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Living Environment - New York Regents June 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part A
                                Answer all questions in this part.     [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which statement is an example of the inter-
  dependence of organisms?
  (1) Owls hunt at night.
  (2) Ants get food from insects and protect
      insects from predators.
  (3) Ticks feed on the blood of animals and the
      ticks grow larger.
  (4) Crows feed on dead mice.
Answer: 2

2.
2 Residents of a town are concerned that a recently
  built factory could pose health risks. Scientists
  were asked to investigate the effects of the
  factory on the health of local residents. The most
  relevant information they reported was that
  (1) in a survey, residents felt that the air in town
      looks dirtier now
  (2) there have been reports that other types of
      factories have been linked with health issues
  (3) residents have occasionally seen smoke
      coming from the factory
  (4) local medical facilities have recently reported
      a 15% increase in the number of patients
      treated for asthma
Answer: 4

3.
3 Farmers may someday clone their best milk-
  producing cow into a whole herd. What potential
  disadvantage might be important to consider in
  having such a large group of clones on one farm?
  (1) It may be difficult to tell the animals apart.
  (2) Lack of variation may limit survival in the
      herd.
  (3) The cows could be fertilized by only one
      type of bull.
  (4) The cows could be mated only with each
      other.
Answer: 2


4.
4 DNA replication occurs in preparation for
  (1) mitosis, only
  (2) meiosis, only
  (3) both mitosis and meiosis
  (4) neither mitosis nor meiosis
Answer: 3

5.
5 An individual eats a hamburger. Which two
  systems must interact to transfer the nutrients in
  the hamburger to human muscle tissue?
  (1) respiratory and excretory
  (2) digestive and immune
  (3) digestive and circulatory
  (4) circulatory and respiratory
Answer: 3

6.
6 The diagram below shows cell A completing a
  life process.
Cell A performs functions similar to the tissues
and systems in complex, multicellular organisms.
This process results in
(1) increased genetic variation
(2) the maintenance of homeostasis
(3) a reduction in competition
(4) increased autotrophic nutrition
Answer: 2

7.
7 The shape of a protein molecule directly determines its
  (1) movements through the cytoplasm
  (2) functions inside and outside of cells
  (3) roles in building water molecules
  (4) circulation throughout the body
Answer: 2

8.
8 The diagram below represents a cell and some molecules in its environment.
Which molecule would require the use of energy in order to be brought into the cell?
(1) 1                                                  (3) 3
(2) 2                                                  (4) 4
Answer: 4

9.
9 Many domestic plants that are currently used for food by humans share a wild plant ancestor. The changes
  that have occurred in four common plants and the results are shown in the chart below.
What event most likely produced the changes that occurred in the wild plant ancestor?
(1) Mutations in wild mustard sex cells were passed on to offspring.
(2) Humans did not like to eat wild mustard.
(3) Competition for survival occurred in all ecosystems of the world.
(4) Ancient herbivores overgrazed wild mustard.
Answer: 1

10.
10 A strand of DNA in a skin cell contains the
   bases:
          A-T-G-C-C-A-T-C-G-G-T-A
   After the cell is exposed to ultraviolet light,
   the strand contains the bases:
         A-T-G-G-C-C-A-T-C-G-G-T-A
   Which statement describes the result of this
   exposure?
   (1) A new base has been inserted.
   (2) A base has been deleted.
   (3) One base has been substituted for another.
   (4) There have been no changes in the bases.
Answer: 1

11.
11 An ameba, a one-celled organism, can move,
   ingest, and transport materials within the cell,
   because it has
   (1) organs              (3) tissues
   (2) organelles          (4) systems
Answer: 2

12.
12 In humans, the placenta is essential to the
   embryo for
   (1) nutrition, excretion, and reproduction
   (2) respiration, nutrition, and excretion
   (3) movement, reproduction, and nutrition
   (4) coordination, movement, and growth
Answer: 2

13.
13 A student infected by a common cold virus ran a
   low-grade fever. After a few days, the student’s
   temperature returned to normal and the student
   was free of cold symptoms. The fever served as
   (1) an antigen in the circulatory system
   (2) an immune response to a pathogen
   (3) a biological catalyst
   (4) a weakened pathogen
Answer: 2

14.
14 Many animals have developed courtship behaviors.
   Males will often dance, swim, or sing in a
   particular way to attract a female. Males who are
   more successful at the courtship behavior will
   have a greater chance of having more offspring.
   This behavior is a result of
   (1) natural selection
   (2) genetic engineering
   (3) asexual reproduction
   (4) gene manipulation
Answer: 1

