Syvum Home Page

Home > Examinations > NYSED Regents Exams > Living Environment - High School > Print Preview

Living Environment - New York Regents January 2008 Exam

Formats View Examination Paper with Answers Solve Examination Paper Questions Review

Hide all answers   View all answers   Print   Try the Quiz


Part A
Answer all questions in this part. [30]
Directions (1-30): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1. The transfer of genes from parents to their offspring is known as
(1) differentiation
(2) heredity
(3) immunity
(4) evolution
Answer: 2

2. Damage to which structure will most directly disrupt water balance within a single-celled organism?
(1) ribosome
(2) cell membrane
(3) nucleus
(4) chloroplast
Answer: 2

3. Two primary agents of cellular communication are
(1) chemicals made by blood cells and simple sugars
(2) hormones and carbohydrates
(3) enzymes and starches
(4) hormones and chemicals made by nerve cells
Answer: 4


4. The function of most proteins depends primarily on the
(1) type and order of amino acids
(2) environment of the organism
(3) availability of starch molecules
(4) nutritional habits of the organism
Answer: 1

5. Which procedure would most likely provide valid results in a test to determine if drug A would be effective in treating cancer in white mice?
(1) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer
(2) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 0.5 mL of drug X into 100 white mice without cancer
(3) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 0.5 mL of drug X into another group of 100 white mice with cancer
(4) injecting 1 mL of drug A into 100 white mice with cancer and 1 mL of distilled water into another group of 100 white mice with cancer
Answer: 4

6. The table below provides some information concerning organelles and organs.

Based on this information, which statement accurately compares organelles to organs?
(1) Functions are carried out more efficiently by organs than by organelles.
(2) Organs maintain homeostasis while organelles do not.
(3) Organelles carry out functions similar to those of organs.
(4) Organelles function in multicellular organisms while organs function in single-celled organisms.
Answer: 3

7. In order to produce the first white marigold flower, growers began with the lightest yellow-flowered marigold plants. After crossing them, these plants produced seeds, which were planted, and only the offspring with very light-yellow flowers were used to produce the next generation. Repeating this process over many years, growers finally produced a marigold flower that is considered the first white variety of its species. This procedure is known as
(1) differentiation
(2) cloning
(3) gene insertion
(4) selective breeding
Answer: 4

8. Chromosomes can be described as
(1) large molecules that have only one function
(2) folded chains of bonded glucose molecules
(3) reproductive cells composed of molecular bases
(4) coiled strands of genetic material
Answer: 4

9. Some interactions in a desert community are shown in the diagram below.
Which statement is a valid inference based on the diagram?
(1) Certain organisms may compete for vital resources.
(2) All these organisms rely on energy from decomposers.
(3) Organisms synthesize energy.
(4) All organisms occupy the same niche.
Answer: 1

10. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below?


(1) natural selection
(2) genetic manipulation
(3) dynamic equilibrium
(4) material cycles
Answer: 1

11. The headline “Improved Soybeans Produce Healthier Vegetable Oils” accompanies an article describing how a biotechnology company controls the types of lipids (fats) present in soybeans. The improved soybeans are most likely being developed by the process of
(1) natural selection
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) genetic engineering
(4) habitat modification
Answer: 3

12. Which statement indicates one difference between the gene that codes for insulin and the gene that codes for testosterone in humans?
(1) The gene for insulin is replicated in vacuoles, while the gene for testosterone is replicated in mitochondria.
(2) The gene for insulin has a different sequence of molecular bases than the gene for testosterone.
(3) The gene for insulin is turned on in liver cells, but the gene for testosterone is not.
(4) The gene for insulin is a sequence of five different molecular bases while the gene for testosterone is a sequence of only four different molecular bases.
Answer: 2

13. Cells that develop from a single zygote all contain identical DNA molecules. However, some of these cells will develop differently because
(1) different groups of cells containing the DNA may be exposed to different environmental conditions
(2) only the DNA in certain cells will replicate
(3) some of the DNA in some of the cells will be removed by chemical reactions
(4) DNA is functional in only 10% of the cells of the body
Answer: 1

14. Which sequence represents the correct order of processes that result in the formation and development of an embryo?
(1) meiosis → fertilization → mitosis
(2) mitosis → fertilization → meiosis
(3) fertilization → meiosis → mitosis
(4) fertilization → mitosis → meiosis
Answer: 1

15. The graph below shows the percent of variation for a given trait in four different populations of the same species. The populations inhabit similar environments.

