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US History and Government - New York Regents January 2016 Exam

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1.
                                                  Part I
                                    Answer all questions in this part.
   Directions (1–50): For each statement or question, record on your separate answer sheet the number of the
word or expression that, of those given, best completes the statement or answers the question.
1 Which geographic feature did the British
  government use in 1763 as a boundary to restrict
  the westward settlement of American colonists?
  (1) St. Lawrence River
  (2) Rocky Mountains
  (3) Appalachian Mountains
  (4) Mississippi River
Answer: 3

2.
2 Which heading best completes the partial outline
  below?
(1) British System of National Government in
    North America
(2) Colonial Responses to the Practice of Salutary
    Neglect
(3) British Attempts to Control Colonial Govern-
    ments
(4) Colonial Efforts at Self-Government
Answer: 4

3.
3 During the colonial era, the British promoted the
  policy of mercantilism to
  (1) control the commerce of their American
      colonies
  (2) promote colonial trade with France and Spain
  (3) ban all trade between the British colonies in
      North America
  (4) restrict the importation of enslaved Africans
Answer: 1


4.
    Base your answers to questions 4 and 5 on the
passage below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
   men are created equal, that they are endowed by
   their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that
   among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of
   happiness. That to secure these rights, governments
   are instituted among men, deriving their just
   powers from the consent of the governed,…
 4 Which document includes this passage?
   (1) Mayflower Compact
   (2) Declaration of Independence
   (3) Northwest Ordinance
   (4) Monroe Doctrine
Answer: 2

5.
5 This passage suggests that the authority of
  government
  (1) originates from the divine right of kings
  (2) is based on a social contract meant to
      guarantee individual rights
  (3) includes the power to seize private property
      for national defense
  (4) is the source of all the natural rights of citizens
Answer: 2

6.
6 Which issue did the Virginia Plan, the New Jersey
  Plan, and the Great Compromise address at
  the Constitutional Convention (1787)?
  (1) the power to regulate interstate commerce
  (2) the number of justices on the Supreme Court
  (3) a system for electing the president
  (4) a method of determining state representation
      in Congress
Answer: 4

7.
7 Which headline is reporting the clearest example
  of the United States Constitution’s system of checks
  and balances?
  (1) “Environmental Protection Agency Proposes
       Stricter Air Pollution Controls”
  (2) “Supreme Court Rules on Arizona Immigration
       Law”
  (3) “President Vetoes Defense Spending Bill”
  (4) “California Passes Strict Gun Control Law”
Answer: 3

8.
8 The Three-fifths Compromise adopted in the
  Constitution in 1787 had the effect of
  (1) increasing the representation of southern states
      in Congress
  (2) providing a method for ratifying amendments
  (3) making possible the impeachment of the
      president
  (4) allowing the use of the elastic clause in the
      legislative process
Answer: 1

9.
9 What was the major argument of those who
  opposed ratification of the United States
  Constitution?
  (1) The states should not be forced to pay taxes to
      the federal government.
  (2) The new constitution did not adequately
      protect individual liberties against abuse by
      the federal government.
  (3) The judicial branch was granted more power
      than the legislative and executive branches.
  (4) The federal government did not have enough
      power to defend the nation against foreign
      enemies.
Answer: 2

10.
10 Which foreign policy toward Europe did
   President George Washington recommend in his
   Farewell Address?
   (1) military alliances  (3) imperialism
   (2) internationalism    (4) neutrality
Answer: 4

11.
11 What was a primary goal of President Thomas
   Jefferson’s 1803 decision to purchase the Louisiana
   Territory?
   (1) studying Native American Indian societies
   (2) mining gold and silver in California
   (3) gaining control of the port of New Orleans
   (4) securing access to the iron ore deposits near
       the Great Lakes
Answer: 3

12.
12 The case of Marbury v. Madison (1803)
   established the principle that
   (1) the Supreme Court can declare federal laws
       unconstitutional
   (2) the states have power over the federal
       government
   (3) the president nominates federal judges
   (4) Congress can override presidential vetoes
Answer: 1

13.
13 Which heading best completes the partial outline
   below?
(1)   Reasons for the American System
(2)   Successes of Third Political Parties
(3)   Causes of Sectionalism
(4)   Justifications for Economic Reform
Answer: 3

14.
Base your answer to question 14 on the poster below and on your knowledge of social studies.
14 This 1863 poster is recruiting African Americans to help
   (1) defeat the Confederacy in the Civil War
   (2) assist in the efforts of the Underground Railroad
   (3) settle land in the South and in border states
   (4) enforce the terms of the Fugitive Slave Act
Answer: 1

15.
15 After the Civil War, many owners of large
   plantations in the South responded to the loss of
   enslaved labor by
   (1) hiring Irish immigrants to do the work of
       freedmen
   (2) selling their plantations to formerly enslaved
       persons
   (3) creating tenant farms and sharecropping
   (4) paying wages to farmworkers who had
       migrated from the North
Answer: 3