15.
15 After a zygote is formed, specialization of cells
   occurs. Through which process do the cells of a
   zygote become specialized?
   (1) sexual reproduction (3) fertilization
   (2) meiosis              (4) differentiation
Answer: 4


16.
16 A farmer wanted to rid his apple trees of a
   particular leaf-eating insect. He sprayed his
   trees with an insecticide that killed 98% of the
   insects. The survival of 2% of this population of
   insects is most likely due to
   (1) genes obtained from another species
   (2) certain chemicals that stimulated over-
       production
   (3) variations that resulted from sexual repro-
       duction
   (4) their ability to produce food from the
       pesticide
Answer: 3

17.
17 Which occurrence represents an example of
   evolution?
   (1) Exposure to radiation reduces the rate of
       mutation in leaf cells.
   (2) A mutation in a liver cell causes a person to
       produce an enzyme that is less efficient.
   (3) Cells in a zygote eventually change into bone
       cells or skin cells.
   (4) Some antibiotics are almost useless, because
       pathogens have developed a resistance to
       these antibiotics.
Answer: 4

18.
18 Populations of aspen trees in the western United
   States are being destroyed by an unexplained
   illness. The altered landscape is affecting the
   animals that live there. Populations of deer mice
   are increasing greatly in these areas.
   Unfortunately, these mice often carry a virus that
   is deadly to humans. This scenario best illustrates
   that
   (1) a change in the environment always results
        in disease
   (2) humans are the cause of the breakdown of
        this ecosystem
   (3) the stability of this ecosystem is limited by
        the amount of water available
   (4) every population in an ecosystem is linked
        with other populations
Answer: 4

19.
19 The paramecium is a single-celled organism
   that reproduces asexually. The offspring of a
   paramecium usually contain
   (1) only half of the genes of the parent cells
   (2) more DNA than the parent cell
   (3) genetic material identical to that of the
       parent cell
   (4) fewer mutations than the parent cell
Answer: 3

20.
20 A dead or weakened pathogen used to establish
   immunity would most likely be found in
   (1) a pesticide         (3) a vaccine
   (2) an antibiotic       (4) a toxin
Answer: 3

21.
21 Which statement is true for all of the organisms
   in the ecosystem represented in the diagram
   below?
(1) They use energy to combine the inorganic
    molecules carbon dioxide and water into
    energy-rich organic compounds.
(2) Stored energy cannot be used by these
    organisms as a source of energy for life
    processes.
(3) Energy stored in inorganic molecules is
    released during cellular respiration in these
    organisms.
(4) Energy is used by the organisms to obtain
    and transport materials, and to eliminate
    wastes.
Answer: 4

22.
22 When a natural disaster destroys a stable
   ecosystem, the area is temporarily less stable
   than before. This is most likely due to
   (1) a decrease in biodiversity
   (2) an increase in the number of food chains
   (3) an increase in the number of species
   (4) a decrease in the rate of mutation
Answer: 1

23.
23 An individual walks out of his air-conditioned
   (75°F) home into the hot outside environment
   (85°F). His ability to adjust to this changing
   environment involves a mechanism similar to
   (1) the regulation of water loss by guard cells in
       plant leaves
   (2) the digestion of carbohydrates by enzymes
   (3) using ATP for the diffusion of water
   (4) glucose production in the pancreas
Answer: 1

24.
24 Nonrenewable resources are
   (1) not finite and are not depleted over time
   (2) not finite and are depleted over time
   (3) finite and are not depleted over time
   (4) finite and are depleted over time
Answer: 4

25.
25 Dodder, a plant with no chlorophyll, grows on a
   living plant of a different species from which it
   obtains nutrients. Which pair of terms describes
   this relationship?
   (1) parasite and host
   (2) predator and prey
   (3) producer and decomposer
   (4) consumer and scavenger
Answer: 1

26.
26 Three human hormones most directly involved
   in sexual reproduction are
   (1) estrogen, insulin, and progesterone
   (2) testosterone, estrogen, and insulin
   (3) progesterone, ATP, and testosterone
   (4) estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone
Answer: 4

27.
27 At one point, scientists observed that the ozone
   shield was getting thinner. They warned that the
   loss of the effectiveness of this shield may lead
   to an increase in
   (1) allergies to ozone
   (2) mutations that lead to cancer
   (3) viral diseases, such as AIDS
   (4) ice formation at the poles
Answer: 2

28.
28 As it grows from a seed to a mature plant, a plant
   will grow taller and thicker. Which are abiotic
   factors most responsible for the increase in the
   mass of the plant?
   (1) water, minerals, bacteria
   (2) sunlight, oxygen, plant receptors
   (3) minerals, water, plant enzymes
   (4) water, sunlight, carbon dioxide
Answer: 4

29.
29 Structures in an animal cell are represented in the diagram below.
Which row in the chart correctly identifies the functions of structures A, B, and C?