In which population will the greatest number of individuals most likely survive if a significant environmental change related to this trait occurs?
(1) 1
(2) 2
(3) 3
(4) 4
Answer: 4

16. The sequence of events occurring in the life cycle of a bacterium is listed below.
(A) The bacterium copies its single chromosome.
(B) The copies of the chromosome attach to the cell membrane of the bacterium.
(C) As the cell grows, the two copies of the chromosome separate.
(D) The cell is separated by a wall into equal halves.
(E) Each new cell has one copy of the chromosome.
This sequence most closely resembles the process of
(1) recombination
(2) zygote formation
(3) mitotic cell division
(4) meiotic cell division
Answer: 3

17. The diagram below illustrates possible evolutionary pathways of some species.


Which statement is a valid inference based on the information in the diagram?
(1) Species A is the common ancestor of all life on Earth.
(2) Species D is more closely related to species E than to species F .
(3) Species B is the ancestor of species F.
(4) Species C is the ancestor of species that exist at the present time.
Answer: 2

18. The diagram below represents stages in the processes of reproduction and development in an animal.

Cells containing only half of the genetic information characteristic of this species are found at
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
Answer: 1

19. Which hormones most directly influence the uterus during pregnancy?
(1) testosterone and insulin
(2) progesterone and testosterone
(3) estrogen and insulin
(4) progesterone and estrogen
Answer: 4

20. The diagram below represents the human female reproductive system.


Exposure to radiation or certain chemicals could alter the genetic information in the gametes that form in structure
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
Answer: 2

21. All life depends on the availability of usable energy. This energy is released when
(1) organisms convert solar energy into the chemical energy found in food molecules
(2) respiration occurs in the cells of producers and high-energy molecules enter the atmosphere
(3) cells carry out the process of respiration
(4) animal cells synthesize starch and carbon dioxide
Answer: 3

22. The sweet taste of freshly picked corn is due to the high sugar content in the kernels. Enzyme action converts about 50% of the sugar to starch within one day after picking. To preserve its sweetness, the freshly picked corn is immersed in boiling water for a few minutes, and then cooled. Which statement most likely explains why the boiled corn kernels remain sweet?
(1) Boiling destroys sugar molecules so they cannot be converted to starch.
(2) Boiling kills a fungus on the corn that is needed to convert sugar to starch.
(3) Boiling activates the enzyme that converts amino acids to sugar.
(4) Boiling deactivates the enzyme responsible for converting sugar to starch.
Answer: 4

23. One biotic factor that affects consumers in an ocean ecosystem is
(1) number of autotrophs
(2) temperature variation
(3) salt content
(4) pH of water
Answer: 1

24. Which component of a stable ecosystem can not be recycled?
(1) oxygen
(2) water
(3) energy
(4) nitrogen
Answer: 3

25. A food web is represented in the diagram below.


Which population in this food web would most likely be negatively affected by an increase in the mouse population?
(1) snake
(2) rabbit
(3) wolf
(4) hawk
Answer: 2

26. Years after the lava from an erupting volcano destroyed an area, grasses started to grow in that area. The grasses were gradually replaced by shrubs, evergreen trees, and finally, by a forest that remained for several hundred years. This entire process is an example of
(1) feedback
(2) ecological succession
(3) plant preservation
(4) deforestation
Answer: 2

27. Increased industrialization will most likely
(1) decrease available habitats
(2) increase environmental carrying capacity for native species
(3) increase the stability of ecosystems
(4) decrease global warming
Answer: 1

28. A five-year study was carried out on a population of algae in a lake. The study found that the algae population was steadily decreasing in size. Over the five-year period this decrease most likely led to
(1) a decrease in the amount of nitrogen released into the atmosphere
(2) an increase in the amount of oxygen present in the lake
(3) an increase in the amount of water vapor present in the atmosphere
(4) a decrease in the amount of oxygen released into the lake
Answer: 4

29. Which result of technological advancement has a positive effect on the environment?
(1) development of new models of computers each year, with disposal of the old computers in landfills
(2) development of new models of cars that travel fewer miles per gallon of gasoline
(3) development of equipment that uses solar energy to charge batteries
(4) development of equipment to speed up the process of cutting down trees
Answer: 3