16.
16 The federal government responded to the
   railroad strikes of 1877 and the Pullman strike of
   1894 by
   (1) using military force against the workers
   (2) requiring negotiation to resolve the disputes
   (3) maintaining a neutral position between labor
        and management
   (4) providing economic aid to striking workers
Answer: 1

17.
Base your answer to question 17 on the graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
17 What was the primary cause of the trends shown on the graph?
   (1) closing of the western frontier
   (2) industrialization in the North and the Midwest
   (3) passage of the Homestead Act
   (4) completion of the transcontinental railroad
Answer: 2

18.
18 Few restrictions were placed on immigration to
   the United States in the late 19th century primarily
   because immigrants
   (1) would work for low wages
   (2) provided a rich source of investment capital
   (3) would add to the diversity of the population
   (4) faced little opposition from citizens
Answer: 1

19.
19 The “separate but equal” doctrine established by
   the Supreme Court in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
   upheld the legality of
   (1) woman’s suffrage in state elections
   (2) the activities of the Ku Klux Klan
   (3) racial segregation in public facilities
   (4) restrictions on voting rights of African
       Americans
Answer: 3

20.
Base your answer to question 20 on the photographs below and on your knowledge of social studies.
20 These photographs of 19th-century life on the Great Plains indicate that
   (1) Native American Indians and white settlers used the same building materials for
       protection
   (2) Native American Indians and white settlers adapted differently to the same
       environment
   (3) white settlers learned farming practices from Native American Indians
   (4) both Native American Indians and white settlers depended on the buffalo for survival
Answer: 2


21.
21 From 1870 to 1900, business leaders in the United
   States often attempted to increase productivity,
   maximize profits, and decrease costs by
   (1) reducing competition through the formation
       of trusts
   (2) increasing benefits for industrial workers
   (3) supporting the passage of strict antitrust laws
   (4) preventing foreign investment in the United
       States
Answer: 1

22.
22 Which proposal was most consistent with the
   goals of the American Federation of Labor under
   the leadership of Samuel Gompers?
   (1) government ownership of the transportation
       and communication industries
   (2) collective bargaining to reach agreements on
       wages and hours
   (3) formation of a third political party to promote
       union policies
   (4) organization of unskilled workers into one
       national union
Answer: 2

23.
Base your answers to questions 23 and 24 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                                 NO LACK OF BIG GAME
              The President Seems to Have Scared Up Quite a Bunch of Octopi.
23 Based on the information provided by the cartoon, President Theodore Roosevelt’s goal
   was to
   (1) persuade businesses to accept nationalization
   (2) assist businesses in resisting interference by investors
   (3) establish worker safety regulations in factories
   (4) use federal power to control monopolies
Answer: 4

24.
24 Which act of Congress gave President Roosevelt the authority that he demonstrates in
   this cartoon?
   (1) Meat Inspection Act                (3) Underwood Tariff Act
   (2) Sherman Antitrust Act              (4) Pure Food and Drug Act
Answer: 2

25.
Base your answer to question 25 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
25 Which activity is illustrated in this photograph?
   (1) picketing against United States involvement in World War I
   (2) making a statement of support for the League of Nations
   (3) protesting the nation’s denial of woman’s suffrage
   (4) supporting punishment of Germany for causing World War I
Answer: 3

26.
26 The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 was passed in
   an attempt to
   (1) increase United States exports
   (2) safeguard the health of workers
   (3) regulate the amount of money in circulation
   (4) protect national forests from destruction
Answer: 3

27.
27 The Great Migration of African Americans
   between 1915 and 1930 was mainly a movement
   from
   (1) cities to suburban developments
   (2) northern farms to northern cities
   (3) southern cities to free land in the West
   (4) the rural South to northern cities
Answer: 4

28.
Base your answer to question 28 on the graph below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                            Income Distribution Before the Great Depression
28 Which statement about the period from 1918 through 1929 is most clearly supported
   by information in the graph?
   (1) The percentage of income controlled by the wealthiest Americans declined.
   (2) The income gap between the wealthiest fifth and the rest of the population increased.
   (3) The overall per capita income in the United States declined.
   (4) The percentage of income controlled by the poor steadily increased.
Answer: 2

29.
29 Which New Deal agency had the creation of new
   jobs as its primary goal?
   (1) Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA)
   (2) Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
       (FDIC)
   (3) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
   (4) Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Answer: 4

30.
30 The Wagner Act (National Labor Relations Act)
   of 1935 helped organized labor by
   (1) mandating government control over industry
   (2) guaranteeing workers the right to collective
       bargaining
   (3) banning the closed shop in the workplace
   (4) requiring all workers to join unions
Answer: 2

