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Earth Science - New York Regents June 2008 Exam

This is a test of your knowledge of Earth science. Use that knowledge to answer all the question in this examination. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables. The Earth Science Reference Tables are supplied separately. Be certain you have a copy of the 2001 Edition (Revised November 2006) of these reference tables before you begin the examination.
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Part A

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (1-35): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
1. As viewed from Earth, most stars appear to move across the sky each night because
(1) Earth revolves around the Sun
(2) Earth rotates on its axis
(3) stars orbit around Earth
(4) stars revolve around the center of the galaxy
2

2. The star Algol is estimated to have approximately the same luminosity as the star Aldebaran and approximately the same temperature as the star Rigel. Algol is best classified as a
(1) main sequence star
(2) red giant star  
(3) white dwarf star
(4) red dwarf star
1

3. The explosion associated with the Big Bang theory and the formation of the universe is inferred to have occurred how many billion years ago?
(1) less than 1
(2) 2.5 
(3) 4.6 
(4) over 10
4


4. The diagram below represents the constellation Lyra.

Which statement best explains why Lyra is visible to an observer in New York State at midnight in July but not visible at midnight in December?
(1) Earth spins on its axis.
(2) Earth orbits the Sun.
(3) Lyra spins on its axis.
(4) Lyra orbits Earth.
2

5. The Coriolis effect provides evidence that Earth
(1) rotates on its axis
(2) revolves around the Sun
(3) undergoes cyclic tidal changes
(4) has a slightly eccentric orbit
1

6. The altitude of the ozone layer near the South Pole is 20 kilometers above sea level. Which temperature zone of the atmosphere contains this ozone layer?
(1) troposphere
(2) stratosphere  
(3) mesosphere
(4) thermosphere
2

7. A low-pressure system in the Northern Hemisphere has a surface air-circulation pattern that is
(1) clockwise and away from the center
(2) clockwise and toward the center
(3) counterclockwise and away from the center
(4) counterclockwise and toward the center
4

8. Air masses are identified on the basis of temperature and
(1) type of precipitation
(2) wind velocity
(3) moisture content
(4) atmospheric transparency
3

9. During some winters in the Finger Lakes region of New York State, the lake water remains unfrozen even though the land around the lakes is frozen and covered with snow. The primary cause of this difference is that water
(1) gains heat during evaporation
(2) is at a lower elevation
(3) has a higher specific heat
(4) reflects more radiation
3

10. The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Hydrogen       +        Hydrogen        →          Helium          +      Energy
(lighter element)        (lighter element)         (heavier element)

The reaction represents how energy is produced
(1) in the Sun by fusion
(2) when water condenses in Earth’s atmosphere
(3) from the movement of crustal plates
(4) during nuclear decay
1

11. The diagram below shows the spectral lines for an element.

Which diagram best represents the spectral lines of this element when its light is observed coming from a star that is moving away from Earth?

2

12. Diagram 1 shows the Moon in its orbit at four positions labeled A, B, C, and D. Diagram 2 shows a phase of the Moon as viewed from New York State.

At which labeled Moon position would the phase of the Moon shown in diagram 2 be observed from New York State?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C 
(4) D
2

13. The diagram below shows an observer measuring the altitude of Polaris.

What is the latitude of the observer?
(1) 20° N
(2) 20° S 
(3) 70° N 
(4) 70° S
1

14. The weather instrument shown below can be used to determine dewpoint.

Based on the values shown, the dewpoint is
(1) −5°C
(2)   2°C 
(3)   8°C 
(4) 33°C
2

15. Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high tides, and the lowest low tides on Earth? (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.)

3

16. Which station model correctly represents the weather conditions in an area that is experiencing winds from the northeast at 25 knots and has had a steady drop in barometric pressure of 247 millibars during the last three hours?

2

17. The diagram below shows weather instruments A and B.

Which table correctly indicates the name of the weather instrument and the weather variable that it measures?

