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Living Environment - New York Regents January 2009 Exam

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Part A
Answer all questions in this part.   [30]
   Directions (1–30): For each statement or question, write on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 Scientists in the United States, Europe, and
  Africa have now suggested that the hippopotamus
  is a relative of the whale. Earlier studies placed
  the hippo as a close relative of wild pigs, but
  recent studies have discovered stronger evidence
  for the connection to whales. This information
  suggests that
  (1) genetic engineering was involved in the
       earlier theories
  (2) structural evidence is the best evolutionary
       factor to consider
  (3) natural selection does not occur in hippopotamuses
  (4) scientific explanations are tentative and subject
       to change
Answer: 4

2.
2 A stable ecosystem would not contain
  (1) materials being cycled
  (2) consumers without producers
  (3) decomposers
  (4) a constant source of energy
Answer: 2

3.
3 A human liver cell and a human skin cell in the
  same person have the same genetic sequences.
  However, these cells are different because the
  liver cell
  (1) has more dominant traits than the skin cell
  (2) can reproduce but the skin cell cannot
  (3) carries out respiration but the skin cell does not
  (4) uses different genes than the skin cell
Answer: 4


4.
4 Abiotic factors that could affect the stability of
  an ecosystem could include
  (1) hurricanes, packs of wolves, and temperature
  (2) blizzards, heat waves, and swarms of
      grasshoppers
  (3) droughts, floods, and heat waves
  (4) species of fish, number of decomposers, and
      supply of algae
Answer: 3

5.
5 Many viruses infect only a certain type of cell
  because they bind to certain
  (1) other viruses on the surface of the cell
  (2) mitochondria in the cell
  (3) hormones in the cell
  (4) receptor sites on the surface of the cell
Answer: 4

6.
6 The respiratory system includes a layer of cells in
  the air passages that clean the air before it gets
  to the lungs. This layer of cells is best classified as
  (1) a tissue                (3) an organelle
  (2) an organ                (4) an organ system
Answer: 1

7.
7 The diagram below represents a typical energy
  pyramid.
Which level in the pyramid includes autotrophs?
(1) A                    (3) C
(2) B                    (4) D
Answer: 4

8.
8 Mustard gas removes guanine (G) from DNA.
  For developing embryos, exposure to mustard
  gas can cause serious deformities because
  guanine
  (1) stores the building blocks of proteins
  (2) supports the structure of ribosomes
  (3) produces energy for genetic transfer
  (4) is part of the genetic code
Answer: 4

9.
9 The diagram below represents a food web.
Which organisms are correctly paired with their nutritional roles?
(1) hawk—decomposer; insect-eating bird—parasite
(2) mouse—autotroph; flower seed—heterotroph
(3) mountain lion—predator; bark beetle—herbivore
(4) grasshopper—carnivore; grass—autotroph
Answer: 3

10.
10 Which process usually results in offspring that exhibit new genetic variations?

Answer: 1

11.
11 Which observation could best be used to indicate
   an evolutionary relationship between two
   species?
   (1) They have similar base sequences.
   (2) They have similar fur color.
   (3) They inhabit the same geographic regions.
   (4) They occupy the same niche.
Answer: 1

12.
12 A species in a changing environment would have
   the best chance of survival as a result of a mutation that has a
   (1) high adaptive value and occurs in its skin
       cells
   (2) low adaptive value and occurs in its skin cells
   (3) high adaptive value and occurs in its gametes
   (4) low adaptive value and occurs in its gametes
Answer: 3

13.
13 In an area of Indonesia where the ocean floor is
   littered with empty coconut shells, a species of
   octopus has been filmed “walking” on two of its
   eight tentacles. The remaining six tentacles are
   wrapped around its body. Scientists suspect that,
   with its tentacles arranged this way, the octopus
   resembles a rolling coconut. Local predators,
   including sharks, seem not to notice the octopus
   as often when it behaves in this manner. This
   unique method of locomotion has lasted over
   many generations due to
   (1) competition between octopuses and their
        predators
   (2) ecological succession in marine habitats
   (3) the process of natural selection
   (4) selective breeding of this octopus species
Answer: 3