30. The diagram below represents a biological process.

Which set of molecules is best represented by letters A and B?
(1) A: oxygen and water
B: glucose
(2) A: glucose
B: carbon dioxide and water
(3) A: carbon dioxide and water
B: glucose
(4) A: glucose
B: oxygen and water
Answer: 3



Part B-1
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
Directions (31-42): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
31. A biologist used the Internet to contact scientists around the world to obtain information about declining amphibian populations. He was able to gather data on 936 populations of amphibians, consisting of 157 species from 37 countries. Results showed that the overall numbers of amphibians dropped 15% a year from 1960 to 1966 and continued to decline about 2% a year through 1997. What is the importance of collecting an extensive amount of data such as this?
(1) Researchers will now be certain that the decline in the amphibian populations is due to pesticides.
(2) The data collected will prove that all animal populations around the world are threatened. 
(3) Results from all parts of the world will be found to be identical.
(4) The quantity of data will lead to a better understanding of the extent of the problem.
Answer: 4

32. The first trial of a controlled experiment allows a scientist to isolate and test
(1) a logical conclusion
(2) a variety of information
(3) a single variable
(4) several variables
Answer: 3

33. A student studied how the amount of oxygen affects ATP production in muscle cells. The data for amount X are shown in the graph below.

If the student supplies the muscle cells with less oxygen in a second trial of the investigation, a bar placed on the graph to represent the results of this trial would most likely be
(1) shorter than bar X and placed to the left of bar X
(2) shorter than bar X and placed to the right of bar X
(3) taller than bar X and placed to the left of bar X
(4) taller than bar X and placed to the right of bar X
Answer: 1

34. Some steps involved in DNA replication and protein synthesis are summarized in the table below.
In which step would a mutation lead directly to the formation of an altered gene?
(1) A
(2) B
(3) C
(4) D
Answer: 1

35. Species A, B, C, and D are all different heterotrophs involved in the same food chain in an ecosystem. The chart below shows the population of each species at the same time on a summer day.

Which statement best describes one of these species of heterotrophs?
(1) Species A is the most numerous because it can make its own food.
(2) Species B probably feeds on species D.
(3) Species C and B interbred to produce species A.
(4) Species D is most likely the top predator in the food chain.
Answer: 4

36. Students conducting a study on an insect population placed 25 insects of the same size in a box. The amount of food, water, and shelter available to the insects was kept constant. Each month, students removed and counted the number of insects present, recorded the total, and returned the insects to the box. The graph below shows the number of insects in the box over a 12-month period. What inference can be made regarding this insect population?

(1) All the insects in the box are the same age.
(2) The insects hibernated from January to April.
(3) The population has carnivorous members.
(4) The population reached carrying capacity by January.
Answer: 4

37. The relative amount of oxygen in the atmosphere of Earth over millions of years is shown in the graph below.

 At what point in the history of Earth did autotrophs most likely first appear?
(1) 3500 million years ago
(2) 2500 million years ago
(3) 1500 million years ago
(4) 500 million years ago
Answer: 2

38. A biologist collected the data shown in the table below.

Which statement is supported by the data in the table?
(1) Populations do not vary from month to month.
(2) The populations are highest in September.
(3) The grasshoppers increased in length in July.
(4) Seasonal variations may affect populations.
Answer: 4


Base your answers to questions 39 and 40 on the diagram below, which represents possible relationships between animals in the family tree of the modern horse, and on your knowledge of biology.


39. One possible conclusion that can be drawn regarding ancestral horses A and B is that
(1) A was better adapted to changes that occurred during the Pliocene Epoch than was B
(2) the areas that B migrated to contained fewer varieties of producers than did the areas that A migrated to
(3) competition between A and B led to the extinction of Pliohippus
(4) the adaptive characteristics present in both A and B were insufiicient for survival
Answer: 4

40. Miohippus has been classified as a browser (an animal that feeds on shrubs and trees) while Merychippus has been classified as a grazer (an animal that feeds on grasses). One valid inference that can be made regarding the evolution of modern horses based on this information is that
(1) Eohippus inhabited grassland areas throughout the world
(2) Pliohippus had teeth adapted for grazing
(3) Equus evolved as a result of the migration of Pliohippus into forested areas due to increased competition
(4) ecological succession led to changes in tooth structure during the Eocene Epoch
Many people today drink sport drinks containing large amounts of sodium. Describe one possible effect this might have on a person who is not very active. [1]
Answer: 2


Base your answers to questions 41 and 42 on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology.