4

18. Which ocean current carries cool water toward Earth's equator?
(1) Alaska Current
(2) East Australia Current
(3) Peru Current  
(4) North Atlantic Current
3

19. Equal areas of which surface would most likely absorb the most insolation?
(1) smooth, white surface
(2) rough, white surface
(3) smooth, black surface  
(4) rough, black surface
4

20. On the map below, the darkened areas represent locations where living corals currently exist. The arrow points to a location where coral fossils have been found in Devonian-age bedrock in New York State.

Devonian-age coral fossils found in some New York State bedrock are not located in the same general region that present-day corals are living because during the Devonian Period
(1) corals migrated to New York State
(2) corals lived everywhere on Earth
(3) New York State was closer to the equator
(4) New York State had a colder climate
3

21. Which index fossil may be found in the surface bedrock near Ithaca, New York?

3

22. The cross sections below represent three widely separated outcrops of exposed bedrock. Letters A, B, C, and D represent fossils found in the rock layers.

2

23. Active volcanoes are most abundant along the
(1) edges of tectonic plates
(2) eastern coastline of continents
(3) 23.5° N and 23.5° S parallels of latitude
(4) equatorial ocean floor
1

24. Which part of Earth’s interior is inferred to have convection currents that cause tectonic plates to move?
(1) rigid mantle
(2) asthenosphere 
(3) outer core 
(4) inner core
2

25. Compared to the continental crust, the oceanic crust is
(1) less dense and less felsic
(2) less dense and less mafic
(3) more dense and more felsic
(4) more dense and more mafic
4

26. The pie graph below shows the elements comprising Earth’s crust in percent by mass.

1

27. The block diagrams below show two landscape regions labeled A and B.

What is the most probable cause of the difference in surface features between A and B?
(1) A is the result of a humid climate, while B is the result of a dry climate.
(2) A is at a high elevation, while B is located at sea level.
(3) A is a plateau region, while B is a mountainous region.
(4) A is composed of igneous bedrock, while B is composed of sedimentary bedrock.
1

28. The block diagram below shows a region that has undergone faulting.

Which map shows the stream drainage pattern that would most likely develop on the surface of this region?

3

29. The map below shows the bend of a large meandering stream. The arrows show the direction of stream flow. Letters A, B, and C are positions on the streambed where erosion and deposition data were collected.

Which table best represents the locations where erosion and deposition are dominant and where an equilibrium exists between the two processes? [A check mark represents the dominant process for each lettered location.]

4

30. Which graph best represents the relationship between the discharge of a stream and the velocity of stream flow?

2

31. The diagrams below represent four different examples of one process that transports sediments.

Which process is shown in these diagrams?
(1) chemical weathering
(2) wind action 
(3) mass movement
(4) rock abrasion
3

32. The cross section below shows a stream flowing downhill. Points A through D are locations in the stream.

At which point would most deposition occur?
(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C 
(4) D
4

33. A stream flowing at a velocity of 250 centimeters per second is transporting sediment particles ranging in size from clay to cobbles. Which transported particles will be deposited by the stream if its velocity decreases to 100 centimeters per second?
(1) cobbles, only
(2) cobbles and some pebbles, only
(3) cobbles, pebbles, and some sand, only
(4) cobbles, pebbles, sand, silt, and clay
2

34. Which rock is sedimentary in origin and formed as a result of chemical processes?
(1) granite
(2) shale  
(3) breccia
(4) dolostone
4

35.
4



Part B-1

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (36-50): For each statement or question, identify the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 36 through 39 on the passage and diagram below. The diagram shows the orbits of the four inner planets and the asteroid Hermes around the Sun. Point A represents a position along Hermes' orbit.

The Curious Tale of Asteroid Hermes

It’s dogma [accepted belief] now: an asteroid hit Earth 65 million years ago and wiped out the dinosaurs. But in 1980 when scientists Walter and Luis Alvarez first suggested the idea to a gathering at the American Association for Advancement of Sciences, their listeners were skeptical. Asteroids hitting Earth? Wiping out species? It seemed incredible.

