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Global History and Geography - New York Regents January 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which social scientists focus their studies on
  scarcity, resources, and profit motives?
  (1) archaeologists          (3) economists
  (2) historians              (4) sociologists
Answer: 3

2.
2 A geographer attempts to understand and
  interpret patterns and processes primarily by
  (1) examining political theories
  (2) authenticating oral histories
  (3) studying supply and demand models
  (4) analyzing spatial data at different scales
Answer: 4

3.
3 In a parliamentary system with multiple political
  parties in which no single party gains a majority,
  elections usually result in
  (1) command economies
  (2) religious conflict
  (3) coalition governments
  (4) secessionist movements
Answer: 3


4.
4 Which factor most influenced the construction of
  semipermanent settlements during the Neolithic
  period?
  (1) production of surplus food
  (2) drawings on cave walls
  (3) ability to harness fire
  (4) introduction of fishing nets
Answer: 1

5.
5 Which geographic feature was central in helping
  the Romans unify their empire?
  (1) Alps                 (3) Mediterranean Sea
  (2) Tiber River          (4) Great Rift Valley
Answer: 3

6.
6 Which region was the birthplace of Confucianism,
  Buddhism, and Hinduism?
  (1) Africa                (3) Europe
  (2) Asia                  (4) South America
Answer: 2

7.
7 Which area served as a cultural bridge between
  early China and Japan?
  (1) Persia               (3) India
  (2) Russia               (4) Korea
Answer: 4

8.
8 The role of Muslim religious leaders in Africa was
  to
  (1) spread the Four Noble Truths
  (2) emphasize the importance of ancestor
      worship
  (3) promote the caste system
  (4) introduce the teachings of the Qur’an (Koran)
Answer: 4

9.
9 The Abbasid and Ummayad empires are most
  closely associated with
  (1) causing the fall of the western Roman
      Empire
  (2) creating an Islamic Golden Age
  (3) controlling trade in the Strait of Malacca
  (4) inventing the compass and gunpowder
Answer: 2

10.
10 The European system of manorialism is most
   closely associated with
   (1) promoting social mobility
   (2) reviving and preserving learning
   (3) serving the spiritual needs of society
   (4) maintaining economic self-sufficiency
Answer: 4

11.
Base your answers to questions 11 and 12 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
11 Based on this map, in which area did Europeans locate most of their trading bases?
   (1) banks of the Ganges River           (3) coast of the Arabian Sea
   (2) banks of the Indus River            (4) Bay of Bengal region
Answer: 3

12.
12 Which conclusion about the Indian economy during the Mughal period can best be
   supported using the information shown on this map?
   (1) Cinnamon and pepper were the major products of Kashmir.
   (2) Most textile-related goods were produced north of the Deccan Sultanate.
   (3) Diamonds and gold were mined in the Bengal region.
   (4) Many tropical products were raised near Delhi.
Answer: 2

13.
Base your answer to question 13 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                                      The Wittenberg Church
13 Which period began as a result of the actions shown in this cartoon?
   (1) Italian Renaissance                   (3) Scientific Revolution
   (2) Protestant Reformation                (4) Glorious Revolution
Answer: 2

14.
14 The kingdoms of Ghana and Mali became
   prosperous and powerful because of
   (1) their participation in the gold and salt trade
   (2) the military protection provided to them by
       the Egyptians
   (3) their dependence on legalism to enforce
       social control
   (4) the tax revenue they collected from Christian
       missionaries
Answer: 1

15.
15 The Chinese belief that China was the Middle
   Kingdom is an example of
   (1) extraterritoriality
   (2) ethnocentrism
   (3) filial piety
   (4) the Mandate of Heaven
Answer: 2

16.
Base your answer to question 16 on the graphic organizer below and on your knowledge of social studies.
16 Which phrase best completes this graphic organizer?
   (1) Building thousands of miles of roads
   (2) Maintenance of a large naval fleet
   (3) Establishment of a national library filled with hundreds of books
   (4) Reliance on camel caravans
Answer: 1