41. In the procedure indicated by letter A, DNA segments from humans and bacteria are joined by the action of
(1) starch molecules
(2) simple sugars
(3) enzymes
(4) hormones
Answer: 3

42. Which process is indicated by letter B?
(1) natural selection
(2) asexual reproduction
(3) sexual reproduction
(4) gene deletion
Answer: 2



 
Part B-2
Answer all questions in this part. [13]


Directions (43-55): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.
43. Select one of the paired items below and describe how the first item in the pair regulates the second item for the maintenance of homeostasis. [1]

insulin—blood sugar level

CO2 in blood—breathing rate

activity of guard cells—water loss from a leaf


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Increased insulin results in a decrease in blood sugar levels.
— As the CO2 level in the blood increases, the breathing rate increases.
— When the guard cells close openings in leaves, rate of water loss decreases.


44. Explain how harmful substances in the blood of a pregnant female can enter a fetus even though the blood vessels of the mother and fetus are not directly connected. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Materials can diffuse out of the mother’s capillaries into the baby’s capillaries.
— Harmful substances can diffuse/pass through the walls of capillaries.
— Molecules pass through the placenta.


45. Identify one farming practice that could be a source of environmental pollution. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Pesticide use may pollute.
— Fertilizer use may pollute.
— Animal wastes used as fertilizer may end up in water supplies.



Base your answers to questions 46 through 49 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.

When humans perspire, water, urea, and salts containing sodium are removed from the blood. Drinking water during extended periods of physical exercise replenishes the water but not the sodium. This increase in water dilutes the blood and may result in the concentration of sodium dropping low enough to cause a condition known as hyponatremia. Symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, nausea, and lack of coordination. Left untreated, it can lead to coma. and even death. The body has a variety of feedback mechanisms that assist in regulating water and sodium concentrations in the blood. The kidneys play a major role in these mechanisms, as they filter the blood and produce urine.
46. The best way to reduce the symptoms of hyponatremia would be to
(1) drink more water
(2) eat chocolate
(3) eat salty foods
(4) drink cranberry juice
Answer: 3

47. Many runners pour water on their bodies during a race. Explain how this action helps to maintain homeostasis. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— reduces loss of sodium
— cools the body
— decreases amount of perspiration
— slows down water loss
— reduces the chances of hyponatremia


48. How would running in a marathon on a warm day most likely affect urine production? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Less urine would be produced because a large amount of water is being lost as sweat.
— Less urine will be produced because the feedback mechanisms in the kidneys regulate water levels in the blood.
— The runner would sweat more, decreasing H2O levels in the blood. This decrease would slow urine production because there is less water in the blood to be filtered.
— Urine would be more concentrated because it would contain less water.


49. Many people today drink sport drinks containing large amounts of sodium. Describe one possible effect this might have on a person who is not very active.
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— It could raise their blood pressure.
— It could cause them to retain water.
— It could decrease urine production.


50. Data from two different cells are shown in the graphs below.



 Which cell is most likely a plant cell? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Cell 1, because it contains chloroplasts.
— Cell 1, because it has a cell wall.



Base your answers to questions 51 through 55 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology. The average level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has been measured for the past several decades. The data collected are shown in the table below.
Directions (51 and 52): Using the information in the data table, construct a line graph on the grid on the next page, following the directions below.


51. Mark an appropriate scale on each labeled axis. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on each axis.


52. Plot the data on the grid. Surround each point with a small circle and correct the points.


Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for plotting the data correctly (based on the student’s scaled axes), surrounding each point with a small circle, and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit even if the points are not circled.


53. Identify one specific human activity that could be responsible for the change in carbon dioxide levels from 1960 to 2000. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— increased burning of fossil fuels
— more motor vehicle use
— increased levels of deforestation
— increase in human population


54. State one possible negative effect this change in CO2 level has had on the environment of Earth. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— an increase in the number of severe storms
— an increase in sea levels
— flooding of coastal areas
— changes in precipitation patterns
— global warming
— temperature increases


55. Calculate the net change in CO2 level in parts per million (ppm) during the years 1960 through 2000. [1]
_______ ppm
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit for 50.