At that very moment, unknown to the audience, an asteroid named Hermes halfway between Mars and Jupiter was beginning a long plunge toward our planet. Six months later it would pass 300,000 miles from Earth’s orbit, only a little more than the distance to the Moon ....

Hermes approaches Earth’s orbit twice every 777 days. Usually our planet is far away when the orbit crossing happens, but in 1937, 1942, 1954, 1974 and 1986, Hermes came harrowingly [dangerously] close to Earth itself. We know about most of these encounters only because Lowell Observatory astronomer Brian Skiff rediscovered Hermes on Oct. 15, 2003.

Astronomers around the world have been tracking it carefully ever since ....

Excerpted from “The Curious Tale of Asteroid Hermes," Dr. Tony Phillips, Science @ NASA, November 3, 2003



36. When Hermes is located at position A and Earth is in the position shown in the diagram, the asteroid can be viewed from Earth at each of the following times except
(1) sunrise
(2) sunset  
(3) 12 noon
(4) 12 midnight
3

37. How does the period of revolution of Hermes compare to the period of revolution of the planets shown in the diagram?
(1) Hermes has a longer period of revolution than Mercury, but a shorter period of revolution than Venus, Earth, and Mars.
(2) Hermes has a shorter period of revolution than Mercury, but a longer period of revolution than Venus, Earth, and Mars.
(3) Hermes has a longer period of revolution than all of the planets shown.
(4) Hermes has a shorter period of revolution than all of the planets shown.
3

38. Why is evidence of asteroids striking Earth so difficult to find?
(1) Asteroids are made mostly of frozen water and gases and are vaporized on impact.
(2) Asteroids are not large enough to leave impact craters.
(3) Asteroids do not travel fast enough to create impact craters.
(4) Weathering, erosion, and deposition on Earth have destroyed or buried most impact craters.
4

39. According to the diagram, as Hermes and the planets revolve around the Sun, Hermes appears to be a threat to collide with
(1) Earth, only
(2) Earth and Mars, only
(3) Venus, Earth, and Mars, only
(4) Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
3

40. The map below shows the location of Grenville-age bedrock found in the northeastern United States.

In which New York State landscapes is Grenville-age bedrock exposed at Earth’s surface?
(1) Erie-Ontario Lowlands and St. Lawrence Lowlands
(2) Catskills and Allegheny Plateau
(3) Tug Hill Plateau and Atlantic Coastal Plain
(4) Hudson Highlands and Adirondack Mountains
4


Base your answers to questions 41 through 44 on the climate graphs below, which show average monthly precipitation and temperatures at four cities, A, B, C and D.

 
41. City A has very little variation in temperature during the year because city A is located
(1) on the dry side of a mountain
(2) on the wet side of a mountain
(3) near the center of a large landmass
(4) near the equator
4

42. During which season does city B usually experience the month with the highest average precipitation?
(1) spring 
(2) summer
(3) fall 
(4) winter
2

43. It can be concluded that city C is located in the Southern Hemisphere because city C has
(1) small amounts of precipitation throughout the year
(2) large amounts of precipitation throughout the year
(3) its warmest temperatures in January and February
(4) its warmest temperatures in July and August
3

44. Very little water will infiltrate the soil around city D because the region usually has
(1) a frozen surface
(2) nearly flat surfaces
(3) a small amount of runoff
(4) permeable soil
1


Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the block diagram below, which shows a portion of Earth's crust. Letters AB, C, and D indicate sedimentary layers.