17.
17 • Some Central Asian nomads made their living
     by fostering commerce along the Silk Road.
   • Central Asian nomads invaded villages and
     cities when climate changes affected their food
     supply.
   • Some Central Asian nomads adopted Islam and
     some embraced Islamic cultures.
   Based on these statements, which generalization
   about Central Asian nomads can best be
   supported?
   (1) They posed few challenges to settled
       societies.
   (2) They allied with settled neighbors to repel
       common enemies.
   (3) They interacted with settled societies.
   (4) They contributed little to the culture of their
       settled neighbors.
Answer: 3

18.
18 The Ottoman Turks viewed Constantinople as
   being strategically important because it
   (1) was the birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad
   (2) would allow them to control the Vatican
   (3) was a crossroads between Europe and Asia
   (4) would provide them with access to the
       Persian Gulf
Answer: 3

19.
19 One way in which the voyages of Zheng He
   authorized by Emperor Yongle of China and the
   explorations funded by King Ferdinand and
   Queen Isabella of Spain are similar is that these
   voyages and explorations resulted in
   (1) an increasing effort to preserve the status quo
   (2) trade and cultural diffusion
   (3) the creation of colonial empires
   (4) naval wars between rival powers
Answer: 2

20.
20 Which country is located in the region known as
   Latin America?
   (1) Portugal              (3) Vietnam
   (2) Somalia               (4) Argentina
Answer: 4


21.
21 Which situation was an unintended consequence
   of Spain’s colonization of the Americas?
   (1) establishment of a favorable balance of trade
   (2) introduction of the encomienda system
   (3) transmission of communicable diseases
   (4) exploitation of resources in new lands
Answer: 3

22.
22 One way in which Suleiman the Magnificent and
   Louis XIV are similar is that they both
   (1) centralized political power
   (2) introduced a new national religion
   (3) strengthened the authority of the nobility
   (4) freed peasants from feudal obligations
Answer: 1

23.
23 In the 16th and 17th centuries, the heliocentric
   theory became the centerpiece for debate
   between
   (1) capitalism and communism
   (2) science and religion
   (3) colonialism and nationalism
   (4) isolationism and globalism
Answer: 2

24.
24 In which way did the ideas of the Enlightenment
   influence the French Revolution?
   (1) Superstition and ignorance were promoted.
   (2) The principles of mercantilism were glorified.
   (3) The divine right theory of kings was
       challenged.
   (4) Punishments for criminal acts were rooted in
       vengeance.
Answer: 3

25.
25 In which way did the geographic diversity of
   Latin America affect newly independent
   countries?
   (1) limiting the military power of Creoles
   (2) forcing the Church to guarantee land reform
   (3) making political unity difficult
   (4) necessitating a reliance on Spain
Answer: 3

26.
26 Which statement best describes a consequence of
   Napoleon’s failure to understand Russian
   geography?
   (1) Rough waters in the Baltic Sea destroyed his
       fleet.
   (2) A harsh winter cut off his army from needed
       supplies.
   (3) His armies could not cross the high Ural
       Mountains.
   (4) A long period of high temperatures and lack
       of water overcame his troops.
Answer: 2

27.
    Base your answer to question 27 on the excerpt
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . .That in some few instances the regular hours
   of work do not exceed ten, exclusive of the time
   allowed for meals; sometimes they are eleven, but
   more commonly twelve; and in great numbers of
   instances the employment is continued for
   fifteen, sixteen, and even eighteen hours
   consecutively.
        That in almost every instance the Children
   work as long as the adults; being sometimes kept
   at work sixteen, and even eighteen hours, without
   any intermission. . . .
       — The Physical and Moral Condition of the Children
                         and Young Persons Employed in
                          Mines and Manufactures, 1843
27 This type of evidence was used in the argument
   for
   (1) modifying laissez-faire practices
   (2) opposing the spread of communism
   (3) restricting voting rights
   (4) reforming the landholding system
Answer: 1