14.
14 Which statement concerning production of
   offspring is correct?
   (1) Production of offspring is necessary for a
       species to survive, but it is not necessary for
       an individual to survive.
   (2) An organism can reproduce without
       performing any of the other life processes.
   (3) Production of offspring is necessary for an
       individual organism to survive, while the
       other life processes are important for a
       species to survive.
   (4) Reproduction is a process that requires
       gametes in all species.
Answer: 1

15.
15 Limited resources contribute to evolutionary
   change in animals by increasing
   (1) genetic variation within the population
   (2) competition between members of the
       species
   (3) the carrying capacity for the species
   (4) the rate of photosynthesis in the population
Answer: 2


16.
16 Some chemical interactions in a human are
   shown in the graph below.
This graph represents hormones and events in
the
(1) process of fetal growth and development
(2) process of meiotic cell division during sperm
    development
(3) reproductive cycle of males
(4) reproductive cycle of females
Answer: 4

17.
17 German measles is a disease that can harm an
   embryo if the mother is infected in the early
   stages of pregnancy because the virus that causes
   German measles is able to
   (1) be absorbed by the embryo from the mother’s
       milk
   (2) be transported to the embryo in red blood
       cells
   (3) pass across the placenta
   (4) infect the eggs
Answer: 3

18.
18 In lakes in New York State that are exposed
   to acid rain, fish populations are declining. This
   is primarily due to changes in which lake
   condition?
   (1) size                   (3) pH
   (2) temperature            (4) location
Answer: 3

19.
19 The diagram below represents a system in the
   human body.
The primary function of structure X is to
(1) produce energy needed for sperm to move
(2) provide food for the sperm to carry to the egg
(3) produce and store urine
(4) form gametes that may be involved in
    fertilization
Answer: 4

20.
20 The diagram below represents an autotrophic
   cell.
For the process of autotrophic nutrition, the
arrow labeled A would most likely represent the
direction of movement of
(1) carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy
(2) oxygen, glucose, and solar energy
(3) carbon dioxide, oxygen, and heat energy
(4) glucose, water, and heat energy
Answer: 1

21.
21 Which statement describes starches, fats, proteins, and DNA?
   (1) They are used to store genetic information.
   (2) They are complex molecules made from
       smaller molecules.
   (3) They are used to assemble larger inorganic
       materials.
   (4) They are simple molecules used as energy
       sources.
Answer: 2

22.
22 In 1995, during an Ebola virus outbreak, approximately 80% of the infected individuals died.
   Which statement is an inference that could be
   made based on this information?
   (1) The individuals who survived were able to
       produce antibodies against the Ebola virus.
   (2) The individuals who survived were not
       exposed to the Ebola antigens.
   (3) Eighty percent of the population had a
       natural immunity to the Ebola virus.
   (4) Eighty percent of the population was infected
       with a viral antigen.
Answer: 1

23.
23 In some people, substances such as peanuts,
   eggs, and milk cause an immune response. This
   response to usually harmless substances is most
   similar to the
   (1) action of the heart as the intensity of exercise
       increases
   (2) mechanism that regulates the activity of
       guard cells
   (3) action of white blood cells when certain
       bacteria enter the body
   (4) mechanism that maintains the proper level
       of antibiotics in the blood
Answer: 3

24.
24 The ivory-billed woodpecker, long thought to be
   extinct, was recently reported to be living in a
   southern swamp area. The most ecologically
   appropriate way to ensure the natural survival of
   this population of birds is to
   (1) feed them daily with corn and other types of
       grain
   (2) destroy their natural enemies and predators
   (3) move the population of birds to a zoo
   (4) limit human activities in the habitat of the
       bird
Answer: 4

25.
25 Millions of acres of tropical rain forest are being
   destroyed each year. Which change would most
   likely occur over time if the burning and clearing
   of these forests were stopped?
   (1) an increase in the amount of atmospheric
       pollution produced
   (2) a decrease in the source of new medicines
   (3) an increase in the amount of oxygen released
       into the atmosphere
   (4) a decrease in the number of species
Answer: 3