31.
Base your answer to question 31 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                       QUALIFYING TEST FOR SUPREME COURT JOBS
31 The main idea of the cartoon is that President Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted to
   (1) impeach justices who did not support him
   (2) control the decisions of the Supreme Court
   (3) create higher qualifications for justices
   (4) encourage the Supreme Court to act more efficiently
Answer: 2

32.
32 In the mid–1930s, which action did the federal
   government take in an attempt to avoid the
   situations that drew the United States into World
   War I?
   (1) passing the Neutrality Acts
   (2) allowing only the United States Navy to deliver
       military goods overseas
   (3) investing money in nations threatened by
       Germany
   (4) forming a military alliance with the Soviet
       Union
Answer: 1

33.
33 The Lend-Lease Act of 1941 significantly changed
   United States policy toward nations involved in
   World War II because it
   (1) supplied war materials to Allied nations
       without a declaration of war
   (2) imposed a trade boycott on Germany and
       Japan
   (3) authorized the seizure of British assets in the
       United States
   (4) approved the appeasement policies of the
       French and British governments
Answer: 1

34.
Base your answer to question 34 on the public notice below and on your knowledge of social studies.
34 The instructions referred to in this public notice resulted in the
   (1) deportation of most Japanese aliens to Japan
   (2) protection of the homes and property of Japanese Americans
   (3) removal of Japanese Americans to internment camps
   (4) drafting of all young Japanese American men into the United States military
Answer: 3

35.
35 The scientists working on the Manhattan Project
   during World War II were responsible for
   (1) designing weapons for the D-Day invasion
   (2) building satellites to spy on the Axis nations
   (3) creating materials for biological and chemical
       warfare
   (4) developing the atomic bomb
Answer: 4


36.
    Base your answer to question 36 on the passage
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
   …It is hereby declared to be the policy of the
   President that there shall be equality of treatment
   and opportunity for all persons in the armed
   services without regard to race, color, religion or
   national origin. This policy shall be put into effect
   as rapidly as possible, having due regard to the time
   required to effectuate [implement] any necessary
   changes without impairing efficiency or morale.…
                       — Section 1, Executive Order 9981
36 The purpose of Executive Order 9981, issued by
   President Harry Truman, was to
   (1) encourage women to join the armed services
   (2) end racial segregation in the military
   (3) ensure adequate manpower to fight the
       Korean War
   (4) establish war crimes tribunals in Western
       Europe
Answer: 2

37.
    Base your answers to questions 37 and 38 on the
excerpt below and on your knowledge of social
studies.
   …The truth of the matter is that Europe’s
   requirements for the next three or four years of
   foreign food and other essential products—
   principally from America—are so much greater
   than her present ability to pay that she must have
   substantial additional help, or face economic,
   social, and political deterioration of a very grave
   character.…
         — Secretary of State George Marshall, Remarks at
         Harvard University Commencement, June 5, 1947
37 In this excerpt, Secretary of State George Marshall
   is identifying the need to
   (1) provide economic assistance to struggling
        European nations
   (2) allow European workers to settle in the United
        States
   (3) install democratic governments in the nations
        of Western Europe
   (4) strengthen European military defenses
Answer: 1

38.
38 The situation in Europe described by Secretary
   of State George Marshall was the result of the
   (1) failure of the United Nations to help people
       in need
   (2) devastation caused by fighting in World War II
   (3) construction of the Berlin Wall by the Soviet
       Union
   (4) takeover of Greece and Turkey by communists
Answer: 2

39.
    Base your answer to question 39 on the picture
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
39 The shelter pictured in this handbook was
   designed to help Americans survive
   (1) global climate changes
   (2) pandemic diseases
   (3) natural disasters
   (4) nuclear war
Answer: 4

40.
    Base your answer to question 40 on the poem
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
                    HARLEM
       What happens to a dream deferred?
                  Does it dry up
            like a raisin in the sun?
             Or fester like a sore—
                  And then run?
          Does it stink like rotten meat?
           Or crust and sugar over—
              like a syrupy sweet?
                Maybe it just sags
                like a heavy load.
               Or does it explode?
                    — Langston Hughes, 1951 (adapted)
40 The “dream deferred” in this poem refers to the
   hopes African Americans had for
   (1) social and political equality
   (2) an independent African American nation
   (3) access to affordable medical treatment
   (4) separate public accommodations
Answer: 1

41.
41 One of the main effects of the passage of
   the Interstate Highway Act of 1956 was the
   expansion of
   (1) ridership on long-distance passenger trains
   (2) immigrant populations
   (3) communities in the suburbs
   (4) the airline industry
Answer: 3