28.
    Base your answer to question 28 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   . . .The bourgeoisie, by the rapid improvement of
   all instruments of production, by the immensely
   facilitated means of communication, draws all
   nations, even the most barbarian, into civilisation.
   The cheap prices of its commodities are the
   heavy artillery with which it batters down all
   Chinese walls, with which it forces the
   barbarians’ intensely obstinate [persistent] hatred
   of foreigners to capitulate [give in]. It compels all
   nations, on pain of extinction, to adopt the
   bourgeois mode of production; it compels them
   to introduce what it calls civilisation into their
   midst, i.e., to become bourgeois themselves. In a
   word, it creates a world after its own image. . . .
                        — Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
28 Which statement supports the point of view
   expressed in this passage?
   (1) The bourgeoisie needs to use military force to
       open markets.
   (2) The bourgeoisie are backward compared to
       the barbarians.
   (3) Foreigners and the bourgeoisie must work
       together to end the extinction of cultures.
   (4) Cheap prices and industrial improvements
       are tools used by the bourgeoisie to impose its
       values.
Answer: 4

29.
29 • 1791—Declaration of the Rights of Women
     and the Female Citizen (France)
   • 1829—Prohibition of sati (India)
   • 1857, 1882—Married Women’s Property Acts
     (Great Britain)
   Which change in perception is suggested by these
   international developments regarding women?
   (1) a decrease in political power for women
   (2) a decline in the economic status of women
   (3) a growing concern for the treatment of women
   (4) an increase in the global exploitation of women
Answer: 3

30.
30 The Haitian Revolution and the Sepoy Rebellion
   happened in response to
   (1) European colonial policies
   (2) indigenous ethnic rivalries
   (3) urban development
   (4) religious divisions
Answer: 1

31.
    Base your answer to question 31 on the notice
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                       NOTICE!
       Travelers intending to embark on the
    Atlantic voyage are reminded that a state
    of war exists between Germany and her
    allies and Great Britain and her allies;
    that the zone of war includes the waters
    adjacent to the British Isles: that, in ac-
    cordance with formal notice given by the
    Imperial German Government, vessels fly-
    ing the flag of Great Britain, or any of
    her allies, are liable to destruction in
    those waters and that travelers sailing in
    the war zone on ships of Great Britain or
    her allies do so at their own risk.
        IMPERIAL GERMAN EMBASSY,
         Washington, D. C., April 22, 1915.
         Source: New York Times, May 1, 1915 (adapted)
31 Which technological innovation of World War I is
   most closely associated with this German notice?
   (1) tanks                  (3) submarines
   (2) airplanes              (4) machine guns
Answer: 3

32.
32 What was the main goal of Zionism?
   (1) forming a representative government in China
   (2) establishing a Jewish homeland in the region
       of Palestine
   (3) improving the standard of living in developing
       countries
   (4) creating an international peacekeeping
       organization to solve global conflicts
Answer: 2

33.
33 Which of these events that occurred in the Soviet
   Union was a direct cause of the other three?
   (1) famine in Ukraine
   (2) implementation of five-year plans
   (3) establishment of collective farms
   (4) development of heavy industry
Answer: 2

34.
Base your answer to question 34 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 Based on this map, which region experienced the most severe drop in industrial
   production between 1929 and 1932?
   (1) western Europe                  (3) central Europe
   (2) northern Europe                 (4) southeastern Europe
Answer: 3

35.
35 Extreme nationalism, individuals existing for the
   good of the state, and unquestioning loyalty to the
   leader are the defining characteristics of
   (1) fascism                (3) democracy
   (2) liberalism             (4) theocracy
Answer: 1


36.
36 The Soviet Union’s response to the formation of
   the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
   was to create the
   (1) Marshall Plan        (3) Truman Doctrine
   (2) Warsaw Pact          (4) European Union
Answer: 2

37.
    Base your answer to question 37 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
37 Hitler’s actions as expressed by this cartoon led
   Stalin to
   (1) adopt a policy of appeasement
   (2) take over Germany’s industry
   (3) join the Allies in the fight against Germany
   (4) reduce the size of the Soviet army
Answer: 3

38.
38 Which statement about the impact of geography
   on the culture and history of the Middle East
   region in the 20th century is most accurate?
   (1) Deserts have prevented military invasions.
   (2) The uneven distribution of resources has led
       to conflict.
   (3) The abundance of water has contributed to
       agricultural self-sufficiency.
   (4) Mountains have halted cultural diffusion.
Answer: 2