26.
26 The diagram below represents a biological process taking place in an area of New York State unaffected by
   natural disasters.
Which statement correctly describes a stage in this process?
(1) The grass stage is the most stable stage and exists for thousands of years.
(2) The shrub stage modifies the ecosystem, making it more suitable for the pine forest.
(3) The pine forest stage has no biodiversity and the least competition.
(4) The hardwood forest stage will be replaced by a pine forest.
Answer: 2

27.
27 Which sequence of natural events is likely to lead to ecosystem stability?
   (1) sexual reproduction → genetic variation → biodiversity → ecosystem stability
   (2) asexual reproduction → genetic variation → cloning → ecosystem stability
   (3) genetic variation → asexual reproduction → biodiversity → ecosystem stability
   (4) genetic variation → sexual reproduction → cloning → ecosystem stability
Answer: 1

28.
28 The Susquehanna River, which runs through the states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland, received
   the designation “America’s Most Endangered River” in 2005. One of the river’s problems results from the
   large number of sewage overflow sites that are found along the course of the river. These sewage overflow
   sites are a direct result of an increase in
   (1) global warming                                       (3) recycling programs
   (2) human population                                     (4) atmospheric changes
Answer: 2

29.
29 Many farmers plant corn, and then harvest the entire plant at the end of the growing season. One negative
   effect of this action is that
   (1) soil minerals used by corn plants are not recycled
   (2) corn plants remove acidic compounds from the air all season long
   (3) corn plants may replace renewable sources of energy
   (4) large quantities of water are produced by corn plants
Answer: 1

30.
30 Which human activity is correctly paired with its likely future consequence?
   (1) overfishing in the Atlantic — increase in supply of flounder and salmon as food for people
   (2) development of electric cars or hybrid vehicles — increased rate of global warming
   (3) use of fossil fuels — depletion of underground coal, oil, and natural gas supplies
   (4) genetically engineering animals — less food available to feed the world’s population
Answer: 3


Part B–1
Answer all questions in this part. [12]
   Directions (31–42): For each statement or question, write on the separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

31.
31 An experiment was set up to test the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis, as shown in the
   diagram below.
Data were collected by counting gas bubbles released in a 5-minute period when the light source was
placed at various distances from the experimental setup. The data are shown in the table below.
The number of bubbles released when the light source is at a distance of 38 centimeters would most likely
be closest to
(1) 6                                                    (3) 13
(2) 10                                                   (4) 22
Answer: 2

32.
32 Which diagram represents the relative sizes of the structures listed below?

Answer: 2

33.
   Base your answers to questions 33 through 35 on the diagram below, which represents some stages in the
development of an embryo, and on your knowledge of biology.
33 This entire sequence (A through embryo) started with
   (1) the periodic shedding of a thickened uterine lining
   (2) mitotic cell division in a testis
   (3) meiotic cell division in the placenta
   (4) the process of fertilization
Answer: 4

34.
34 If cell A has 46 chromosomes, how many chromosomes will most likely be found in each cell of stage G?
   (1) 23                                               (3) 69
   (2) 46                                               (4) 92
Answer: 2

35.
35 The arrow labeled X represents the process of
   (1) meiosis                                     (3) differentiation
   (2) recombination                               (4) cloning
Answer: 3

36.
36 Which statement about the use of independent
   variables in controlled experiments is correct?
   (1) A different independent variable must be
       used each time an experiment is repeated.
   (2) The independent variables must involve
       time.
   (3) Only one independent variable is used for
       each experiment.
   (4) The independent variables state the problem
       being tested.
Answer: 3

37.
37 A scientist was investigating why a particular tree
   species grows only in a specific environment. To
   determine physical conditions the tree species
   needs to survive, an appropriate study should
   include
   (1) the identification of organisms in the food
       web in that environment
   (2) an analysis of the arrangement of the leaves
       on the trees
   (3) the identification of all tree species in the
       area
   (4) an analysis of the soil around the tree
Answer: 4

38.
38 The process illustrated in the sequence below
   occurs constantly in the biosphere.
Which type of organism is most likely represented
by X?
(1) decomposer           (3) herbivore
(2) producer             (4) carnivore
Answer: 1

39.
39 The direct source of ATP for the development of
   a fetus is
   (1) a series of chemical activities that take place
       in the mitochondria of fetal cells
   (2) a series of chemical activities that take place
       in the mitochondria of the uterine cells
   (3) the transport of nutrients by the cytoplasm of
       the stomach cells of the mother
   (4) the transport of nutrients by the cytoplasm of
       the stomach cells of the fetus
Answer: 1

