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US History and Government - New York Regents January 2014 Exam

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Part I
Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.

1.
1 The development of a farming culture among preColumbian Native American Indians helped ensure
  (1) safety from neighboring tribes
  (2) the establishment of a nomadic lifestyle
  (3) the continuation of hunting and gathering
  (4) a more stable food supply
Answer: 4

2.
2 During the colonial period, the economic
  development of the South was most directly
  dependent on the labor of
  (1) factory workers       (3) Irish immigrants
  (2) wheat farmers         (4) enslaved Africans
Answer: 4

3.
3 The results of the French and Indian War
  (1754–1763) led to the independence movement
  in the thirteen colonies because the British
  (1) lost control of Canada and Florida
  (2) began imposing new taxes on the colonists
  (3) removed the Spanish threat to the colonists
  (4) opened the area west of the Appalachian
      Mountains to colonial settlers
Answer: 2


4.
    Base your answer to question 4 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
   men are created equal, that they are endowed by
   their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
   that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit
   of Happiness.—That to secure these rights,
   Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
   their just powers from the consent of the
   governed,—That whenever any Form of
   Government becomes destructive of these ends,
   it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it,
   and to institute new Government,…
                                      — Thomas Jefferson
 4 The purpose of this statement was to
   (1) urge support for the Albany Plan of Union
   (2) provide justification for declaring independence
   (3) criticize the Articles of Confederation
   (4) advocate obedience to Great Britain
Answer: 2

5.
5 Which principle of government is found in both
  the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution
  of the United States?
  (1) The right to vote must be guaranteed to all
      Americans.
  (2) Supreme Court justices should be elected by
      the people.
  (3) Governing power should be divided between
      different levels of government.
  (4) States have the right to secede from the Union.
Answer: 3

6.
6 At the Constitutional Convention of 1787, the
  Great Compromise and the Three-fifths
  Compromise both involved the issue of how
  (1) new states would be created
  (2) states would be represented in the national
      government
  (3) the armed forces would be controlled
  (4) presidential elections would be conducted
Answer: 2

7.
7 Many Antifederalists opposed ratification of the
  Constitution until they were guaranteed
  (1) better protection of individual liberties
  (2) increased presidential authority to wage war
  (3) stricter control over state spending
  (4) expanded police powers
Answer: 1

8.
8 What is the first step in adding an amendment to
  the United States Constitution?
  (1) approval by the president
  (2) review by the Supreme Court
  (3) vote by the people in a national referendum
  (4) passage by a two-thirds majority in both
      houses of Congress
Answer: 4

9.
9 One feature common to the foreign policies of
  Presidents George Washington, John Adams, and
  Thomas Jefferson was that each wanted to
  (1) favor France in its conflict with Great Britain
  (2) secure new territory west of the Mississippi
      River
  (3) maintain neutrality during European conflicts
  (4) seek military alliances with neighboring
      countries
Answer: 3

10.
10 Judicial review allows the Supreme Court to
   (1) determine the constitutionality of federal laws
   (2) approve nominations to the president’s cabinet
   (3) oversee the financing of the lower federal
       courts
   (4) remove elected officials from office
Answer: 1

11.
11 Which document was issued primarily to prevent
   European nations from future colonization in
   Latin America?
   (1) Jay Treaty (1795)
   (2) Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
   (3) Embargo Act (1807)
   (4) Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Answer: 4

12.
12 A major reason for Commodore Matthew Perry’s
   1854 visit to Japan was to
   (1) prevent Japanese domination of the Pacific
       region
   (2) open United States trade relations with Japan
   (3) encourage immigration from Japan
   (4) establish a naval base in Japan
Answer: 2

13.
13 • Publication of The Liberator
   • Kansas-Nebraska Act
   • Dred Scott decision
   The events listed above all contributed to the
   (1) outbreak of the Civil War
   (2) formation of the policy of Manifest Destiny
   (3) passage of the Missouri Compromise
   (4) annexation of Texas
Answer: 1

14.
    Base your answers to questions 14 and 15 on the
quotation below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   … In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow
   countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous
   issue of civil war. The government will not assail
   you. You can have no conflict without being
   yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath
   registered in Heaven to destroy the government,
   while I shall have the most solemn one to
   “preserve, protect, and defend it.” …
     — President Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address,
                                            March 4, 1861
14 President Lincoln made this statement in an
   effort to
   (1) urge Congress to spend money to buy the
       freedom of slaves
   (2) convince Southerners that he posed no threat
       to their way of life
   (3) offer to compromise his position regarding
       territorial expansion of slavery
   (4) persuade Americans that war between the
       North and South was unavoidable
Answer: 2

