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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2001 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. The diagram below shows the Moon in different positions as it revolves around Earth, as observed from above the North Pole (NP).

Which image correctly represents the Moon at position 8, as observed from Earth?

4

2. The Sun’s position in space is best described as the approximate center of
(1) a constellation
(2) the universe
(3) the Milky Way galaxy
(4) our solar system
4

3. Compared to Pluto, Mercury moves more rapidly in its orbit because Mercury
(1) is larger
(2) is more dense
(3) is closer to the Sun
(4) has a more elliptical orbit
3


4. The diagram below represents two planets in our solar system drawn to scale, Jupiter and planet A.

Planet A most likely represents
(1) Earth
(2) Venus
(3) Saturn
(4) Uranus
3

5. The graph below represents the brightness and temperature of stars visible from Earth.

Which location on the graph best represents a star with average brightness and temperature?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
2

6. The length of an Earth year is based on Earth’s
(1) rotation of l5°/hr
(2) revolution of l5°/hr
(3) rotation of approximately l°/day
(4) revolution of approximately l°/day
4

7. Earth’s hydrosphere is best described as the
(1) solid outer layer of Earth
(2) liquid outer layer of Earth
(3) magma layer located below Earth’s stiffer mantle
(4) gaseous layer extending several hundred kilometers from Earth into space
2

8. The passage of the Moon into Earth’s shadow causes a
(1) lunar eclipse
(2) solar eclipse
(3) new Moon
(4) full Moon
1

9. The diagram below shows the latitude-longitude grid on an Earth model. Points A and B are locations on the surface.

On Earth, the solar time difference between point A and point B would be
(1) l hour
(2) 5 hours
(3) l2 hours
(4) 24 hours
2

10. The diagram below represents part of Earth’s latitude-longitude system.

What is the latitude and longitude of point L?
(1) 5° E 30° N
(2) 5° W 30° S
(3) 5° N 30° E
(4) 5° S 30° W
4

11. The map below shows part of North America.

The arrows shown on the map most likely represent the direction of movement of
(1) Earth’s rotation
(2) the prevailing northeast winds
(3) ocean conduction currents
(4) Atlantic Ocean hurricanes
4

12. The diagram below represents the major stars of the constellation Orion, as viewed by an observer in New York State.

Which statement best explains why Orion can be observed from New York State on December 21 but not on June 21?
(1) Orion has an eccentric orbit around Earth.
(2) Orion has an eccentric orbit around the Sun.
(3) Earth revolves around the Sun.
(4) Earth rotates on its axis.
3

13. Which type of air mass usually contains the most moisture?
(1) mT
(2) mP
(3) cT
(4) cP
1

14. A student read in a newspaper that the maximum length of the daylight period for the year in Syracuse, New York, had just been reached. What was the date of this newspaper?
(1) March 22
(2) June 22
(3) September 22
(4) December 22
2

15. Which graph best shows the general effect that differences in elevation above sea level have on the average annual temperature?

3

16. Ozone is concentrated in Earth’s atmosphere at an altitude of 20 to 35 kilometers. Which atmospheric layer contains the greatest concentration of ozone?
(1) mesosphere
(2) thermosphere
(3) troposphere
(4) stratosphere
4

17. Halite has three cleavage directions at 90° to each other. Which model best represents the shape of a broken sample of halite?

2

18. Which geologic feature is caused primarily by chemical weathering?
(1) large caves in limestone bedrock
(2) a pattern of parallel cracks in a granite mountain
(3) blocks of basalt at the base of a steep slope
(4) the smooth, polished surface of a rock in a dry, sandy area
1

19. Ocean tides are best described as
(1) unpredictable and cyclic
(2) unpredictable and noncyclic
(3) predictable and cyclic
(4) predictable and noncyclic
3

20. Where is the most deposition likely to occur?
(1) on the side of a sand dune facing the wind
(2) at the mouth of a river, where it enters an ocean
(3) at a site where glacial ice scrapes bedrock
(4) at the top of steep slope in a streambed
2

21. The map below shows the area surrounding a meandering stream.

At which point is erosion greatest?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
2