39.
    Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the
song lyrics below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
                   East is Red
         The east is red, the sun is rising.
      China has brought forth a Mao Zedong.
       He amasses fortune for the people,
      Hurrah, he is the people’s great savior.
         Chairman Mao loves the people,
                 He is our guide,
              To build a new China,
          Hurrah, he leads us forward!
      The Communist Party is like the sun,
         Wherever it shines, it is bright.
      Wherever there is a Communist Party,
      Hurrah, there the people are liberated!
39 What is the main idea of this 1960s Chinese song?
   (1) The Sun will never set on Chinese communism.
   (2) Communist policies will liberate Mao Zedong.
   (3) The Chinese people will become wealthy under
       communism.
   (4) Mao Zedong will lead the Communist Party
       in building a new China.
Answer: 4

40.
40 This 1960s Chinese song would most likely have
   been sung during the
   (1) return of Hong Kong
   (2) Cultural Revolution
   (3) Boxer Rebellion
   (4) Tiananmen Square incident
Answer: 2

41.
41 During the Cold War, India’s decision to support
   neither the United States nor the Soviet Union
   was based on its policy of
   (1) nonalignment           (3) containment
   (2) isolationism           (4) separatism
Answer: 1

42.
42 • Vietcong disappeared into jungle cover.
   • Sandstorms halted helicopter flights in Iraq.
   • Afghan mountain caves sheltered Osama bin
     Laden.
   Which generalization can best be applied to these
   situations?
   (1) Advanced technology ensures victory.
   (2) Religious tensions often promote disagreements.
   (3) Most military confrontations involve biological
       weapons.
   (4) Geography often has an influence on the
       course of a conflict.
Answer: 4

43.
43 A major obstacle to creating policies that address
   the issue of global warming is the conflict
   between
   (1) migrant labor and native workers
   (2) socialist governments and democratic
       governments
   (3) nations possessing nuclear weapons and those
       without
   (4) economic development and environmental
       protection
Answer: 4

44.
44 The practices of allowing animals to overgraze
   grasses and shrubs and of clearing trees to use for
   fuel have caused
   (1) coastal pollution      (3) acid rain
   (2) desertification        (4) desalination
Answer: 2

45.
45 In the late 1970s, the Chinese government
   created the one-child policy because its leaders
   realized that there is a direct relationship
   between population growth and
   (1) military strength
   (2) economic development
   (3) social mobility
   (4) political toleration
Answer: 2

46.
46 One way in which the Indian leaders Asoka and
   Akbar the Great are similar is that they are both
   best known for promoting
   (1) religious toleration
   (2) enslavement of prisoners
   (3) special taxes for Hindus
   (4) the spread of Buddhism
Answer: 1

47.
47 The Russian adoption of Orthodox Christianity
   and of the Cyrillic alphabet demonstrates the
   (1) impact of Ibn Battuta’s travels
   (2) role of the printing press during the Reformation
   (3) leadership of Peter the Great
   (4) influence of the Byzantine Empire
Answer: 4

48.
48 Austria-Hungary’s ultimatum to Serbia in 1914
   and the United States military actions in Afghanistan
   beginning in 2001 are both reactions to acts of
   (1) imperialism             (3) communism
   (2) isolationism            (4) terrorism
Answer: 4

49.
49 Which leaders are most directly associated with
   the Cuban Revolution of 1959?
   (1) Emiliano Zapata and Francisco Villa
   (2) Juan Perón and Hugo Chávez
   (3) Fidel Castro and Che Guevara
   (4) Bernardo O’Higgins and Miguel Hidalgo
Answer: 3

50.
Base your answer to question 50 on the photographs below and on your knowledge of social studies.
50 The style of clothing worn by Kemal Atatürk of Turkey and Reza Pahlavi of Iran in these
   photographs indicates these leaders’ desire to
   (1) westernize their nation               (3) enforce fundamental Islamic principles
   (2) support nationalist movements         (4) adapt to the physical climate of their country
Answer: 1