40.
40 A sample of bacteria was added to a culture dish
   containing a food supply. The dish was kept in an
   incubator for two weeks, where temperature and
   other conditions that favored bacterial growth
   were kept constant. The graph below shows
   changes that occurred in the bacterial population
   over the two weeks.
Which statement provides the best explanation
for some of the changes observed?
(1) The bacteria were unable to reproduce until
    day 8.
(2) The bacteria consumed all of the available
    food.
(3) The culture dish contained an antibiotic for
    the first five days.
(4) The temperature increased and the bacteria
    died.
Answer: 2

41.
41 The diagram below represents a process involved
   in reproduction in some organisms.
This process is considered a mechanism of evolution because
(1) mitosis produces new combinations of inheritable traits
(2) it increases the chances of DNA alterations in
    the parent
(3) it is a source of variation in the offspring
    produced
(4) meiosis prevents recombination of lethal
    mutations
Answer: 3

42.
42 The graph below shows the changes in the size of
   a fish population over a period of time.
The dashed line on the graph represents the
(1) carrying capacity of the environment
(2) life span of the species
(3) level at which extinction is reached
(4) level of maximum biodiversity of the species
Answer: 1


Part B–2
Answer all questions in this part. [13]
    Directions (43–54): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number preceding the
choice that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in
this part, follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

43.
43 Complete the chart below by identifying two cell structures involved in protein
   synthesis and stating how each structure functions in protein synthesis. [2]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow a maximum of 2 credits, 1 credit for identifying one cell structure involved in protein
       synthesis and stating how the structure functions in protein synthesis and 1 credit for identifying a
       second cell structure involved in protein synthesis and stating how the structure functions in
       protein synthesis. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — nucleus – contains template/blueprint/instructions for protein synthesis
           — ribosome – assembles proteins; synthesizes proteins
           — mitochondrion – provides energy


44.
44 The diagram below represents stages in the digestion of an organic compound.
Explain why substance X would not be likely to digest a different organic compound. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — A different organic compound would have a different shape.
           — A different organic compound would not fit with substance X.
           — The active site of X does not fit a different substrate.
           — Substance X is specific to only certain materials.


45.
   Base your answers to questions 45 through 47 on the passage below and on your knowledge of biology.
                Overstaying Their Welcome: Cane Toads in Australia
            Everyone in Australia is in agreement that the cane toads have got to
         go. The problem is getting rid of them. Cane toads, properly known as
         Bufo marinus, are the most notorious of what are called invasive
         species in Australia and beyond. But unlike other species of the same
         classification, cane toads were intentionally introduced into Australia.
         The country simply got much more and much worse than it bargained for.
            Before 1935, Australia did not have any toad species of its own. What
         the country did have, however, was a major beetle problem. Two
         species of beetles in particular, French’s Cane Beetle and the Greyback
         Cane Beetle, were in the process of decimating [destroying] the northeastern 
         state of Queenland’s sugar cane crops. The beetle’s larvae were
         eating the roots of the sugar cane and stunting, if not killing, the plants.
         The anticipated solution to this quickly escalating problem came in the
         form of the cane toad. After first hearing about the amphibians in 1933
         at a conference in the Caribbean, growers successfully lobbied to have
         the cane toads imported to battle and hopefully destroy the beetles and
         save the crops.…
            The plan backfired completely and absolutely. As it turns out, cane
         toads do not jump very high, only about two feet actually, so they did
         not eat the beetles that for the most part lived in the upper stalks of
         cane plants. Instead of going after the beetles, as the growers had
         planned, the cane toads began going after everything else in sight—
         insects, bird’s eggs and even native frogs. And because the toads are
         poisonous, they began to kill would-be predators. The toll on native
         species has been immense….
                                         Source: Tina Butler, mongabay.com, April 17, 2005
 45 State one reason why the cane toads were imported to Australia. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — to destroy beetles
           — to save crops


46.
46 Identify one adaptation of cane toads that made them successful in their new
   environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — poisonous to predators
           — can eat a large variety of food