 
Part C

Answer all questions in this part. [17]

56. Smallpox is a disease caused by a specific virus, while the common cold can be caused by over 100 different viruses. Explain why it is possible to develop a vaccine to prevent smallpox, but it is difficult to develop a vaccine to prevent the common cold. In your answer be sure to:
• identify the substance in a vaccine that makes the vaccine effective [1]
• explain the relationship between a vaccine and white blood cell activity [1]
• explain why the response of the immune system to a vaccine is specific [1]
• state one reason why it would be difficult to develop a vaccine to be used against the common cold [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the substance in a vaccine that makes the vaccine effective. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— a dead virus
— a weakened virus
— weakened pathogen
• Allow 1 credit for explaining the relationship between a vaccine and white blood cell activity. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Antibodies are produced by a certain type of white blood cell in response to the vaccine.
• Allow 1 credit for explaining why the response of the immune system to a vaccine is specific. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Antibodies have specific shapes and each antibody shape is complementary to only one shape of virus or antigen.
• Allow 1 credit for stating one reason why it would be difficult to develop a vaccine to be used against the common cold. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Since the common cold is caused by many different viruses, a vaccine would have to contain all the different types of cold viruses.



Base your answers to questions 57 through 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Untreated organic wastes were accidentally discharged into a river from a sewage treatment plant. The graph below shows the dissolved oxygen content of water samples taken from the river at specific distances downstream from the plant, both before, and then three days after the discharge occurred.

57. State why this accident would be expected to benefit the decomposers in the river below the sewage plant. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— large increase in their food supply


58. Explain why an energy-releasing process occurring in the mitochondria of the decomposer organisms is most likely responsible for the change indicated by the data shown at sampling site C in the graph. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— As the number of decomposers increases, they use more oxygen for respiration.


59. State one reason why the statement below is correct.
“The effects of the accidental discharge are not expected to last for a long time.” [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— Once the discharge is stopped and the sewage in the river is broken down by decomposers, the oxygen levels should return to normal.
— The sewage will be diluted and pushed along by the flowing water.


60. The photograph below shows a pill bug. Pill bugs are small animals frequently found in wooded areas near decomposing organic material.


Describe some parts of an experiment to determine the preference of pill bugs for light or darkness. In your answer be sure to:
• state a hypothesis [1]
• identify the independent variable in the experiment [1]
• identify two conditions that should be kept the same in all experimental setups [1]
• state one example of experimental data that would support your hypothesis [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 4 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating a valid hypothesis. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
—  Pill bugs prefer the dark.
— If pill bugs are given a choice of light or darkness, they will prefer the light area.
— If a light and a dark area are provided in a closed container, the pill bugs will not exhibit a preference for either the light or dark area.
• Allow 1 credit for identifying the independent variable. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— presence or absence of light K amount of light
• Allow 1 credit for identifying two conditions that should be kept the same in all experimental setups. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— temperature
— humidity
— species of pill bug
— type of container
— number of pill bugs in each group
• Allow 1 credit for stating one example of experimental data that would support the student’s hypothesis (from the first bullet). Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— More pill bugs are found in the dark area after five minutes than in the light area.
— More pill bugs are found in the light area at the completion of the experiment.
— The same number of pill bugs are found in both the light and dark areas.



Base your answers to questions 61 through 64 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

In recent years, the striped bass population in Chesapeake Bay has been decreasing. This is due, in part, to events known as “fish kills,” a large die-off of fish. Fish kills occur when oxygen-consuming processes in the aquatic ecosystem require more oxygen than the plants in the ecosystem produce, thereby reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen available to the fish. One proposed explanation for the increased fish kills in recent years is that human activities have increased the amount of sediment suspended in the water of Chesapeake Bay, largely due to increased erosion into its tributary streams. The sediment acts as a filter for sunlight, which causes a decrease in the intensity of the sunlight that reaches the aquatic plants in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem.
61. Identify one abiotic factor in the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem involved in the fish kills. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— oxygen
— light
— temperature
— sediment
— carbon dioxide


62. Identify the process carried out by organisms that uses oxygen and contributes to the fish kills. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— respiration
— decomposition


63. State one way humans have contributed to the decrease of the striped bass population in Chesapeake Bay. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— increased sediments
— pollution
— overfishing
— cutting down trees


64. State how a decrease in the amount of light may be responsible for fish kills in the Chesapeake Bay area. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— A decrease in the amount of light will affect photosynthesis and will reduce the amount of oxygen.
— Less light means less photosynthesis and less oxygen for fish respiration.