 
45. Which event occurred most recently?
(1) formation of layer A
(2) formation of layer D
(3) tilting of all four sedimentary rock layers
(4) erosion of the igneous rock exposed at the surface
4

46. The igneous rock is mostly composed of potassium Feldspar and quartz crystals that have an average grain size of 3 millimeters. The igneous rock is most likely
(1) granite
(2) pegmatite  
(3) gabbro
(4) pumice
1

47. Which processes produced rock layer B?
(1) subduction and melting
(2) uplift and solidification
(3) heat and pressure
(4) compaction and cementation
4


Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the map of Long Island, New York. AB, CD, EF, and GH are reference lines on the map.

 
48. Which agent of erosion transported the sediments that formed the moraines shown on the map?
(1) water
(2) wind  
(3) ice
(4) mass movement
3

49. The cross section below represents the sediments beneath the land surface along one of the reference lines shown on the map.

Along which reference line was the cross section taken?
(1) AB
(2) CD  
(3) EF
(4) GH
3

50. A major difference between sediments in the outwash and sediments in the moraines is that the sediments deposited in the outwash are
(1) larger
(2) sorted  
(3) more angular
(4) older
2



Part B-2

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (51-65): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 51 through 53 on the cross section below, which shows limestone bedrock with caves.

51. In the empty box on the left side of the cross section below, draw a horizontal line to indicate the level of the water table. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. The student’s line must be at the same level as the black line shown below.


52. The precipitation in this area is becoming more acidic. Explain why acid rain weathers limestone bedrock. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The acid rain dissolves the limestone.
— The calcite in limestone chemically reacts with the acid.


53. Identify one source of pollution caused by human activity that contributes to the precipitation becoming more acidic. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— burning fossil fuels
— exhaust emission from automobiles
— smoke from factories



Base your answers to questions 54 through 58 on the satellite image shown below. The satellite image shows a low-pressure system over a portion of the United States. Air-mass symbols and frontal boundaries have been added. Line XY is one frontal boundary. Points A, B, C, and D represent surface locations. White areas represent clouds.

54. In the space provided below draw the proper symbol to represent the most probable front on line XY [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for the warm-front symbol drawn on the correct side of line XY.


55. State one process that causes clouds to form in the moist air along the cold front. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— condensation
— expanding air
— cooling to the dewpoint
— rising air
— deposition (sublimation)


56. Describe one piece of evidence shown on the map that suggests location A has a lower relative humidity than location B. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Location A is influenced by a cold, dry air mass.
— Location A has clear skies.
— Location B is in a warm, moist air mass.
— Location B has cloud cover.


57. Explain why location C most likely has a cooler temperature than location D. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Location C is cooler because it is farther north.
C is in a continental polar air mass, which is cold, dry air.
— Location C has clouds that block some of the sunlight.


58. State the compass direction that the center of this low-pressure system will move over the next few days if it follows a normal storm track. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— east
— northeast
— ENE



Base your answers to questions 59 and 60 on the data table below, which provides information about four of Jupiter's moons.

 
59. Identify the planet in our solar system that is closest in diameter to Callisto. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Mercury.


60. In 1610, Galileo was the first person to observe, with the aid of a telescope, these four moons orbiting Jupiter. Explain why Galileo’s observation of this motion did not support the geocentric model of our solar system. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— These moons orbit Jupiter, not Earth.
— The geocentric model has all celestial objects revolving around Earth.



Base your answers to questions 61 and 62 on the cross section below, which shows a portion of Earth's interior layers and the location of an earthquake epicenter. Letter A represents a seismic station on Earth's surface. Letter B represents a location in Earth's interior.

 
61. Explain why seismic station A receives P-waves but not S-waves from this earthquake. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
P-waves can travel through the liquid outer core, but S-waves cannot.
P-waves travel through all parts of Earth’s interior.
S-waves do not pass through the outer core.


62. What is the approximate depth at location B? [1]
_______ km
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 2800 to 3000 km.



Base your answers to questions 63 and 65 on the diagram below, which shows Earth's water cycle. Number indicate the estimated volume of water, in millions of cubic kilometers, stored at any one time in the atmosphere, the oceans, and on the continents. The yearly amount of water that moves in and out of each of these portions of Earth is also indicated in millions of cubic kilometers.