22. What is the largest particle that can be kept in motion by a stream that has a velocity of 100 centimeters per second?
(1) silt
(2) sand
(3) pebble
(4) cobble
3

23. An extrusive igneous rock with a mineral composition of 35% quartz, 35% potassium feldspar, 15% plagioclase feldspar, 10% biotite, and 5% amphibole is called
(1) rhyolite
(2) granite
(3) gabbro
(4) basaltic glass
1

24. During which process does heat transfer occur because of density differences?
(1) conduction
(2) convection
(3) radiation
(4) reflection
2

25. Carbon-l4, an isotope used to date recent organic remains, would most likely be useful in determining the age of a fossil
(1) trilobite
(2) Coelophysis
(3) armored fish
(4) Beluga whale
4

26. Which diagram best represents visible light rays after striking a dark, rough surface?

3

27. The cartoon below illustrates possible interaction between humans and mammoths.

During which geologic timespan could this “game” have occurred?
(1) Pleistocene Epoch
(2) Pennsylvanian Epoch
(3) Precambrian Era
(4) Paleozoic Era
1

28. The apparent shift in the direction of swing of a Foucault pendulum is caused by Earth’s
(1) revolution
(2) rotation
(3) spherical shape
(4) tilted axis
2

29. The diagram below shows a glacial landscape.

Which evidence suggests that ice created this landscape?
(1) U-shaped valleys
(2) many stream valleys
(3) sorted sediment on the valley floor
(4) the landslide near the valley floor
1

30. An earthquake’s P-wave arrived at a seismograph station at 02 hours 40 minutes 00 seconds. The earthquake’s S-wave arrived at the same station 2 minutes later. What is the approximate distance from the seismograph station to the epicenter of the earthquake?
(1) 1,100 km
(2) 2,400 km
(3) 3,100 km
(4) 4,000 km
1

31. When small particles settle through water faster than large particles, the small particles are probably
(1) lighter
(2) flatter
(3) better sorted
(4) more dense
4

32. The diagram below shows the abundance of organisms called crinoids, blastoids, and echinoids throughout different geologic periods. The number of species living at any given time is represented by the width of the blackened areas.

Which statement about crinoids, blastoids, and echinoids is best supported by the diagram?
(1) They are now extinct.
(2) They came into existence during the same geologic period.
(3) They existed during the Devonian Period.
(4) They have steadily increased in number since they first appeared.
3

33. Which graph shows the effect of soil permeability on the amount of runoff in an area?

1

34. In a Doppler red shift, the observed wavelengths of light from distant celestial objects appear closer to the red end of the spectrum than light from similar nearby celestial objects. The explanation for the red shift is that the universe is presently
(1) contracting, only
(2) expanding, only
(3) remaining constant in size
(4) alternating between contracting and expanding
2

35. Which sequence of change in rock type occurs as shale is subjected to increasing heat and pressure?
(1) shale → schist → phyllite → slate → gneiss
(2) shale → slate → phyllite → schist → gneiss
(3) shale → gneiss → phyllite → slate → schist
(4) shale → gneiss → phyllite → schist → slate
2



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-51): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 38 on the weather map below. Points A, B, C, and D are locations on Earth’s surface.

 
36. The isolines on the map represent values of air
(1) density
(2) humidity
(3) pressure
(4) temperature
3

37. The strongest winds are closest to location
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
1

38. Which type of front extends southward from the center of the low?
(1) occluded
(2) stationary
(3) warm
(4) cold
4


Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on Moh’s mineral hardness scale and the chart below showing the approximate hardness of some common objects..

 
39. Which statement is best supported by this scale?
(1) A fingernail will scratch calcite, but not quartz.
(2) A fingernail will scratch quartz, but not calcite.
(3) A piece of glass can be scratched by quartz, but not by calcite.
(4) A piece of glass can be scratched by calcite, but not by quartz.
3

40. The hardness of these minerals is most closely related to the
(1) mineral’s color
(2) mineral’s abundance in nature
(3) amount of iron the mineral contains
(4) internal arrangement of the mineral’s atoms
4


Base your answers to questions 41 through 43 on the map below, which shows the location of the Peru-Chile Trench.