47.
47 State one specific example of how the introduction of the cane toads threatened
   biodiversity in Australia. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — killed off other species
           — outcompeted other species
           — reduced number of birds by eating eggs
           — poisoned other species


48.
   Base your answers to questions 48 and 49 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
                              Signs of a Changing Planet
            While the changing climate endangers some species, a little global
         warming suits many shallow-water squid and octopuses just fine.
         Slightly higher ocean temperatures have been shown to boost the
         growth of these cephalopods, whose digestive enzymes speed up when
         warm. The tentacled creatures are also quick to colonize new territory
         as conditions become more favorable. Humboldt squid, which usually
         range from Southern California to South America, have been spotted
         as far north as Alaska. Deep-sea squid may not, however, adapt as readily.
                                                    Sierra Magazine, March/April 2005
 48 Which graph most accurately shows the interaction between water temperature and
    digestive enzyme action in the shallow-water squid?

Answer:
2


49.
49 Although warming of the ocean may favor the migration of these squid into new territory,
   there may be biotic factors that make it difficult for these squid to live there. Identify
   one of these biotic factors, and explain why this factor would make it difficult for these
   squid to live in the new territory. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
49 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Predators may eat squid, making it difficult for squid to survive.
           — Food organisms may be scarce in the new environment so the squid do not have enough to
             eat.
           — Lack of vegetation (seaweed) may make hiding from predators difficult.


50.
   Base your answers to questions 50 through 54 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           In a test for diabetes, blood samples were taken from an individual
         every 4 hours for 24 hours. The glucose concentrations were recorded
         and are shown in the data table below.
50 State one likely cause of the change in blood glucose concentration between hour 16
   and hour 20. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
50 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — The individual ate.
           — insulin level dropped


51.
    Directions (51 and 52): Using the information given, construct a line graph on the grid
on the next page, following the directions below.
 51 Mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Blood Glucose Concentration (mg/dL).”
    [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
51 [1] Allow 1 credit for marking an appropriate scale on the axis labeled “Blood Glucose Concentration
       (mg/dL).”


52.
52 Plot the data from the data table. Surround each point with a small circle and connect
   the points. [1]

Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
52 [1] Allow 1 credit for correctly plotting the data and connecting the points.
Note: Allow credit if the points are correctly plotted but not circled.
      Make no assumptions about the origin unless it is labeled.
      Do not allow credit for plotting points that are not in the data table, e.g., (0,0), or for
      extending lines beyond the data points.


53.
53 How might these results be different if this individual was not able to produce
   sufficient levels of insulin?
  (1) The level of blood glucose would be constant.
  (2) The average level of blood glucose would be lower.
  (3) The maximum level of blood glucose would be higher.
  (4) The minimum level of blood glucose would be lower.
Answer:
3


54.
54 The chemical that is responsible for the decrease in blood glucose concentration is
   released by
   (1) muscle cells
   (2) guard cells
   (3) the ovaries
   (4) the pancreas
Answer:
4



Part C
Answer all questions in this part.   [17]
Directions (55–67): Record your answers in the spaces provided in this examination booklet.

55.
55 Many plants can affect the growth of other plants near them. This can occur when one
   plant produces a chemical that affects another plant.
   Design an experiment to determine if a solution containing ground-up goldenrod plants
   has an effect on the growth of radish seedlings. In your experimental design be sure to:
   • state a hypothesis to be tested [1]
   • describe how the experimental group will be treated differently from the control
     group [1]
   • explain why the number of seedlings used for the experiment should be large [1]
   • identify the type of data that will be collected [1]
   • describe experimental results that would support your hypothesis [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
55 [5] Allow a maximum of 5 credits, allocated as follows:
       • Allow 1 credit for stating a hypothesis to be tested. Acceptable responses include, but are not
         limited to:
           — Radish seedlings grow faster when exposed to goldenrod solution.
           — Radish seedlings treated with the solution will not grow as tall as the control group.
           — The solution will not affect the height of radish seedlings.
       Note: Do not allow credit for a hypothesis in the form of a question.
       • Allow 1 credit for describing how the experimental group will be treated differently from the
         control group. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — The experimental group will be given the solution while the control group is given plain
             water.
           — The experimental group will have ground up goldenrod in the soil.
       • Allow 1 credit for explaining why the number of seedlings used for the experiment should be
         large. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — A large sample will increase the validity of the results.
           — Since some may die, there will be enough left to do the experiment.
       • Allow 1 credit for identifying the type of data that will be collected based on the student’s
         hypothesis. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — The number of seedlings that survive in each group will be counted.
           — the height of the seedlings
       Note: Do not accept just “growth.” The type of data must be measurable.
       • Allow 1 credit for describing experimental results that would support the student’s hypothesis.
         Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Radish seedlings exposed to goldenrod solution were twice as tall as the control group in
             two weeks.
           — If the radish seedlings treated with the solution do not grow as tall as those in the control
             group, the hypothesis is supported.
           — If there is no difference between the height of the group treated with the solution as
             compared to the control group, the hypothesis will be supported.