15.
15 When President Lincoln made this speech, which
   step toward civil war had already taken place?
   (1) The Emancipation Proclamation had been
       issued.
   (2) Union troops had invaded several Southern
       states.
   (3) General Robert E. Lee had led an attack on
       Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
   (4) Several Southern states had seceded from the
       Union.
Answer: 4

16.
Base your answer to question 16 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
         All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction
      thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall
      make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the
      United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due
      process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.
                                                — 14th amendment, Section 1, United States Constitution
      16 This amendment was adopted in 1868 primarily to
         (1) protect the rights of formerly enslaved persons
         (2) make it easier for immigrants to become citizens
         (3) extend suffrage to settlers on the Great Plains
         (4) require the federal government to pay the costs of Reconstruction
Answer: 1

17.
    Base your answer to question 17 on the poster
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
17 What happened as a result of offers like the one
   shown on this 1872 poster?
   (1) More Native American Indians on the Great
       Plains were forced onto reservations.
   (2) The government began to restrict the
       number of acres that people could buy.
   (3) The Great Plains states became the new
       center for manufacturing.
   (4) Missouri and Nebraska became new territories.
Answer: 1

18.
18 During the late 180os, the principles of Social
   Darwinism and laissez-faire economics were
   most closely associated with the interests of
   (1) farmers
   (2) coal miners
   (3) organizers of labor unions
   (4) owners of big businesses
Answer: 4

19.
19 Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act
   (1887) and the Sherman Antitrust Act (1890) in
   response to
   (1) foreign influences on the United States
       economy
   (2) public demand for better roads
   (3) monopolistic practices that were harmful to
       small businesses
   (4) the failure of federal banks to provide loans to
       individuals
Answer: 3

20.
20 In the 189os, calls for limiting immigration were
   largely the result of
   (1) nativist reactions toward southern and eastern
       Europeans
   (2) a desire to achieve cultural pluralism
   (3) the influence of industrialists
   (4) the adoption of a constitutional amendment
Answer: 1


21.
21 Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois agreed
   that African Americans should
   (1) use education to gain opportunities
   (2) support a “Back to Africa” movement
   (3) take part in boycotts to end segregation
   (4) adopt a gradual approach to gain the right to
       vote
Answer: 1

22.
Base your answers to questions 22 and 23 on the headlines below and on your knowledge of social studies.
22 These 1898 headlines are best understood as an example of
   (1) political advertising               (3) public opinion polling
   (2) yellow journalism                   (4) isolationist policies
Answer: 2

23.
23 The purpose of these headlines was to build public support for
   (1) efforts to defend the Panama Canal (3) an end to the policy of imperialism
   (2) the annexation of Cuba              (4) the war against Spain
Answer: 4

24.
24 The term muckraker was used during the
   Progressive Era to describe
   (1) dissatisfied workers who went on strike
   (2) Northerners who went South following the
       Civil War
   (3) investigative journalists who exposed societal
       problems
   (4) women who supported the Prohibition
       movement
Answer: 3

25.
25 The establishment of the Open Door policy
   (1899–1900) and the response to the Boxer
   Rebellion (1900) showed that the United States
   wanted to
   (1) curb Russian expansion
   (2) gain access to Chinese markets
   (3) build factories in the Far East
   (4) limit Asian immigration to the United States
Answer: 2

26.
26 Which statement best summarizes the perspective
   of President Theodore Roosevelt concerning
   natural resources?
   (1) Decisions about conservation are best left to
       the states.
   (2) Corporations can be trusted to use natural
       resources wisely.
   (3) The federal government must protect the
       nation’s lands from exploitation.
   (4) The free market should set the value of the
       nation’s natural resources.
Answer: 3

27.
27 Progressive Era reformers tried to reduce the gap
   in wealth between the rich and the poor by
   (1) creating the Federal Reserve System
   (2) giving voters the power of referendum and
       recall
   (3) implementing a graduated income tax
   (4) establishing the Federal Trade Commission
Answer: 3