 
41. The Peru-Chile Trench marks the boundary between the
(1) Pacific Plate and the Antarctic Plate
(2) Nazca Plate and the South American Plate
(3) North American Plate and the Cocos Plate
(4) Caribbean Plate and the Scotia Plate
2

42. In which diagram do the arrows best represent the motions of Earth’s crust at the Peru-Chile Trench?

1

43. Which observation provides the best evidence of the pattern of crustal movement at the Peru-Chile Trench?
(1) the direction of flow of warm ocean currents
(2) the mineral composition of samples of mafic mantle rock
(3) comparison of the rates of sediment deposition
(4) the locations of shallow-focus and deep-focus earthquakes
4


44. The table below shows the altitude and compass direction of one planet, as viewed by an observer in New York State at 10 p.m. on the first day of each month from April through November.

Which graph best represents a plot of this planet’s apparent path, as viewed by the observer over the 7-month period?

1


Base your answers to questions 45 and 46 on the data table below. The data table provides information about the Moon, based on current scientific theories.

 
45. Which statement is supported by the information in the table?
(1) The Moon was once a comet.
(2) The Moon once had saltwater oceans.
(3) Earth is 4.5 billion years older than the Moon.
(4) Earth was liquid rock when the Moon was formed.
4

46. Which Moon feature is an impact structure?
(1) crater
(2) maria plain
(3) terrae highland
(4) mantle
1


Base your answers to questions 47 through 49 on the map and data table below. The map shows the locations of volcanic islands and seamounts that erupted on the seafloor of the Pacific Plate as it moved northwest over a stationary mantle hotspot beneath the lithosphere. The hotspot is currently under Kilauea. Island size is not drawn to scale. Locations XY and Z are on Earth’s surface.

 
47. Approximately how far has location X moved from its original location over the hotspot?
(1) 3,600 km
(2) 2,500 km
(3) 1,800 km
(4) 20 km
3

48. According to the data table, what is the approximate speed at which the island of Kauai has been moving away from the mantle hotspot, in kilometers per million years?
(1) 1
(2) 10
(3) 100
(4) 1,000
3

49. Which lithospheric plate boundary features are located at Y and Z?
(1) trenches created by the subduction of the Pacific Plate
(2) rift valleys created by seafloor spreading of the Pacific Plate
(3) secondary plates created by volcanic activity within the Pacific Plate
(4) mid-ocean ridges created by faulting below the Pacific Plate
1


50. The diagram below shows trends in the temperature of North America during the last 200,000 years, as estimated by scientists.

What is the total number of major glacial periods that have occurred in North America in the last 200,000 years?
(1) 5
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
2

51. The Himalayan Mountains are located along a portion of the southern boundary of the Eurasian Plate. At the top of Mt. Everest (29,028 feet) in the Himalayan Mountains, climbers have found fossilized marine shells in the surface bedrock. From this observation, which statement is the best inference about the origin of the Himalayan Mountains?
(1) The Himalayan Mountains were formed by volcanic activity.
(2) Sea level has been lowered more than 29,000 feet since the shells were fossilized.
(3) The bedrock containing the fossil shells is part of an uplifted seafloor.
(4) The Himalayan Mountains formed at a divergent plate boundary.
3



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (52-56): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 52 through 56 on the diagram below. The diagram represents the apparent path of the Sun observed at four locations on Earth’s surface on March 2l. The present positions of the Sun, Polaris, and the zenith (position directly overhead) are shown for an observer at each location.

 
52. The observer at location A casts a shadow at the time represented in the diagram.
a State the compass direction in which the observer at location A must look to view her shadow. [1]
b Describe the change in the length of the shadow that will occur between the time shown and sunset. [1]
a _______
b _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] a Allow l credit for northeast or east northeast or north northeast.
b Allow l credit for increase or become longer.


53. State the approximate time of day for the observer at location B when the Sun is at the position shown in the diagram. [1]
_______ p.m.
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for 2:30 p.m.(±1 hour)


54. Explain why the intensity of sunlight at noon on March 21 is greater at location C than at the other locations. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The Sun is highest in the sky at noon at location C.
The observer is at the Equator.