Answer: 1

30.
30 The diagram below represents how air pollution may move across the eastern United States.
In order to reduce the amount of air pollution in Pennsylvania, which change is necessary?
(1) Laws must be passed to protect endangered species.
(2) The use of natural resources must be increased.
(3) More coal-burning power plants must be built.
(4) The cooperation between the different states must be improved.
Answer: 4


31.
                                                 Part B–1
                                 Answer all questions in this part. [13]
   Directions (31–43): For each statement or question, record on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
   Base your answers to questions 31 and 32 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents part of a food web.
31 Which sequence of organisms represents a food chain within this food web?
   (1) tadpoles → algae → daphnia → back swimmers
   (2) sedges → ants → frogs → kookaburras
   (3) algae → daphnia → decayed material → bacteria
   (4) dragonflies → sedges → ants →centipedes
Answer: 2

32.
32 Which population would be most immediately affected by the removal of the lizard population?
   (1) sedges                                            (3) ants
   (2) algae                                             (4) centipedes
Answer: 3

33.
33 During an investigation, a student measures out 15 grams of salt. Then, he measures 15 milliliters of water
   and adds the salt to it. Next, he measures a 1 centimeter wide by 4 centimeters long section of plant leaf.
   Which list of tools is arranged in the order that the student used them?
   (1) graduated cylinder, ruler, balance                      (3) graduated cylinder, balance, ruler
   (2) balance, ruler, graduated cylinder                      (4) balance, graduated cylinder, ruler
Answer: 4

34.
     Base your answers to questions 34 through 36 on the graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The
graph shows the masses of different types of plants found in an area of the Adirondack Mountains after a forest
fire occurred.
34 Based on the information provided in the graph, the process that is occurring is
   (1) ecological succession                               (3) selective breeding
   (2) biological evolution                                (4) genetic engineering
Answer: 1

35.
35 The time shown in the graph is most likely measured in
   (1) days                                               (3) months
   (2) weeks                                              (4) years
Answer: 4

36.
36 The mass of plants shown in the graph refers to the mass of a number of
   (1) populations                                          (3) ecosystems
   (2) decomposers                                          (4) communities
Answer: 1

37.
   Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. The dia-
gram represents a portion of a starch molecule.
37 The building blocks for this molecule are
   (1) amino acids                             (3) fats
   (2) simple sugars                           (4) molecular bases
Answer: 2

38.
38 The energy in this molecule is stored
   (1) in the bonds between atoms            (3) when the carbon atoms break off
   (2) in the oxygen found in the molecule   (4) when water breaks this molecule apart
Answer: 1

39.
Base your answer to question 39 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            A genetically modified pig, nicknamed the “enviropig,” has the ability to produce a
        bacterial enzyme in its saliva that helps reduce the amount of phosphorus in its wastes.
        Phosphorus pollution is a serious environmental concern. Enviropigs are expensive, but the
        cost is balanced against the benefit to the environment. There is also a concern that the US
        Department of Agriculture still has not cleared enviropig meat for human consumption.
39 Government agencies and citizens should propose the use of enviropig in the future only after
   (1) developing ways to remove the bacterial enzyme
   (2) assessing risks, costs, and benefits
   (3) people have eaten lots of enviropig meat and determined the effects
   (4) a different, cheaper pig can be produced regardless of the output of phosphorus
Answer: 2

40.
Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Researchers have produced rice plants that can withstand being completely submerged
      for up to two weeks. This is good news for farmers in the flood regions of Southeast Asia.
      The farmers in this region rely heavily on this crop. The diagram below illustrates the
      process used to genetically modify plants, such as rice.
40 The molecules used to cut, copy, and connect the DNA segments used in this process are
   (1) sugars                                             (3) indicators
   (2) enzymes                                            (4) antigens
Answer: 2

41.
41 The best explanation for these modified rice plants being flood resistant is that
   (1) the gene for flood resistance was inserted into plant cells, which grew into plants whose cells are
       expressing this gene
   (2) they were produced by fertilization, using gametes from two flood-resistant bacterial cells
   (3) there was a mutation in the bacterial DNA after it was inserted into the plant that caused it to be flood
       resistant
   (4) the researchers used selective breeding for the flood-resistance trait
Answer: 1