56.
   Base your answers to questions 56 and 57 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
           A biologist at an agriculture laboratory is asked to develop a better
         quality blueberry plant. He is given plants that produce unusually large
         blueberries and plants that produce very sweet blueberries.
 56 Describe one way the biologist could use these blueberry plants to develop a plant with
    blueberries that are both large and sweet. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — Use selective breeding/artificial selection.
          — Cross sweet-berry blueberry plants with large-berry blueberry plants.
          — Use recombinant DNA to move the sweet gene into the large-berry plants.


57.
57 The biologist is successful in producing the new plant. State one method that can be
   used to produce many identical blueberry plants of this new type. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — cloning
          — vegetative propagation
          — cuttings
          — asexual reproduction


58.
   Base your answers to questions 58 and 59 on the information below and on your knowledge of biology.
            Two adaptations of the monarch butterfly that aid in its survival are
         the production of a certain chemical and a distinctive coloration that
         other animals can easily recognize. When a monarch butterfly is eaten,
         the presence of the chemical results in a bad taste to the predator.
           Although the viceroy butterfly does not contain the chemical that
         tastes bad to a predator, it does resemble the monarch in size, shape,
         and coloration.
 58 Explain how the combination of this chemical and the distinctive coloration aid in the
    survival of the monarch butterfly. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — The predator gets a bad taste from the monarch butterfly and then recognizes other
            members of that species and does not eat them.


59.
59 How do the characteristics of the viceroy butterfly aid in its survival? [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
           — Since the viceroy butterfly resembles the monarch, predators that have tasted a monarch
             butterfly do not eat viceroy butterflies.


60.
   Base your answers to questions 60 through 62 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
           Food is often treated to lower the risk of disease and spoilage, as
         shown in the chart below.
60 Identify one type of organism that is controlled by these food preservation methods. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — bacteria
          — fungi
          — pathogenic organisms


61.
61 State one way extremely high temperatures can affect biological catalysts found in
   these organisms. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — High temperatures can destroy biological catalysts in organisms.
          — High temperatures cause enzymes to change shape (denature).


62.
62 Explain why high salt concentrations can kill organisms. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — High salt concentrations can remove water from cells.
          — disrupts water balance in cells
          — water leaves the cells by osmosis
          — causes dehydration


63.
63 An industry releases small amounts of a chemical pollutant into a nearby river each day.
   The chemical is absorbed by the microscopic water plants in the river. It causes the
   plants no apparent harm. Explain how this small amount of the chemical in the
   microscopic plants could enter the food chain and endanger the lives of birds that live
   nearby and feed on the fish from the river each day. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — As these plants are eaten by certain fish, the chemical may be transferred to birds that
            eat these fish, causing the birds to die.


64.
   Base your answers to questions 64 through 67 on the information below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            Carbon, like many other elements, is maintained in ecosystems
         through a natural cycle. Human activities have been disrupting the
         carbon cycle.
 64 Identify one process involved in recycling carbon dioxide within ecosystems. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — photosynthesis
          — respiration
          — combustion


65.
65 State one reason why the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has increased in
   the last 100 years. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — burning fossil fuels
          — human population increase
          — more cars
          — more industry
          — deforestation


66.
66 Identify one effect this increase in carbon dioxide could have on the environment. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — global warming
          — increased average daily temperatures
          — climate change


67.
67 Describe one way individuals can help slow down or reverse the increase in carbon
   dioxide. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
 Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — use alternative fuels
          — plant more trees
          — reduce deforestation
          — drive less



Part D
Answer all questions in this part.   [13]
    Directions (68–80): For those questions that are followed by four choices, circle the number of the choice,
that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question. For all other questions in this part,
follow the directions given in the question and record your answers in the spaces provided.