55. The observer at location D is located at a higher latitude than the other three observers. State one way that this conclusion can be determined from the diagram. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Polaris has an altitude of 90°.
The Sun’s apparent path is along the horizon.
The only direction shown on the diagram is south; she must be at the North Pole.


56. State the other day of the year when the Sun’s apparent path is exactly the same as that shown for these four locations on March 21. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for September 21, 22, 23, or autumnal equinox.



Base your answers to questions 57 through 61 on the diagram and information below.

The diagram shows a cross section of a portion of Earth’s crust that has undergone geological processes. Overturning of rock layers has not occurred. Point A represents one location of metamorphic rock.
 
57. State one piece of evidence that indicates basalt is the youngest rock unit in the cross section. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The intrusion cuts across all rock layers.
The basalt is on the surface.


58. As magma cools, what process changes it into basalt? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for solidification or crystallization.


59. State the name of the inorganic sedimentary rock shown in the cross section that is composed of sediment with the greatest range in particle size. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for conglomerate.


60. State the name of the rock, formed by contact metamorphism, located at A. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for marble or hornfels.


61. State one piece of evidence that shows that crustal uplift has occurred in this region. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The bedrock is faulted.
There is an unconformity.



Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the weather information below.

A student using a sling psychrometer obtained a dry-bulb reading of 20°C and a wet-bulb reading of l6°C for a parcel of air outside the classroom.
62. State the dewpoint. [1]
_______ °C
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for l4°C.


63. State the change in relative humidity as the air temperature and the dewpoint get closer to the same value. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for relative humidity increases.


64. On another day, the student determined the dewpoint was 70°F. Record the dewpoint, using the proper format, in the correct location on the weather station model provided below. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1]

Allow l credit for correctly indicating the dewpoint. Do not allow this credit if ° or °F is written.




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (65-79): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the paragraph below, which describes some factors that affect Earth’s climate.

Earth’s climate is in a delicate state of balance. Many factors affect climate. Any small change in the factors may lead to long-term cooling or warming of Earth’s atmosphere. For example, during the last 100 years, measurements have shown a gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide. This change has been linked to an increase in Earth’s average atmospheric temperature. Variations in the tilt of Earth’s axis have been similarly linked to the occurrence of ice ages. Both the increases in temperature and the occurrence of ice ages have been linked to changes in global sea level.
65. State one reason for the increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere during the last 100 years. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
burning fossil fuels
population increases


66. State one way that the recent increase in average global temperature can cause changes in ocean water level. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Global warming melts glaciers, causing a rise in sea level.
Increased evaporation could lower sea level.


67. State what would happen to the average summer and winter temperatures in New York State if the tilt of Earth’s axis were to decrease from 23% to 20°. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
warmer winter temperatures and cooler summer temperatures
smaller temperature range



Base your answers to questions 68 through 75 on the reading passage and topographic map below.

A group of Earth science students decided to take an adventurous camping trip, so they rode bicycles to a New York State park that was located in an isolated area. They traveled up a steep hill. When they reached the top, they looked at the landscape and noticed a lake at the bottom of the hill. They named it Hidden Lake. To the left of Hidden Lake was a large field with a small stream. They decided to set up their campsite in the field near Hidden Lake. To get to the field, they cycled down a very steep slope.

The map below shows the location of the bicycle trail and the students’ campsite. Points P and Q are reference points on the map.
 
68. State the evidence shown on the map that indicates that the area directly north of Hidden Lake is relatively flat. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Lack of contour lines indicates a relatively flat area.
The stream shows meanders.
The contour lines are spaced far apart.


69. a State the general compass direction in which the stream is flowing. [1]
b State how contour lines provide the evidence for determining this direction. [1]
a _______
b _______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] a Allow l credit for north or northeast or north northeast.
b Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
Contour lines bend upstream.
Streams flow from higher contours to lower contours.
Streams flow opposite the apex of the contour lines.