63. Calculate the total amount of water stored in the atmosphere, the oceans, and on the continents together at any one time. [1]
_______ millions of cubic kilometers
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 1408 to 1409 millions of cubic kilometers.


64. Explain why the yearly total precipitation over the oceans is greater than the yearly total precipitation over the continents. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The oceans cover a larger portion of Earth’s surface than the continents.
— Air over oceans has more moisture than air over land.
— More evaporation occurs over the oceans.


65. Describe two surface characteristics that will affect the rate of stream runoff into the ocean. [1]
Characteristic 1: _______
Characteristic 2: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for two acceptable characteristics. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— slope of the land surface
— soil type or composition
— vegetation or lack of vegetation
— land use/a paved surface
— degree of soil saturation
— porosity of the soil
— permeability or impermeability of the surface




Part C

Answer all questions in this part.


Directions (66-84): Record your answers in the spaces provided below. Some questions may require the use of the Earth Science Reference Tables.
Base your answers to questions 66 through 68 on the data table below, which shows the radioactive decay of carbon-14. The number of years required to complete four half-lives has been left blank.

 
66. On the grid below, construct a graph that shows the radioactive decay of carbon-14 by plotting an X to show the percentage of original carbon-14 remaining after each half-life. Connect the Xs with a smooth, curved line. [1]
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if the centers of all Xs are correctly plotted within the circles shown below and the Xs are correctly connected with a line that falls within the circles.

Note: It is recommended that an overlay be used to ensure uniformity in scoring.


67. How long does it take for radioactive carbon-14 to complete four half-lives? [1]
_______ yr
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 22,800 yr.


68. The cross section below shows part of Earth’s crust. The objects in parentheses indicate materials found within each rock unit or deposit.

Which object in parentheses could be accurately dated using carbon-14? Explain your answer. [1]
Object: _______
Explanation: _______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for tree trunk and an acceptable explanation. Acceptable explanations include, but are not limited to:
— The tree trunk is a recent organic remain.
— Carbon-14 is used to date recent remains.



Base your answers to questions 69 through 73 on the passage and the cross section below, which explain how some precious gemstones form. The cross section shows a portion of the ancient Tethys Sea, once located between the Indian-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate.

Precious Gemstones


Some precious gemstones are a form of the mineral corundum, which has a hardness of 9. Corundum is a rare mineral made up of closely packed aluminum and oxygen atoms, and its formula is Al2O3. If small amounts of chromium replace some of the aluminum atoms in corundum, a bright-red gemstone called a ruby is produced. If traces of titanium and iron replace some aluminum atoms, deep-blue sapphires can be produced.

Most of the world’s ruby deposits are found in metamorphic rock that is located along the southern slope of the Himalayas, where plate tectonics played a part in ruby formation. Around 50 million years ago, the Tethys Sea was located between what is now India and Eurasia. Much of the Tethys Sea bottom was composed of limestone that contained the elements needed to make these precious gemstones. The Tethys Sea closed up as the Indian-Australian Plate pushed under the Eurasian Plate, creating the Himalayan Mountains. The limestone rock lining the seafloor underwent metamorphism as it was pushed deep into Earth by the Indian-Australian Plate. For the next 40 to 45 million years, as the Himalayas rose, rubies, sapphires, and other gemstones continued to form.


69. Which element replaces some of the aluminum atoms, causing the bright-red color of a ruby? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for chromium or Cr.


70. State one physical property of rubies, other than a bright-red color, that makes them useful as gemstones in jewelry. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— hardness
— luster
— crystal shape


71. Identify the metamorphic rock in which the rubies and sapphires that formed along the Himalayas are usually found. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for marble.


72. During which geologic epoch did the events shown in the cross section of the Tethys Sea occur? [1]
_______ epoch
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for Eocene Epoch.