28.
28 During World War I, many African Americans
   living in the South moved to northern cities
   primarily because
   (1) more workers were needed in industry
   (2) prejudice had been eliminated in the North
   (3) affirmative action programs provided better
        training opportunities
   (4) the cost of living in the cities was lower
Answer: 1

29.
29 Which event of the 192os best reflects the
   conflict in American society between science and
   religion?
   (1) passage of the quota acts
   (2) Scopes trial
   (3) trial of Sacco and Vanzetti
   (4) Red Scare
Answer: 2

30.
30 The Harlem Renaissance of the 192os expanded
   the influence of African Americans by
   (1) financing the construction of apartments in
       New York City
   (2) gaining passage of civil rights legislation
   (3) helping elect African Americans to high
       political offices
   (4) promoting the artistic contributions of
       African Americans
Answer: 4

31.
31 What was an underlying cause of the Great
   Depression?
   (1) unequal distribution of income throughout
       the 192os
   (2) adoption of high federal income tax rates
       during the 192os
   (3) failure of American farmers to produce
       enough food after World War I
   (4) rapid increase in federal defense spending
       following World War I
Answer: 1

32.
32 Which geographic area was most seriously
   affected by the Dust Bowl of the 193os?
   (1) Atlantic Coastal Plain (3) Great Plains
   (2) Ohio River valley      (4) Pacific Coast
Answer: 3

33.
33 In 1937, President Franklin D. Roosevelt sought
   to increase the number of Supreme Court
   justices because
   (1) some justices complained they were unable to
       handle the heavy caseload
   (2) some regions of the country were not
       represented on the Court
   (3) the Court needed more minority representation
   (4) the Court had declared several New Deal
       programs unconstitutional
Answer: 4

34.
Base your answer to question 34 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 During World War II, the federal government dealt with the problem shown in this
   cartoon by
   (1) rationing gasoline used by American drivers
   (2) ending the use of tanks by the military
   (3) increasing imports of oil from the Dutch East Indies
   (4) setting higher mileage standards for car manufacturers
Answer: 1

35.
35 The GI Bill helped World War II veterans by
   (1) protecting them from being recalled to duty
   (2) guaranteeing them government jobs
   (3) giving them several types of economic
       assistance
   (4) exempting them from federal income tax
Answer: 3


36.
36 One goal of the Marshall Plan (1947) was to
   (1) provide defensive weapons to Great Britain
   (2) rebuild the economy of Western Europe
   (3) fund the construction of the iron curtain
   (4) bring Nazi war criminals to trial in Nuremberg
Answer: 2

37.
    Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
37 What is the main idea of this 1949 cartoon?
   (1) Liberty is being protected by loyal citizens.
   (2) Foreign terrorists are endangering the nation.
   (3) Fear can threaten civil liberties.
   (4) Civil rights protests are alarming the public.
Answer: 3

38.
38 This cartoonist is commenting on the
   (1) rise of Nazism and fascism in Europe
   (2) Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
   (3) communist invasion of South Korea to start
       the Korean War
   (4) reaction of the American public to alleged
       communist activities
Answer: 4

39.
    Base your answer to question 39 on the photograph
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
39 The situation shown in this 1950 photograph is a
   direct result of the
   (1) Great Migration
   (2) application of grandfather clauses
   (3) passage of Jim Crow laws
   (4) Montgomery bus boycott
Answer: 3

40.
40 One way the United States government reacted
   to the Soviet launching of Sputnik in 1957 was by
   (1) establishing a naval blockade of Cuba
   (2) urging more Americans to buy war bonds
   (3) starting the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
       (SALT)
   (4) increasing federal spending on math and
       science education
Answer: 4

41.
41 • Mapp v. Ohio, 1961
   • Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
   • Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
   These three Supreme Court decisions are similar
   in that each ruling
   (1) expanded the rights of the accused
   (2) reduced presidential powers
   (3) shifted more power to the states
   (4) limited campaign contributions
Answer: 1

42.
    Base your answer to question 42 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   … We will stay because in Asia and around the
   world are countries whose independence rests, in
   large measure, on confidence in America’s word
   and in America’s protection. To yield to force in
   Vietnam would weaken that confidence, would
   undermine the independence of many lands, and
   would whet the appetite of aggression. We would
   have to fight in one land, and then we would have
   to fight in another—or abandon much of Asia to
   the domination of Communists.…
                          — President Lyndon B. Johnson,
             State of the Union Address, January 12, 1966
42 Which idea is best described in this passage?
   (1) appeasement           (3) domino theory
   (2) isolationism          (4) neutrality
Answer: 3