42.
42 The diagram below represents two cells viewed using the same magnification with the same microscope.
One possible conclusion that can be drawn about the activity of these two cells is that
(1) more active transport occurs in cell B than in cell A
(2) more active transport occurs in cell A than in cell B
(3) cell B uses some of the extra mitochondria to make food
(4) cell A is a plant cell since it has a cell wall
Answer: 2

43.
43 The diagram below represents the processes leading to the formation of a human embryo.
The correct sequence for processes 1, 2, and 3 represented in the diagram is

Answer: 3


44.
                                                   Part B–2
                                  Answer all questions in this part. [12]
    Directions (44– 55): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet
the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes each statement or answers each question. For all
other questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 44 through 47 on the information and data table below and on your
knowledge of biology.
              For most animals, the sex of the offspring is determined by sex chromosomes. In some
          species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle, there are no sex chromosomes. It has been
          discovered that the sex of the offspring is determined by the temperature of the nest in
          which the egg develops.
    Directions (44–46): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid below,
following the directions below.
 44 Mark an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on each axis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for an appropriate scale, without any breaks in the data, on both axes.


45.
45 Plot the data for percent males on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small
   circle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for percent males, connecting the points and
surrounding each point with a small circle.


46.
46 Plot the data for percent females on the grid. Connect the points and surround each point with a small
   triangle. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data for percent females, connecting the points and
surrounding each point with a small triangle.
Example of a 3-credit graph for questions 44–46:
Note: Allow credit only if circles and triangles are used.
      Do not assume that the intersection of the x- and y-axes is the origin (0,0), unless it is
      labeled. An appropriate scale only needs to include the data range in the data table.
      Do not allow credit if points are plotted that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.
      Do not deduct more than 1 credit for plotting points that are not in the data table or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


47.
   Note: The answer to question 47 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
47 The fact that the sex of the painted turtle offspring is controlled by the temperature of the nest is an
   example of
   (1) natural selection causing a new species to form       (3) habitat destruction decreasing biodiversity
   (2) a predator-prey interaction                           (4) environment modifying gene expression
Answer: 4

48.
    Base your answers to questions 48 through 50 on the information and graphs below and on your knowledge
of biology. The graphs represent the results of two investigations using leaf disks from spinach plants.
             Small disks were cut from spinach leaves that had been treated to remove any air from
         inside the leaf. The disks were placed in a solution that allowed them to carry out
         photosynthesis. At first, all the disks sank to the bottom of the container. These disks were
         then used for two different investigations.
                                                  Investigation 1
             The disks were divided into five groups. Each group was exposed to light of a different
         intensity, measured in watts per meter squared (W/m2). Some of the disks began to float.
         The results of the first investigation are shown in the graph below.
48 State the relationship between increasing light intensity and the percentage of disks floating at the
   conclusion of Investigation 1. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — With more intense light, a higher percentage of the disks floated.
   — More light intensity equals more disks floating.
   — As light intensity increases, the percentage of floating disks increases.


49.
   Note: The answer to question 49 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
49 The substance produced inside the leaf disks that caused them to float to the surface of the solution is
   (1) ozone                                                 (3) water
   (2) oxygen                                                (4) nitrogen
Answer: 2

50.
                                      Investigation 2
    A number of freshly prepared disks were placed in five containers. These containers
were then each exposed to light of a different color. The results of the second investigation
are shown in the graph below.
   Note: The answer to question 50 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
50 Which color of light appears to be least effective for photosynthesis in spinach leaves?
   (1) white                                                   (3) green
   (2) blue                                                    (4) red
Answer: 3

51.
    Base your answer to question 51 on the information and photograph below and on your knowledge of
biology. The photograph shows an oriental hornet.
             Oriental hornets are unique insects. A yellow pigment in the body of the insect converts
         solar energy to electrical energy. Plants also convert energy from the Sun.
51 Identify the organelle present in plants where this conversion takes place. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for chloroplast.


52.
  Base your answer to question 52 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
              The SUNY Solar Car Model Racing Team’s Sunhawk: Car of the Future?
            The Sunhawk, a car built by students at SUNY New Paltz, prompted Forbes Magazine
        to ask “Is The $250,000 Sunhawk the Solar Car of the Future?” These cars show the most
        advanced solar technology and vehicle construction.
52 There are trade-offs involved in the use of solar-powered cars. Provide one advantage and one disadvantage
   of owning a solar car. [1]
   Advantage:
   Disadvantage:
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for two acceptable responses. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
Advantages:                                    Disadvantages:
   — Solar energy is a renewable resource.        — cost
   — no air pollution from solar vehicle          — cannot charge at night
   — burning less oil/coal/natural gas            — cannot use year-round in some areas
   — using less gasoline                          — may not be able to drive at night


