sea were compressed into shale and sandstone bedrock.
During most of the Cenozoic Era, running water eroded stream channels into the bedrock. One of these buried channels is shown at location A in the cross section. Over the last one million years of the Cenozoic Era, this area was affected by glaciation. During the last major advance of glacial ice, soil and bedrock were eroded and later deposited as till (a mixture of boulders, pebbles, sand, and clay).
About 20,000 years ago, the last glacier in New York State began to melt. The meltwater deposited pebbles and sand, forming the stratified drift. During the 5000 years it took to melt this glacier, the entire Pine Bush area became submerged under a large 350—foot—deep glacial lake called Lake Albany. Delta deposits of cobbles, pebbles, and sand formed along the lake shorelines, and beds of silt and clay were deposited farther into the lake.
Lake Albany drained about 12,000 years ago, exposing the lake bottom. Wind erosion created the sand dunes that cover much of the Pine Bush area today.

70. According to the passage, how old is the bedrock shown in the cross section? [1]
_______ million years
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any response from 490 to 443 million years.


71. What evidence shown at location A suggests that the channel in the bedrock was eroded by running water? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The channel at A has a V-shape.
— Running water produces V-shaped channels.


72. List, from oldest to youngest, the four types of sediment shown above the bedrock in the cross section. [1]
Oldest :     1. _______
2. _______
3. _______
Youngest   4. _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the correct order below:
1. till
2. stratified drift
3. clay and silt
4. wind-blown sand


73. Explain why the till layer is composed of unsorted sediment. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Glacial deposits are unsorted.
— Till is a direct ice deposit.


74. How does the shape of the sand dune at location B provide evidence that the prevailing winds that formed this dune were blowing from the southwest? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The gentle slope of the dune is on the southwest side.
— The windward side has a less steep slope.
— The steeper side is leeward.



Base your answers to questions 75 through 77 on the data table below. A student recorded the hours of daylight and the altitude of the Sun at noon on the twenty-first day of every month for one year in Buffalo, New York.


75. On the graph below, draw a line to represent the general relationship between the altitude of the Sun at noon and the number of hours of daylight throughout the year at Buffalo. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for a line on the graph showing that, as the altitude of the noontime Sun increases, the hours of daylight increase.

Example of a 1-credit response:


76. The sky model diagram below shows the apparent path of the Sun on March 21 for an observer in Buffalo, New York. Draw a line to represent the apparent path of the Sun from sunrise to sunset at Buffalo on May 21. Be sure your path indicates the correct altitude of the noon Sun and begins and ends at the correct positions on the horizon. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit if the Sun’s apparent path is drawn so the altitude of the Sun at noon is within the circle shown below.
• Allow 1 credit for a path that starts north of east on the horizon and ends north of west on the horizon.


77. On the same sky model diagram, place an asterisk at the apparent position of the North Star as seen from Buffalo. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the center of the asterisk is between 40° and 45°.

Example of a 3-credit response for questions 76 and 77:



Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the field map below, which shows an area of a state park where an underground gasoline tank leaked and contaminated the groundwater. Groundwater-monitoring wells were installed to determine the extent of the contamination. The concentration of contaminants in parts per million (ppm) in each of the wells is indicated on the map.


78. On the field map, draw the 50-ppm, 100-ppm, and 150-ppm isolines. The 0-ppm isoline has been drawn for you. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for three correctly drawn isolines.
Note: It the student draws additional isolines, all must be correct to receive credit. Allow credit even if the isolines extend into Lake Martin.

Example of a 1-credit response:


79. State the relationship between the distance from the gasoline tank and the concentration of contaminants in the groundwater. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— As distance from the tank increases, the concentration of contaminants in the groundwater decreases.
— An inverse relationship exists between the distance from the tank and the concentration of contaminants in the groundwater.


80. Park officials do not want to see another incident of groundwater contamination from gasoline tanks. State one action that park officials could take to prevent gasoline from contaminating the groundwater in the future. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Place the tank above ground to observe leaks more easily.
— Build an extra liner around the tank.
— Replace tanks regularly.



Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the hardness of the minerals talc, quartz, halite, sulfur, and fluorite.

81. On the grid below, construct a bar graph to represent the hardness of these minerals.

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if all five bars are correctly drawn


82. Which mineral shown on the grid would be the best abrasive? State one reason for your choice. [1]
Mineral: _______
Reason: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for quartz and an acceptable reason. Acceptable reasons include, but are not limited to:
— hardest mineral shown
— hardness of 7
— Quartz has the same hardness as garnet, which is used as an abrasive.



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