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep this general definition in mind:
        discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
        argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Imperialism
                 Since 1500, countries have pursued a policy of expansion known as imperialism
                 for a variety of reasons. The effects of this policy can be viewed from different
                 perspectives.
        Task:
                 Select one country that engaged in imperialism since 1500 and
                 • Discuss the reasons this country engaged in imperialism
                 • Discuss the effects of imperialism from the perspective of the people or society
                   taken over and/or from the perspective of the conqueror
            You may use any country that engaged in imperialism since 1500 from your study of global
        history and geography. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include Portugal, Spain,
        Great Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, and Japan.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
                      Do not use the United States as the focus of your response.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                 Part III
                                  DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Throughout history, governments have developed and established laws and orders
              for a variety of reasons. The laws for the warriors under the Tokugawa
              Shogunate, the Nazi orders and laws of the Third Reich, and the pass laws of
              the Republic of South Africa had many impacts on societies, regions, and groups
              of people.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
             answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to the
             questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Select two sets of laws and/or orders mentioned in the historical context and for
                each
                • Explain what the government hoped to achieve by establishing these laws
                  and/or orders
                • Discuss the impacts of these laws and/or orders on a specific society, region, or
                  group of people
In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
       (a) explain means “to make plain or understandable; to give reasons for or causes of; to
           show the logical development or relationships of ”
       (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning, and
           argument; to present in some detail”
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
 By 1603, Tokugawa Ieyasu had won the civil war and had become the supreme ruler of Japan, the Shogun.
 His successor, Shogun Hidetada, put forth laws for military households. These households included members
 of the warrior class: the daimyo, the greater samurai, and the lesser samurai.
                       Laws Governing Military Households (1615), Excerpts
        . . . [4] Great lords (daimy¯o), the lesser lords, and officials should immediately expel from
        their domains any among their retainers [vassals] or henchmen who have been charged with
        treason or murder. . . .
              [6] Whenever it is intended to make repairs on a castle of one of the feudal domains, the
        [shogunate] authorities should be notified. The construction of any new castles is to be halted
        and stringently [strictly] prohibited.
        “Big castles are a danger to the state.” Walls and moats are the cause of great disorders.
              [7] Immediate report should be made of innovations which are being planned or of factional
        conspiracies [schemes by dissenting groups] being formed in neighboring domains. . . .
                                   Source: Compiled by Ryusaku Tsunoda, et al., Sources of the Japanese Tradition,
                                                                             Columbia University Press (adapted)
 1 Based on this document, what is one way these laws limited the actions of the warrior class? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Document 2
The sankin kotai or hostage system was included as part of the warrior class laws.
       Alternate residence duty, or sankin kotai, was a system developed in the Warring States period
       and perfected by the Tokugawa shogunate. In essence, the system demanded simply that
       daimyo reside in the Tokugawa castle at Edo for periods of time, alternating with residence at
       the daimyo’s own castle. When a daimyo was not residing in the Tokugawa castle, he was
       required to leave his family at his overlord’s [shogun’s] castle town. It was, at its simplest, a
       hostage system which required that either the daimyo or his family (including the very
       important heir) always be physically subject to the whim of the overlord. . . .
                                     Source: “Sankin Kotai and the Hostage System,” Nakasendo Way, Walk Japan
2 Based on this document, what is one way the daimyo were affected by the Tokugawa hostage system
  (alternate residence duty)? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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54.
Document 3
       . . . These measures [the hostage system, the isolation policy, and the banning of guns]
       succeeded in bringing the bloody wars of the previous period to an end. But the Shoguns
       could not stop the society beneath them continuing to change. The concentration of the lords
       and their families in Edo led to a growing trade in rice to feed them and their retainers, and
       to a proliferation [increase] of urban craftspeople and traders catering to their needs. Japan’s
       cities grew to be some of the biggest in the world. The merchant class, although supposedly
       of very low standing, became increasingly important, and a new urban culture of popular