43.
    Base your answers to questions 43 and 44 on the
cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
43 Which issue is the main focus of this cartoon?
   (1) limited political power of the elderly
   (2) excessive use of child labor
   (3) diminishing need for Social Security
   (4) growing weakness of the Social Security system
Answer: 4

44.
44 The issue illustrated in this cartoon is most
   closely related to the
   (1) rising cost of higher education
   (2) increasing age of the baby boom generation
   (3) declining quality of construction materials
   (4) decreasing price of energy
Answer: 2

45.
45 Which event is most closely associated with the
   end of the Cold War?
   (1) President Richard Nixon’s visit to China
   (2) withdrawal of United States troops from
       Vietnam
   (3) tearing down the Berlin Wall
   (4) sending United States troops to Afghanistan
Answer: 3

46.
46 During both Andrew Jackson’s presidency in the
   183os and the Progressive movement in the early
   190os, democracy was expanded by
   (1) extending civil rights for Native American
       Indians
   (2) establishing term limits for elected officials
   (3) decreasing the number of elected
       officeholders
   (4) increasing citizen participation in the
       government
Answer: 4

47.
47 Which headline best illustrates the operation of
   checks and balances?
   (1) “President Andrew Johnson Impeached by the
        House of Representatives”
   (2) “President Dwight Eisenhower Sends Troops to
        Little Rock”
   (3) “President Ronald Reagan Engages in Arms
        Reduction Talks with the Soviets”
   (4) “President George W. Bush’s Approval Ratings
        Drop Due to the Iraq War”
Answer: 1

48.
48 One way in which the Civil Rights Act of 1964
   and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
   are similar is that they have
   (1) extended free speech protections for students
       while in school
   (2) increased the number of eligible voters
   (3) helped overcome discrimination against
       certain groups
   (4) slowed down the construction of public
       buildings
Answer: 3

49.
Base your answers to questions 49 and 50 on the charts below and on your knowledge of social studies.
49 The presidential elections of 1876 and 2000 were controversial because the winner in
   both elections
   (1) was a third-party candidate
   (2) had fewer popular votes than his opponent
   (3) had fewer electoral votes than his opponent
   (4) carried fewer states than his opponent
Answer: 2

50.
50 Which change to the Constitution is most often suggested by critics of the election
   results shown in these charts?
   (1) requiring a revote
   (2) eliminating the electoral college
   (3) making the loser of the election the vice president
   (4) banning third-party candidates from presidential elections
Answer: 2