73. What type of tectonic plate boundary is shown in the cross section? [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— convergent plate boundary
— subduction zone
— collision boundary



Base your answers to questions 74 through 77 on the diagrams below. Diagram 1 shows Earth's location in its orbit on the first day of each of the four seasons, labeled A through D. Diagram 2 shows north polar view of Earth on March 21. Point E represents a location on Earth's surface. Longitude line are shown at 15° intervals.

 
74. How does the altitude of the Sun at solar noon appear to change each day for an observer in New York State as Earth moves from position A to position B to position C? [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The Sun will appear higher in the sky as Earth moves to position B, then lower in the sky as it moves to position C.
— The angle increases as it approaches B, and decreases as it approaches C.
— The altitude will increase, then decrease.


75. Explain why the duration of insolation is 12 hours at both the Arctic Circle and the equator when Earth is at position C. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— On an equinox, all locations will have the same duration of insolation.
— The Sun’s direct rays are at the equator on this day.
— Each location is in sunlight for half of the 24-hour Earth rotation.


76. Describe one piece of evidence shown in the diagram which indicates that the Northern Hemisphere is experiencing winter at position D. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Earth’s Northern Hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun.
— The Arctic Circle is dark and has 24 hours of night.
— Less sunlight is received in the Northern Hemisphere.


77. State the hour of the day at point E. [1]
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for 4 p.m. or 1600 hours. Do not allow credit for 4 or 4 a.m.



Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the map below. The map shows the water depth, measured in feet, at the north end of one of the Finger Lakes. Points A and B are locations at the lake's shoreline. Points X and Y are locations on the bottom of the lake.

78. On the map below, draw the 20-foot-depth isoline. The isoline must extend to the edge of the map. [1]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for correctly drawing the 20-foot-depth isoline. It must extend to the edge of the map to receive credit.


79. On the grid in below, construct a profile along the line from point A to point B. Plot the depth along line AB by marking an X at each numbered point where a water depth is shown. Complete the profile by connecting the Xs with a smooth, curved line. The Xs for point A and point B have been plotted. [2]

MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[2] Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:

Allow 2 credits if the centers of all ten student-plotted Xs are within the circles shown below and the Xs are correctly connected with a line that falls within the circles.
Allow 1 credit if the centers of only eight or nine student-plotted Xs are within the circles shown below and the Xs are correctly connected with a line that falls within the circles.

or


Allow 1 credit if all ten student-plotted Xs are within the circles shown below, but not correctly connected with a line.


80. Calculate the gradient between point X and point Y. Label your answer with the correct units. [1]
Gradiant: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for any value from 28 to 32 with correct units. Acceptable units include, but are not limited to:
— feet/mile
— ft/mi
— feet per mile



Base your answers to questions 81 through 84 on the map below, which shows a portion of southwestern United States. On January 17, 1994, and earthquake occurred with an epicenter at Northridge, California. 

 
81. State the latitude and longitude of Northridge, California. Include the correct units and compass directions in your answer. [1]
Latitude: _______
Longitude: _______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit if all values, units, and compass directions for latitude and longitude are correct, as shown.
Latitude: 34° N
Longitude: 118.5° W
118° 30' W


82. Explain why earthquakes are common in this region of California. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— It is near a plate boundary.
— The San Andreas Fault is nearby.
— The bedrock contains many faults.


83. Of the cities shown on the map, explain why Oakland was the last city to receive P-waves from this earthquake. [1]
_______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Oakland is farthest from the epicenter.


84. List two actions that a homeowner could take to prepare the home or family for the next earthquake. [1]
Action 1: _______
_______
Action 2: _______
_______
MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
[1] Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— secure heavy objects
— prepare an emergency medical kit
— plan an evacuation route
— locate the nearest shelter
— reinforce house structure



  Try the Quiz :     Earth Science - New York Regents June 2008 Exam


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