65. Over the past few decades, many oil companies have discovered oil below the seafloor near the coasts of many states. Some states, however, refuse to permit offshore oil drilling, fearing it might damage the environment. Discuss both sides of this issue. In your answer, be sure to:
• state one way in which offshore oil drilling might have a long-term negative effect on the environment [1]
• state one way in which offshore oil drilling could benefit society [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for stating one way in which offshore oil drilling might have a long-term negative effect on the environment. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— damage habitats of ocean organisms
— cause water pollution from spills
• Allow 1 credit for stating one way in which offshore oil drilling could benefit society. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— use domestic rather than foreign source of oil
— create jobs
— keep prices low
— increase the oil supply




 
Part D

Answer all questions in this part.  [13]


Directions (66 - 75): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice, that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part, follow the directions given in the questions and record your answers in the spaces provided.
66. Researchers discovered four different species of finches on one of the Galapagos Islands. DNA analysis showed that these four species, shown in the illustration below, are closely related even though they vary in beak shape and size. It is thought that they share a common ancestor.

Which factor most likely influenced these differences in beak size and shape?

(1) Birds with poorly adapted beaks changed their beaks to got food.
(2) Birds with yellow beaks were able to hide from predators.
(3) Birds with successful beak adaptations obtained food and survived to have offspring.
(4) Birds with large, sharp beaks become dominant.
Answer: 3

67. Relationships between plant species may most accurately be determined by comparing the
(1) habitats in which they live
(2) structure of guard cells
(3) base sequences of DNA
(4) shape of their leaves
Answer: 3


Base your answers to questions 68 through 70 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.

Cytochrome c is an enzyme located in the mitochondria of many types of cells. The number of differences in the amino acid sequences of Cytochrome c from different species are compared to human Cytochrome c in the data table below.

68. Of the organisms listed below, which one has a DNA code for Cytochrome c that is most similar to that of a human?
(1) tuna
(2) chicken
(3) moth
(4) dog
Answer: 4

69. The fact that all of these organisms contain Cytochrome c could lead to the inference that
(1) Cytochrome c is essential for the reproduction of all organisms
(2) these organisms have all evolved from an ancestor that produced Cytochrome c
(3) mutations in genes that code for Cytochrome c always occur during DNA replication
(4) only heterotrophs make Cytochrome c
Answer: 2

70. Cytochrome c is most likely a
(1) protein molecule
(2) material containing genes
(3) carbohydrate that is absorbed by cells
(4) component of the membrane around the cell
Answer: 1


71. The data table below compares blood flow in various human body structures, both at rest and during strenuous exercise.

Select one structure from the data table and write its name in the space below. Explain one way that the change in the rate of blood flow in this structure helps maintain homeostasis during exercise. [1] 
 Structure:_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— heart: increased blood How supplies more oxygen and/or nutrients
— skeletal muscle: greatly increased supply of blood, providing additional oxygen and/or nutrients
— skeletal muscle: removes more waste during exercise
— digestive organs: a reduction in blood flow, diverting blood to other parts of the body where use of oxygen has increased



Base your answers to questions 72 and 73 on the information and table below and on your knowledge of biology.

A model of a cell is prepared and placed in a beaker of fluid as shown in the diagram below. The letters A, B, and C represent substances in the initial experimental setup.

The table below summarizes the content and appearance of the cell model and beaker after 20 minutes.

72. Complete the table below to summarize a change in location of substance C in the experimental setup. [3]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 3 credits, 1 credit for each acceptable response. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:


73.
Identify substance B and explain why it did not move out of the model cell. [2]
Substance:_______
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow a maximum of 2 credits, allocated as follows:
• Allow 1 credit for identifying substance B. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— starch
— polysaccharide
— complex carbohydrate
• Allow 1 credit for explaining why substance B did not move out of the model cell. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— It is a large molecule. — too big


74. Species of finches are represented in the diagram below.


State the name of one species of finch from the diagram that is most likely to compete with the small tree finch if they lived on the same island. Support your answer with an explanation. [1]
Species:_______-
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
— The large tree finch is most likely to compete with the small tree finch because they both eat mainly animal food.


75. Electrophoresis is a method of
(1) separating DNA fragments
(2) changing the genetic code of an organism
(3) indicating the presence of starch
(4) separating colored compounds on a strip of paper
Answer: 1


  Try the Quiz :     Living Environment - New York Regents January 2008 Exam


Contact Info © 1999-2017 Syvum Technologies Inc. Privacy Policy Disclaimer and Copyright
Previous
-
Next
-