51.
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Geography—Territorial Acquisition
                 Throughout the nation’s history, the United States has expanded through the
                 acquisition of new territories. These acquisitions have had both positive and
                 negative effects on the United States.
        Task:
                 Select two territories acquired by the United States and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that led the United States to acquire the
                   territory
                 • Discuss positive and/or negative effects of the acquisition of this territory on
                   the United States
           You may use any territory acquired by the United States since 1776. Some suggestions you
        might wish to consider include the Ohio River valley (1783), Louisiana Territory (1803),
        Florida (1819), Texas (1845), Oregon Territory (1846), California (1848), Alaska (1867),
        Hawaii (1898), and Puerto Rico (1899).
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt both faced the
              challenge of leading the United States during world wars. These challenges
              included establishing foreign policies prior to United States entry into the war,
              preserving civil liberties while protecting national security during the war, and
              planning a role for the United States in world affairs after the war.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                • Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the presidencies of
                  Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt in terms of their
                  — policies prior to entering the war
                  — actions affecting civil liberties during the war, and
                  — plans for the role of the United States in world affairs after the war
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1a
       … I venture, therefore, my fellow countrymen, to speak a solemn word of warning to you against
       that deepest, most subtle, most essential breach [break] of neutrality which may spring out of
       partisanship, out of passionately taking sides. The United States must be neutral in fact as well
       as in name during these days that are to try men’s souls. We must be impartial in thought as well
       as in action, must put a curb upon our sentiments as well as upon every transaction that might
       be construed as a preference of one party to the struggle before another.…
                          Source: President Woodrow Wilson, Message to the United States Senate, August 19, 1914
1a According to President Woodrow Wilson, what policy should the United States follow in response to war
   breaking out in Europe in 1914? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
Document 1b
                       United States Exports to Warring Nations, 1914–1916
                       Nation              1914                1915                1916
                  Great Britain        $594,271,863        $911,794,954 $1,526,685,102
                  France               $159,818,924        $369,397,170        $628,851,988
                  Italy*                $74,235,012        $184,819,688        $269,246,105
                  Germany              $344,794,276         $28,863,354             $288,899
                  *Italy joined the Allies in 1915.
                                           Source: Thomas A. Bailey et al., The American Pageant,
                                                                Houghton Mifflin, 1998 (adapted)
1b Based on this chart, what conclusion can be drawn by comparing the value of United States exports to
   Germany to the value of exports to Great Britain between 1914 and 1916? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 2
    This passage discusses the sinking of passenger ships by German submarines in 1915. Germany’s resumption
of unrestricted submarine warfare in January 1917 led President Woodrow Wilson to seek a declaration of war.
       … The United States was horrified [over the sinking of the Lusitania]. Yet few Americans
       wanted war, and, with the country divided, [President Woodrow] Wilson resolved to avoid a
       rupture with Germany. “There is such a thing as a man being too proud to fight,” the President
       said, to the disgust of Theodore Roosevelt and the bellicose [pro-war] nationalists. “There is such
       a thing as a nation being so right that it does not need to convince others by force that it is right.”
       Nonetheless, Wilson sent three vigorous notes. In June, Germany, fearing war with the United
       States, ordered submarine commanders to spare all large passenger liners, including those of the
       enemy, but in August a U-boat commander violated orders and sank a British White Star Liner,
       the Arabic, with the loss of two American lives. When Wilson sent an even stronger protest,
       Germany gave assurances that the Arabic incident would not be repeated, that no unresisting
       passenger ship would be sunk without warning or without care for the safety of passengers and
       crew.…
                Source: William E. Leuchtenburg, The Perils of Prosperity, 1914–1932, University of Chicago Press, 1993
2a Based on this document, what was one response of President Woodrow Wilson to German submarine
   activities? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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56.
b According to William E. Leuchtenburg, what was one assurance Germany gave to President Woodrow
  Wilson? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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57.
Document 3
      … Congress passed, and Wilson signed, in June of 1917, the Espionage Act. From its title one
      would suppose it was an act against spying. However, it had a clause that provided penalties up
      to twenty years in prison for “Whoever, when the United States is at war, shall wilfully cause or
      attempt to cause insubordination, disloyalty, mutiny, or refusal of duty in the military or naval
      forces of the United States, or shall wilfully obstruct the recruiting or enlistment service of the
      U.S.…” Unless one had a theory about the nature of governments, it was not clear how the
      Espionage Act would be used. It even had a clause that said “nothing in this section shall be
      construed to limit or restrict…any discussion, comment, or criticism of the acts or policies of the
      Government.…” But its double-talk concealed a singleness of purpose. The Espionage Act was
      used to imprison Americans who spoke or wrote against the war.…
                     Source: Howard Zinn, A People’s History of the United States: 1492–Present, HarperCollins, 2003
3 According to Howard Zinn, how did the Espionage Act affect civil liberty in the United States? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