53.
  Base your answer to question 53 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Ten years ago, scientists discovered a well-preserved set of dinosaur remains in China.
        This dinosaur, which walked on Earth about 125 million years ago, had feathers and was
        about the same size as a turkey — but don’t be fooled. This dino’s bite was a lot worse
        than a turkey’s gobble. After a close (and careful!) examination of the dino’s teeth, scientists
        recently concluded that this dinosaur was probably poisonous. The study was led by David
        Burnham, who works and teaches at the University of Kansas in Lawrence.
                                                                      Source: www.sciencenewsforkids.org
53 State one inference that could be made based on the fact that this dinosaur had feathers. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The dinosaur could fly.
   — Dinosaurs are the ancestors of/related to birds.
   — Some types of dinosaurs evolved into birds.


54.
    Base your answers to questions 54 and 55 on the photograph and information below and on your knowledge
of biology.
                                              A Great Larvae Meal
            New Caledonian crows consume a wide range of foods. These crows require tools to
        extract the larvae of wood boring beetles from their burrows. A bird pokes a larva with a
        stick until the larva is disturbed enough to bite the stick and hang on to it. The bird is then
        able to pull the larva out of its burrow. These larvae, with their unusual diet, have a distinct
        chemical that can be found in the feathers and blood of crows—allowing scientists to
        determine the percentage of the crows’ diet that is made up of beetle larvae. Scientists
        found that the beetle larvae are so energy-rich that just a few could satisfy the daily energy
        requirement for a crow. The crows with the greatest skill in using a twig as a tool benefit
        most in terms of nutrition.
54 State one reason why the offspring of crows skilled at using twigs as tools would have the greatest chance
   of survival. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Well-fed parents will probably have well-fed and stronger offspring.
   — They will have more food.
   — They will likely be good twig users.


55.
55 State one reason why some members of a population of crows equally skilled in the use of twigs have
   different rates of survival. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — There is a chance that some other variation will also affect some of the crows’ ability to
     survive.
   — The tool may not be useful in their environment.
   — There are many other factors that influence survival (e.g., vision, size, muscle strength).



56.
                                                    Part C
                                 Answer all questions in this part.       [17]
  Directions (56–72): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.
  Base your answer to question 56–57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            African violet plants are grown for their delicate, colorful flowers and furry, soft leaves.
        People often want to touch the leaves and brush the hairy leaves with their fingers. Growers
        and plant owners were concerned that this could negatively affect the plant. Of particular
        concern was the presence of body lotion or other skin products on the hands of persons
        touching the leaves.
            A student thought this might be the basis of a science project. He selected two African
        violet plants. Ten leaves on each of the two plants were brushed with a gloved hand for 30
        seconds, once a day, for a period of five days. The difference was that leaves of the second
        plant were brushed with a gloved hand that had hand lotion applied to the glove.
56–57 As part of the peer review process, evaluate the student’s experiment. As part of your evaluation,
      be sure to:
      • state one possible hypothesis for the experiment proposed by the student [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for stating one possible hypothesis for the experiment proposed by the student.
Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The presence of lotion on the leaves will slow the growth of the plants.
   — If the leaves of an African violet plant are rubbed with body lotion, growth will be reduced.
   — Lotion brushed on the leaves of an African violet plant will have no effect on the leaves.
   — Lotion on the leaves has a negative effect on plants.
Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis written in the form of a question.


57.
• describe the type of data that should be collected to determine if the brushing with lotion was
  having a negative effect on the African violet plant [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for describing the type of data that should be collected to determine if brushing
with lotion was having a negative effect on the African violet plant. Acceptable responses include,
but are not limited to:
   — the number of leaves that wilted during the five-day period
   — the growth of each plant measured in centimeters
   — the number of leaves that dropped off/turned yellow
   — size of area of damage on leaves
   — the number of damaged leaves
   — change in size of the leaves brushed on each plant
Note: The type of data must be measurable.


58.
    Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information and chart below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             Scientists studied the distribution of a species of pocket mouse that lived in the sandy
         desert regions of the southwestern United States. They are eaten by a variety of predators.
         Pocket mice are active at night, and feed on seeds and grasses. A single female mouse can
         reproduce several times each year, producing a litter of 3 to 13 offspring each time. Each
         new litter is considered a generation.
             A volcanic eruption that resulted in lava flows changed the color of the area that the
         mice inhabit from light brown to black. Data from the scientist’s research of the population
         are shown in the chart below.
58 State the role of mutation or recombination in the appearance of the trait for black fur color in the
   pocket mouse population. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — A mutation resulted in the initial color change.
   — Recombination provides genetic variability for fur color in offspring.