70. On the grid provided below, draw a profile of the landscape along the bicycle trail from point P to point Q by following the directions below.
a Plot the elevation along line PQ by marking with a dot each point where a contour line is crossed by line PQ. Point P and point Q have been plotted for you. [2]
b Connect the dots to complete the profile. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[3] a-b

a Allow 2 credits if 8 to 10 points are plotted correctly. Allow only l credit if only 5 to 7 points are plotted correctly.
b Allow l credit for correctly connecting all the plotted points. The high point of the profile must be greater than 600 ft but less than 620 ft.


71. The students decided to measure the speed of the stream by floating apples down a straight section of the stream. Describe the steps the students must take to determine the stream’s surface rate of movement (speed) by using a stopwatch, a 10-foot rope, and several apples. Include the equation for calculating rate. [3]
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[3] Allow l credit for measuring the distance with the rope.

and


Allow l credit for timing the apples.

and


Allow l credit for a correct equation. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:


72. While exploring the stream. a student found a rock containing a trilobite fossil. Name the most likely type of rock this student found. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for sedimentary or any specific type of sedimentary rock.


73. State the geologic era during which the rock containing the trilobite most likely formed. [1]
_______ Era
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for Paleozoic Era.


74.
The next day the students decided to move their campsite l mile directly east of their original campsite. On the map provided below, place another campsite symbol, , to indicate the location of their second campsite. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW

[1] Allow l credit for correctly indicating on the map the location of the second campsite (±0.2 mi).


75. The students decided to take a different route home to avoid riding their bicycles up the steep hill. Plan a return route that will take the campers back to point P and that will involve the least change in elevation during the trip. On the map provided below, draw a line from the second campsite to point P to show the route. Place arrows on the line to show the direction that the students will be traveling. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for either route shown on the map above or for any other appropriate route from the student’s plotted campsite on which the 500-foot contour line is crossed only once.



Base your answers to questions 76 through 79 on the magazine article and diagram below.

Lake-Effect Snow


During the cold months of the year, the words “lake effect” are very much a part of the weather picture in many locations in New York State. Snow created by the lake effect may represent more than half the season’s snowfall in some areas.

In order for heavy lake-effect snow to develop, the temperature of the water at the surface of the lake must be higher than the temperature of the air flowing over the water. The higher the water temperature and the lower the air temperature, the greater the potential for lake-effect snow.

A lake-effect storm begins when air flowing across the lake is warmed as it comes in close contact with the water. The warmed air rises and takes moisture along with it. This moisture, which is water vapor from the lake, is turned into clouds as it encounters much colder air above. When the clouds reach the shore of the lake, they deposit their snow on nearby land. A typical lake-effect storm is illustrated in the diagram below.

The area most likely to receive snow from a lake is called a “snowbelt.” Lake Ontario’s snowbelt includes the counties along the eastern and southeastern ends of the lake. Because the lake runs lengthwise from west to east, the prevailing westerly winds are able to gather the maximum amount of moisture as they flow across the entire length of the lake. There can be lake-effect snowfall anywhere around the lake, but the heaviest and most frequent snowfalls occur near the eastern shore.

In parts of the snowbelt, the lake effect combines with a phenomenon known as orographic lifting to produce some very heavy snowfalls. After cold air has streamed over the length of Lake Ontario, it moves inland and is forced to climb the slopes of the Tug Hill Plateau and the Adirondack Mountains, resulting in very heavy snowfall.
 
76. State the relationship that must exist between water temperature and air temperature for lake-effect snow to develop. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
The temperature of the lake water at the surface must be higher than the temperature of the air flowing over the water.
Water temperature is warmer than air temperature.


77. State why locations east and southeast of Lake Ontario are more likely to receive lake-effect snow than are locations west of the lake. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to, these examples:
prevailing winds
Lake Ontario runs lengthwise from west to east, and the prevailing winds pick up moisture as they flow across the entire length.


78. State the name of the New York State landscape region that includes location A shown in the diagram. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for Eric-Ontario Lowlands.


79. State why very heavy snowfall occurs in the Tug Hill Plateau region. [1]
_______
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow l credit for a correct response that includes the idea of rising or cooling air or increased condensation or orographic lifting.



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