58.
Document 4
             Going to Talk to the Boss
4 According to the cartoonist, what issue is President Woodrow Wilson taking to the American people? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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59.
Document 5
      … [President Franklin D.] Roosevelt dwelt at length upon the threats to peace in various
      tinderboxes [hot spots] around the globe in his State of the Union speech in January 1936.
      “A point has been reached,” he said, “where the people of the Americas must take cognizance
      [recognition] of growing ill-will, of marked trends toward aggression, of increasing armaments,
      of shortening tempers—a situation which has in it many of the elements that lead to the tragedy
      of a general war.” He urged the continuation of “two-fold neutrality”: an embargo on the
      shipment of arms, munitions, and implements of war, combined with efforts to discourage
      belligerents from purchasing huge quantities of other American products such as oil and scrap
      iron that were of assistance to their war efforts. And he reiterated [repeated] his belief that the
      United States should serve as a beacon of liberty to mankind “and through example and all
      legitimate encouragement and assistance to persuade other Nations to return to the ways of
      peace and good will.” Speaking in Dallas at midyear, Roosevelt offered sympathy to the
      Europeans facing the threat of war but repeated his pledge of neutrality. “We want to help them
      all that we can,” he declared, “but they have understood very well…that help is going to be
      confined to moral help, and that we are not going to get tangled up with their troubles in days
      to come.”…
                                      Source: Nathan Miller, FDR, An Intimate History, Doubleday & Company, 1983
5 According to Nathan Miller, what were two ways President Franklin D. Roosevelt said the United States
  should respond to various threats to peace around the world in 1936? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 6
     … If Great Britain goes down, the Axis powers will control the continents of Europe, Asia,
     Africa, Australia, and the high seas—and they will be in a position to bring enormous military
     and naval resources against this hemisphere. It is no exaggeration to say that all of us, in all the
     Americas, would be living at the point of a gun—a gun loaded with explosive bullets, economic
     as well as military.…
     The people of Europe who are defending themselves do not ask us to do their fighting. They ask
     us for the implements of war, the planes, the tanks, the guns, the freighters which will enable
     them to fight for their liberty and for our security. Emphatically we must get these weapons to
     them, get them to them in sufficient volume and quickly enough, so that we and our children
     will be saved the agony and suffering of war which others have had to endure.…
     We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious as war itself.
     We must apply ourselves to our task with the same resolution, the same sense of urgency, the
     same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we would show were we at war.…
                  Source: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Radio Address “On National Security,” December 29, 1940
6 According to President Franklin D. Roosevelt, what should be one United States policy toward
  Great Britain? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 7
      … In July, 1939, Secretary [of State Cordell] Hull sent notice that the United States would
      terminate its trade treaty with Japan on January 26, 1940. Ending that treaty did not stop trade
      with Japan, but it left Japan uncertain about America’s future course. Conceivably, if Japan’s
      actions displeased or harmed Americans enough the United States might, after ending the treaty,
      invoke drastic trade restrictions or bans. Beginning in July, 1940, the government made all
      exports of aviation fuel and high-grade scrap iron and steel subject to federal license and control.
      In September, 1940, after Japanese troops moved into northern Indochina, President [Franklin D.]
      Roosevelt announced an embargo on the export of scrap iron and steel to Japan. Officially the
      Administration acted to safeguard needed supplies of those vital materials for American defense
      needs, but it tightened the economic screws on Japan. At the same time, the United States
      loaned China $25 million and added another $100 million in November. In 1940–1941 the
      United States based its Navy fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, to serve as a deterrent to aggressive
      Japanese actions in the western Pacific.…
                Source: Wayne S. Cole, An Interpretive History of American Foreign Relations, The Dorsey Press, 1968
7 According Wayne S. Cole, what were two United States government actions directed toward Japan between
  1939 and 1941? [2]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 8
8 Based on information from this map, what was one action taken by the federal government toward Japanese
  Americans during World War II? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
Document 9
   President Franklin D. Roosevelt planned to attend the conference in San Francisco where a charter for the
United Nations would be written. He died in April 1945, shortly before the conference began.
       … Roosevelt at San Francisco was faced with a simpler task than Wilson at Paris. The conclave
       [meeting] in California was not to concern itself with the terms of peace but to mold the draft
       prepared at Dumbarton Oaks into a new charter for world organization. Unlike the League
       [of Nations] Covenant, the Dumbarton Oaks plan had been published well in advance, and
       critics had ample time for microscopic examination. In contrast with the secrecy at Paris,
       forty-two national organizations, including the National League of Women Voters, were invited
       to send consultants to San Francisco.
       Most important of all, the new United Nations Charter was to stand on its own feet. Unlike the
       League Covenant, it was not to be shackled [tied] to the ball and chain of a punitive [punishing]
       peace treaty.…
                Source: Thomas A. Bailey, A Diplomatic History of the American People, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964
 9 According to this passage, what was one way President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s efforts to create
   the United Nations avoided problems that President Woodrow Wilson faced when attempting to establish
   the League of Nations? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least five documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                Presidents Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt both faced the
                challenge of leading the United States during world wars. These challenges
                included establishing foreign policies prior to United States entry into the war,
                preserving civil liberties while protecting national security during the war, and
                planning a role for the United States in world affairs after the war.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  • Discuss the similarities and/or differences between the presidencies of
                    Woodrow Wilson and Franklin D. Roosevelt in terms of their
                    — policies prior to entering the war
                    — actions affecting civil liberties during the war, and
                    — plans for the role of the United States in world affairs after the war
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least five documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion that
                  are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents January 2014 Exam


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