59.
59 Explain why the percentage of black pocket mice changed so much after the volcanic eruption. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The black pocket mice blended in with their surroundings better, and more were able to
     survive and reproduce.
   — After the color change in the environment, the black mice were more difficult for predators
     to see.
   — The black mice are harder to see at night.


60.
Base your answers to questions 60 and 61 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          In 2003, as a result of the Human Genome Project, the complete sequence of all the
      bases in human DNA was released to the public. Although knowing the entire sequence of
      bases has proven valuable, scientists are currently working to map genes. Mapping genes
      involves determining the exact location of each gene. Since much of human DNA does not
      code for a protein, it is challenging to figure out which segments are actual genes. Often,
      scientists look at the percent composition of bases in a segment of DNA. If the segment of
      DNA has a large percentage of C and G bases (together over 50%), it is likely that it is a
      gene and codes for a protein.
 60 A scientist analyzes the bases in a segment of DNA from a human skin cell to determine if it codes for
    a protein. The base A is 12% of the bases in this segment of DNA. Calculate the percentage of bases
    that would be C. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 38%.


61.
61 Is it likely this segment of DNA codes for a protein? Circle yes or no and support your answer. [1]
   Circle one:   Yes    or   No
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for circling yes and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are
not limited to:
   — because there are high percentages of C and G bases
   — because the percent of C and G is over 50%
   — because the segment of DNA is most likely a gene
Note: Allow credit for a response that is consistent with the student’s response to question 60.


62.
   Base your answers to questions 62 through 64 on the illustration and information below and on your
knowledge of biology. The illustration is of a Tasmanian devil.
        The Tasmanian devil is the largest surviving carnivorous marsupial in Australia. It is in
    danger of extinction due to an unusual type of cancer called Devil Facial Tumor Disease
    (DFTD). It can be passed from one individual to another through wounds that occur when
    they fight over food. Tumor cells in the mouth of an infected animal break off and enter
    the wound on an uninfected animal. The tumor cells multiply in the body of the newly
    infected devil, forming new tumors that eventually kill the animal.
        Recent research has shown that the immune system of a Tasmanian devil accepts tumor
    cells from another devil as if they were cells from its own body. The tumor cells are ignored
    by the immune system. No immune response develops against them, and the cancerous
    cells multiply. Scientists predict that DFTD could wipe out all the remaining Tasmanian
    devils in 25 years, unless a treatment is developed.
62 Using the terms antigens and antibodies, explain why the tumor cells are ignored by the immune
   system in Tasmanian devils. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The tumor cells might lack antigens that the antibodies can recognize and attack.
   — The antigens on the surface of the tumor cells could be interpreted by the immune system
     as being on cells that are not harmful and therefore do not form antibodies to attack them.
   — The cancer cells might not have any antigens on their surfaces. Without antigens, antibodies
     will not attack.
Note: Do not allow credit if the student does not answer the question using the terms antigens
      and antibodies.


63.
63 Explain how cancer cells differ from normal cells. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Cancer cells undergo uncontrolled cell division.
   — Cancer cells have more mutations.
   — Cancer cells are more harmful and disrupt homeostatis.


64.
64 Describe one possible way to maintain a population of healthy, uninfected Tasmanian devils until a
   treatment or cure can be found. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Move some uninfected animals to an area where they will not come into contact with infected
     animals.
   — Remove baby devils from the population and place them in a zoo or wildlife refuge.
   — Separate the animals while they are feeding.
   — Provide more food to decrease competition/fighting.


65.
   Base your answers to questions 65 through 67 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
The photograph below shows a Canada lynx, a mammal native to North America.
         Lynx are found in areas where there is deep, soft snow cover during the winter months.
     The body design of the Canada lynx helps keep the animal on top of the soft snow. Several
     unique characteristics, such as the design of its feet and its weight, enable the cat to
     successfully chase and catch snowshoe hares, its primary source of food. Snowshoe hares
     are also able to remain on top of the snow.
         Increased winter recreation has created packed snow trails in lynx habitat. This allows
     coyotes and cougars to compete with lynx.
65 Explain why coyotes were not in competition with the lynx prior to the presence of packed snow trails. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The lynx is adapted to stay on top of the snow, while coyotes are not.
   — Coyotes could not prey on animals in the same area as the lynx.
   — Coyotes lack the foot design of the lynx, and could not chase hares where the snow is soft
     and deep.
   — Coyotes could not walk in the deep, soft snow.