68.
Base your answer to question 68 on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology.
68 Which evolutionary tree best represents the information in the chart?

Answer:
3


69.
    Base your answers to questions 69 and 70 on the diagram below that illustrates the
results of a laboratory technique and on your knowledge of biology.
69 State one way the information obtained by this technique can be used. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
69 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — to determine evolutionary relationships
          — screening for a genetic disorder
          — to determine paternity
          — to determine whether the hospital mixed up babies and parents
          — to identify suspects in criminal investigations


70.
70 The results of which laboratory technique are represented in the diagram?
   (1) chromatography
   (2) manipulation of genes
   (3) genetic engineering
   (4) gel electrophoresis
Answer:
4


71.
   Base your answers to questions 71 through 73 on the histograms below and on your
knowledge of biology.
            Students in a class recorded their resting pulse rates and their pulse
         rates immediately after strenuous activity. The data obtained are shown
         in the histograms below.
71 An appropriate label for the y-axis in each histogram would be
   (1) Number of Students
   (2) Average Number of Heartbeats
   (3) Time (min)
   (4) Amount of Exercise
Answer:
1


72.
72 According to the data, compared to the average resting pulse rate, the average pulse
   rate immediately after strenuous activity generally
   (1) decreased
   (2) increased
   (3) remained the same
   (4) decreased and leveled off
Answer:
2


73.
73 State one biological explanation for the fact that not all students had the same resting
   pulse rate. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
73 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — The students were different sizes or weights.
          — The students were different sexes.
          — The students had different levels of physical fitness.
          — Metabolic rates vary.
          — genetic variation


74.
    Base your answers to questions 74 and 75 on the diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology.
74 The only finch that is completely carnivorous has a beak adapted for
   (1) probing, only
   (2) probing and edge crushing
   (3) probing and biting
   (4) biting and edge crushing
Answer:
1


75.
75 Which two finches would compete the least for food?
   (1) small ground finch and large ground finch
   (2) large ground finch and sharp-billed ground finch
   (3) small tree finch and medium ground finch
   (4) vegetarian finch and small ground finch
Answer:
3


76.
76 Glucose indicator was added to a beaker of an unknown liquid. Starch indicator was
   added to a different beaker containing the same unknown liquid. The color of the
   indicator solutions before they were added to the beakers and the color of the contents
   of the beakers after adding the indicator solution are recorded in the chart below.
Which carbohydrate is present in the unknown liquid? Support your answer. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
76 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — starch — The solution in beaker 2 changed color.


77.
77 A laboratory setup of a model cell is shown in the diagram below.
Which observation would most likely be made 24 hours later?
(1) The contents of the model cell have changed color.
(2) The diameter of the model cell has increased.
(3) The model cell has become smaller.
(4) The amount of distilled water in the beaker has increased.
Answer:
2


78.
    Base your answers to questions 78 and 79 on the diagram below and on your knowledge
of biology. The diagram illustrates what happens when a particular solution is added to a
wet-mount slide containing red onion cells being observed using a compound light microscope.
78 Identify a process that caused the change in the cells. [1]
Answer: MODEL ANSWER GIVEN BELOW
78 [1] Allow 1 credit. Acceptable responses include, but are not limited to:
          — osmosis
          — diffusion
          — passive transport


79.
79 To observe the cells on this slide it is best to start out using the
   (1) high-power objective and focus using the coarse adjustment, only
   (2) low-power objective and focus using the fine adjustment, only
   (3) high-power objective and focus using the fine adjustment
   (4) low-power objective and focus using the coarse adjustment
Answer:
4


80.
80 The diagram below represents the distribution of some molecules inside and outside
   of a cell over time.
Which factor prevented the protein moleculesfrom moving out of the cell?
(1) temperature
(2) pH
(3) molecule size
(4) molecule concentration
Answer:
3



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