       poetry, plays and novels developed, different in many ways from the official culture of the
       state. A relaxation of the ban on western books after 1720 led to some intellectuals showing
       an interest in western ideas, and a ‘School of Dutch learning’ began to undertake studies in
       science, agronomy [agriculture] and Copernican astronomy. As money became increasingly
       important, many of the samurai became poor, forced to sell their weapons and to take up
       agriculture or crafts in order to pay their debts. Meanwhile repeated famines hit the
       peasantry—almost a million died in 1732 (out of a population of 26 million), 200,000 in 1775,
       and several hundred thousands in the 1780s—and there were a succession of local peasant
       uprisings. The Tokugawa political superstructure remained completely intact. But beneath it
       social forces were developing with some similarities to those in western Europe during the
       Renaissance period. . . .
                                           Source: Chris Harman, A People’s History of the World, Verso (adapted)
3 According to Chris Harman, what is one change that occurred in Japan as a consequence of the hostage
  system and isolationist policy? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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55.
Document 4a
                    Excerpts of the [Nazi] Party Boycott Order, 28 March 1933
        . . . 3. The action committees must at once popularize the boycott by means of propaganda
        and enlightenment. The principle is: No German must any longer buy from a Jew or let him
        and his backers promote their goods. The boycott must be general. It must be supported by
        the whole German people and must hit Jewry in its most sensitive place. . . .
              8. The boycott must be coordinated and set in motion everywhere at the same time, so
        that all preparations must be carried out immediately. Orders are being sent to the SA and SS
        so that from the moment of the boycott the population will be warned by guards not to enter
        Jewish shops. The start of the boycott is to be announced by posters, through the press and
        leaflets, etc. The boycott will commence on Saturday, 1 April on the stroke of 10 o’clock. It
        will be continued until an order comes from the Party leadership for it to stop. . . .
                        Source: J. Noakes and G. Pridham, eds., Documents on Nazism, 1919–1945, The Viking Press
4a In 1933, what is one action the Nazi Party wanted the German people to take against the Jews based on this
   excerpt? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
                                                                                                        Score
Document 4b
           Decree Eliminating Jews from German Economic Life, 12 November 1938
        . . . Article 1
        1. From 1 January 1939 the running of retail shops, mail order houses and the practice of
        independent trades are forbidden to Jews. . . .
                        Source: J. Noakes and G. Pridham, eds., Documents on Nazism, 1919–1945, The Viking Press
4b As a result of this Nazi decree, what is one specific economic situation faced by the Jewish people? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 5a
        ÒThe Night of Broken GlassÓ
Document 5b
   . . . The Nazis claimed that Kristallnacht was an
  uprising by ordinary Germans. Actually, it was
  carefully planned. The government ordered
  squads of Brownshirts into the streets. Their job
  was to destroy and terrorize. The Gestapo, or
  secret police, received orders not to stop the
  violence. Instead, they were to sweep through
  the burning neighborhoods, arresting Jews.
         Kristallnacht was a turning point. The Nazis
  stepped up their efforts to “Aryanize” the
  German economy. Jews had been losing their
  property since Hitler came to power. Now,
  taking it from them became an official policy.
         On November 12, the government levied a
  fine of one billion reichmarks on the German
  Jewish community. This was punishment for the
  act of one troubled teenager.* In addition to this,
  Jewish victims of Kristallnacht had to pay for the
  damage out of their own pockets. They could not
  collect insurance to cover their losses. . . .
Source: Linda J. Altman, The Jewish Victims of the Holocaust,
                                Enslow Publishers (adapted)
*Herschel Grynszpan had killed a German at the German
embassy in Paris out of anger over his parents’ deportation.
This act was used by the government to justify its actions on
Kristallnacht.
5 Based on this photograph and passage, what are two impacts of the policy of Kristallnacht on the Jewish
  population in Germany? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 6
       • September 1996: A report by London’s Jewish Chronicle claims that $4 billion ($65 billion
       in 1996 dollars*) looted by the Nazis from Jews and others during World War II was diverted to
       Swiss banks. The sum is about 20 times the amount previously acknowledged by the Swiss; . . .
       • October 29, 1996: . . .Art, coins, and other items looted by Nazis from the homes of Austrian
       Jews are sold at a benefit auction in Vienna. It is the intent of the auction organizers to keep the
       items in the Jewish community. By day’s end, the auction grosses $13.2 million, with proceeds
       going to aid Holocaust survivors and their heirs. . . .
       • February 12, 1997: Switzerland, stung by allegations that the wartime government accepted
       and laundered [concealed the source of] funds from Nazi Germany that had been looted from
       Jews, agrees to create a $71 million fund for Holocaust survivors and their heirs.
                                                     Source: The Holocaust Chronicle, Publications International, 2000