66.
66 Describe the niche that the lynx, coyote, and cougar are competing to fill. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The niche is to feed on snowshoe hares in a snowy environment.
   — The niche includes being a predator in an environment that has snow during the winter.
   — They’re all predators/carnivores.


67.
67 Explain how the carrying capacity affects the number of predators in an area. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Carrying capacity limits the number of organisms that can live in an area. There are only so
     many hares, so there can be only so many predators of hares.
   — There is a limited number of prey animals. These determine the carrying capacity of the
     area and can support only a certain number of predators.
   — The carrying capacity of the predators is directly related to the size of the hare population.


68.
Base your answers to questions 68 and 69 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                            Cowherds Discovering Ticks Are for the Birds
           South African cowherds [cowboys] are discovering that when it comes to debugging
      their cattle, nature knows best. Generations of cattle owners who dipped their livestock in
      pesticides ended up killing not only the ticks that feast on them, but also the red-billed
      oxpeckers [birds] that eat the ticks. Now environmentalists want to cut out the pesticides,
      hand the job back to the birds and in the process save them from extinction.…
           The bird is famous for its bright red bill, yellow ringed eyes and voracious appetite for
      ticks. An oxpecker can eat 13,000 of them [ticks] in a day, and meals are everywhere—
      on antelope, horses, cattle, buffalo, rhino, lion, elephant and leopard. The ticks carry a host
      of illnesses, including red-water disease, a common killer of cattle, but [ticks] are harmless
      to oxpeckers.…
                                                               Source: Eric Naki, Associated Press writer
 68 State one way that the use of pesticides to kill ticks could lead to the decline of the oxpecker population.
    [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The ticks could become toxic and the oxpeckers that eat them get sick and die.
   — Pesticides could kill the birds.
   — The ticks were the food source for the birds.
   — Without ticks for food, the bird population would die off.
   — biomagnification


69.
69 State one ecological advantage of using oxpeckers to solve the problem with these ticks. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Each oxpecker can eat 13,000 ticks in a day, reducing the parasite population.
   — No harmful chemicals are used.
   — Biodiversity is increased.
   — The birds will have food to eat.
   — It will save the oxpeckers from extinction.
Note: Do not allow credit for stating that it is “natural” without an explanation.


70.
Base your answers to questions 70 through 72 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Over the past few decades, researchers have observed declining numbers in two species
      of penguins native to the West Antarctic peninsula. New evidence is pointing to a decline
      in their food supply as the primary cause for the recent drops in their numbers. These
      penguins feed on krill, small animals that grow and develop under ice masses. The graphs
      below show data related to two factors: atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels and
      Antarctic ice mass. The diagram of a generalized Antarctic food web illustrates the role of
      the penguins.
70 State one possible relationship between CO2 levels and the change in Antarctic ice mass. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — An increase in CO2 levels caused the ice to melt.
   — An increase in CO2 brought about global warming, which melted the ice.
   — As the level of CO2 increased, ice mass decreased.
   — As CO2 increased, the temperature increased, and the ice mass decreased.


71.
71 Explain why the change in ice mass is resulting in a decline in the penguin populations. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The penguins’ food source grows and develops under the ice masses.
   — less ice, fewer krill for the penguins to eat
   — loss of habitat for the penguins


72.
72 State one specific way in which humans might have caused the changes in atmospheric CO2 levels. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — Humans’ burning of fossil fuels is increasing CO2 levels.
   — Increased industrialization is releasing more CO2 into the atmosphere.
   — deforestation
   — driving cars
Note: Do not allow credit for just pollution.



73.
                                                   Part D
                                 Answer all questions in this part.      [13]
   Directions (73–85): For those questions that are multiple choice, record on the separate answer sheet the
number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other
questions in this part, follow the directions given and record your answers in the spaces provided in this
examination booklet.
   Base your answers to questions 73 through 75 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.
The diagram represents an experimental setup.
   Note: The answer to question 73 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
73 Which statement best describes what would most likely be observed after 20 minutes?
   (1) The contents of the dialysis tube would turn blue-black.
   (2) The liquid in the beaker would turn blue-black.
   (3) The dialysis tube would burst.
   (4) There would be no change visible.
Answer: 1

74.
   Note: The answer to question 74 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
74 Which term correctly identifies the process by which molecules move through the dialysis tube membrane?
   (1) paper chromatography                                 (3) diffusion
   (2) active transport                                     (4) digestion
Answer: 3