    *Four billion dollars during World War II had the approximate value of $65 billion in 1996.
6 Based on this information from the The Holocaust Chronicle, state one action taken in an attempt to
  compensate Holocaust survivors and their heirs many years after World War II ended. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 7a
            Native Laws Amendment Act, Act No. 54 of 1952, Union of South Africa
       . . . 29 (1) Whenever any authorized officer has reason to believe that any native [black South
       African] within an urban area or an area proclaimed in terms of section twenty-three—
       (a) is an idle person in that—
             (i) he is habitually unemployed and has no sufficient honest means of livelihood. . .
       he [authorized officer] may, without warrant arrest that native or cause him to be arrested and
       any European police officer or officer appointed under sub-section (1) of section twenty-two
       may thereupon bring such a native before a native commissioner or magistrate who shall
       require the native to give a good and satisfactory account of himself. . . .
             Source: Native Laws Amendment Act, Act No. 54 of 1952, Digital Innovation South Africa online (adapted)
7a Under the Union of South Africa Act No. 54 of 1952, what could happen to a native person who was
   habitually unemployed? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 7b
                Natives (Abolition of Passes and Coordination of Documents) Act,
                           Act No. 67 of 1952, Union of South Africa
        . . . Any policeman may at any time call upon an African [black] who has attained the age of
        sixteen years to produce his reference [pass] book. If a reference book has been issued to him
        but he fails to produce it because it is not in his possession at the time, he commits a criminal
        offence and is liable to a fine not exceeding ten pounds or imprisonment for a period not
        exceeding one month. . . .
                         Source: Leslie Rubin and Neville Rubin, This is Apartheid, Christian Action, London (adapted)
7b Under the Union of South Africa Act No. 67 of 1952, what penalty could be given to a sixteen-year-old or
   older African black if he failed to produce his reference book? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 8
This excerpt is based on Peter Abrahams’s memories and his conversation with his black South African
boss, Jim.
       . . . When Jim left his Pedi village in the northern Transvaal he had to go to the nearest police
       station or Native Affairs Department. There he got a Trek Pass. This permitted him to make
       the journey to Johannesburg. On reaching the city he got an Identification Pass and a Six-Day
       Special Pass. He paid two shillings each month for the Identification Pass. The Six-Day
       Special was his protection while he looked for work. He did not find work during his first six
       days in the city. He did not go to the pass office to renew his Six-Day Special. He was picked
       up on the eighth day and spent two weeks in jail as a vagrant [person without residence or
       work]. That taught him to go to the pass office regularly. . . .
                                        Source: Peter Abrahams, Tell Freedom: Memories of Africa, Alfred A. Knopf
8 According to Peter Abrahams, what was one way the pass laws affected his boss, Jim? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 9
            Resistance to white domination was continuous but unsuccessful. The South African police
        and the army were called out every time blacks rose up against the apartheid laws that made
        their lives so miserable. On March 21, 1960, a group of unarmed blacks made their way to the
        police station in Sharpeville (a black township) to hold a peaceful protest against the passbook
        laws. No black in South Africa could travel, live, or work without a passbook. This hated
        document was the record of a person’s life as defined by the white government. Thousands of
        demonstrators left their passbooks at home, expecting to be arrested. They thought this would
        show the government’s policy could not continue if it had to arrest thousands. But the peaceful
        demonstration was met with gunfire. When it was over, sixty-nine blacks were dead, shot in the
        back by the police as they tried to flee when the shooting began. Their deaths sparked a
        nationwide protest.
                                                         Source: Blauer and Lauré, South Africa, Children’s Press
9a Based on this document, what action did black South Africans take to oppose the pass laws? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
b Based on this document, what was the South African government’s response to the situation in Sharpeville
  on March 21, 1960? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Throughout history, governments have developed and established laws and orders
                for a variety of reasons. The laws for the warriors under the Tokugawa
                Shogunate, the Nazi orders and laws of the Third Reich, and the pass laws of
                the Republic of South Africa had many impacts on societies, regions, and groups
                of people.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of global history,
               write an essay in which you
                  Select two sets of laws and/or orders mentioned in the historical context and for
                  each
                  • Explain what the government hoped to achieve by establishing these laws
                    and/or orders
                  • Discuss the impacts of these laws and/or orders on a specific society, region, or
                    group of people
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     Global History and Geography - New York Regents January 2016 Exam


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