75.
   Note: The answer to question 75 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
75 A student filled a dialysis tube with 97% water solution and sealed the ends. The tube and its contents had
   a mass of 55 grams. The student placed the tube in a solution, and the mass of the tube and its
   contents increased to 60 grams. Into which solution was the dialysis tube placed?
   (1) 0% water                                               (3) 97% water
   (2) 95% water                                              (4) 99% water
Answer: 4

76.
    Base your answers to questions 76 and 77 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
             Scientists attempted to determine the evolutionary relationships between three different
         finch species, A, B, and C. In order to do this, they examined the physical characteristics
         and DNA of these species. DNA was extracted from all three species and analyzed using
         gel electrophoresis. The results are shown in the diagram.
   Note: The answer to question 76 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
76 Which statement best describes the method used above to determine the evolutionary relationships
   between three species of finches?
   (1) Examine the structure of the beaks and compare them.
   (2) Observe behavioral and physical characteristics of all the finches and group them by similarities.
   (3) Obtain molecular evidence from all three species and identify similarities.
   (4) Compare common ancestors of all three of the species to see if they are the same.
Answer: 3

77.
77 Based on the data they collected using gel electrophoresis, label the branching tree diagram below.
   Write the letters A, B, and C, to represent the possible evolutionary relationships between species A, B, and
   C. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for completing the diagram as follows:


78.
    Base your answers to questions 78 through 80 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology.
             Two species of finches found on a particular Galapagos island eat the seeds of a certain
         variety of plant. The relative strength of their beaks is shown in the graph below.
78 One of the finch species has a slightly smaller, weaker beak. Is this species 1 or species 2?
   Support your answer with information from the graph. [1]
   Species: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 1 and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — They have the weaker beak because the majority of the population is at the low end of the
     graph.
   — because it has a weaker beak than species 2, except where the two lines overlap
   — More of species 1 finches are at the low-strength end of the graph.


79.
79 Select the point on the graph where beak strength of the two bird species is equal.
   Support your answer. [1]
   Point: _______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for C and supporting the answer. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — At point C, the beak strength has the same value for both species.
   — because that is where the lines intersect


80.
80 If the environment on the island changed and the seeds of more of the plants became harder to crack open,
   describe what the graph might look like after many years have passed. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — The curve for species 1 may be lower and shorter.
   — The curve for species 1 may be eliminated.
   — Both curves might show an increase in beak strength.
   — There would be more individuals in species 2 than in species 1.
   — The curve for species 1 would shift to the right.


81.
    Base your answers to questions 81 and 82 on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of
biology.
            Using a microscope and a wet-mount slide, a student observed a pond water sample
         containing paramecia, which are single-celled freshwater organisms. He noticed that there
         was a structure within each living paramecium that contracted regularly—about four times
         each minute. He researched the organism in his science textbook and found that the structure
         was a contractile vacuole and its function was to remove excess water from the paramecium.
            In the diagram below, a paramecium is represented as seen through a microscope.
         The function of the contractile vacuole is described.
           He decided to determine if the concentration of salt in the environment of the
        paramecium would affect the rate at which the contractile vacuole would contract.
   Note: The answer to question 81 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
81 The process used to remove excess water from the paramecium by the contractile vacuole is
   (1) synthesis                                         (3) active transport
   (2) digestion                                         (4) passive transport
Answer: 3

82.
   Note: The answer to question 82 should be recorded on your separate answer sheet.
82 The student predicted that the contractile vacuole would contract fewer times in one minute in a solution
   that had a higher concentration of salt than that found in typical pond water. This prediction is most likely
   (1) correct, because a high concentration of salt in the environment will force water into the cell,
       causing the contractile vacuole to pump
   (2) incorrect, because salt would be entering the cell, and the contractile vacuole would have to pump it out
   (3) incorrect, because the concentration of salt in the environment should not affect a cell
   (4) correct, because water would be moving out of the cell into the salt solution
Answer: 4

83.
Base your answers to questions 83 through 85 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
          Five individuals had their pulses taken in beats per minute (bpm) before and after exer-
      cise. The data are shown in the chart below.
83 State one reason why an individual’s pulse rate increased during exercise. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — More nutrients are used when muscle cells are more active.
   — Muscle cells use more oxygen.
   — to help maintain homeostasis
   — A faster pulse rate will remove waste more rapidly.


84.
84 Calculate the average pulse rate before exercise for this group, to the nearest tenth. [1]
   _______ bpm
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 66.2.


85.
85 State why the individuals in this group have different pulse rates before exercise. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
   — different activities they did before pulse was taken
   — Some may be in better shape.
   — Some may take medication.
   — individual variations
   — They were less active before they exercised.



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