42.
42 One way in which the Supreme Court decisions
   in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), Gideon v. Wainwright
   (1963), and Miranda v. Arizona (1966) are similar
   is that each resulted in
   (1) more legal searches without warrants
   (2) fewer gun control regulations
   (3) additional limitations on religious freedom
   (4) expanded rights for people accused of crimes
Answer: 4

43.
43 A major impact of the 24th amendment banning
   poll taxes and of the 1965 Voting Rights Act
   was the
   (1) increase in the number of Jim Crow laws
   (2) movement to create a new political party for
       Hispanics
   (3) decrease in voting among African American
       women
   (4) elimination of discriminatory voting practices
       against African Americans
Answer: 4

44.
Base your answer to question 44 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
44 Which statement best expresses the cartoonist’s point of view?
   (1) Citizens sometimes fail to appreciate the tax-funded benefits provided by government.
   (2) More social benefits programs are needed for older Americans.
   (3) Older Americans reject tax-supported government assistance.
   (4) The Tea Party movement lacks public support.
Answer: 1

45.
45 President George Washington’s response to the
   Whiskey Rebellion (1794) and President Dwight
   Eisenhower’s response to events at Little Rock
   High School (1957) show that the
   (1) Supreme Court has often declared presidential
       actions unconstitutional
   (2) federal supremacy clause of the Constitution
       is rarely enforced
   (3) states have been successful in defying federal
       law
   (4) president may use troops to enforce federal
       decisions
Answer: 4

46.
46 Which book title is accurately matched with the
   book’s theme?
   (1) Uncle Tom’s Cabin—political machine
       corruption
   (2) The Jungle—environmental conservation
   (3) How the Other Half Lives—urban poverty
   (4) The Grapes of Wrath—racial discrimination
Answer: 3

47.
47 “Attorney General Palmer Orders Raids on Reported
    Communists”
   “Senator McCarthy Launches Investigation of
    Accused Traitors in State Department”
   “Attorney General Ashcroft Authorizes Use of
    Wiretaps on Suspected Terrorists”
   These headlines demonstrate the tension between
   (1) States rights and federal control
   (2) Democratic and Republican party platforms
   (3) national security and individual liberties
   (4) legislative authority and executive power
Answer: 3

48.
Base your answer to question 48 on the cartoon below and on your knowledge of social studies.
48 This cartoon was published in response to the
   (1) ratification of the 22nd amendment limiting presidential terms
   (2) influence of third-party candidates in presidential elections
   (3) decision of the Supreme Court establishing the “one man-one vote” principle
   (4) dispute over the presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore
Answer: 4

49.
    Base your answer to question 49 on the cartoon
below and on your knowledge of social studies.
49 The main idea of the cartoon is that President
   Barack Obama
   (1) is determined to end President Lyndon B.
       Johnson’s foreign policy commitments
   (2) is better prepared than President Lyndon B.
       Johnson to lead the nation in war
   (3) should learn from President Lyndon B.
       Johnson’s failure in Vietnam
   (4) should follow the advice of President Lyndon
       B. Johnson
Answer: 3

50.
50 “Hoover and Smith Campaign on Radio”
   “Kennedy Passes Nixon in Polls After Televised
    Debate”
   “Obama Raises Record Donations Using the
    Internet”
   Which statement about the use of media in
   political campaigns is illustrated by these
   headlines?
   (1) Media bias does not affect the ability of
       political leaders to communicate with voters.
   (2) Political leaders adapt to new forms of media
       to communicate with voters.
   (3) Electronic media are an ineffective way for
       political leaders to communicate with voters.
   (4) Endorsements by the media have the greatest
       influence on voters.
Answer: 2


51.
           Answers to the essay questions are to be written in the separate essay booklet.
        In developing your answer to Part II, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
              (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
              (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
                  and argument; to present in some detail”
                                                   Part II
                                     THEMATIC ESSAY QUESTION
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs addressing the task
            below, and a conclusion.
        Theme: Foreign Policy—Latin America and the Caribbean
                 During the 19th and 20th centuries, the foreign policy goals of the United States
                 led to many diplomatic and/or military actions involving nations in Latin America
                 and the Caribbean.
        Task:
                 Select two United States diplomatic and/or military actions involving nations in
                 Latin America and the Caribbean and for each
                 • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the United States action
                 • Describe a goal the United States had in pursuing this action
                 • Discuss the success and/or failure of the United States in achieving this goal
            You may use any United States diplomatic and/or military action involving nations in Latin
        America and the Caribbean. Some suggestions you might wish to consider include issuance of
        the Monroe Doctrine in 1823, declaration of war against Mexico in 1846, declaration of war
        against Spain in 1898, acquisition of the Panama Canal Zone in 1903, Roosevelt Corollary to
        the Monroe Doctrine in 1904, announcement of the Good Neighbor Policy in 1933, naval
        blockade of Cuba in 1962, and adoption of the North American Free Trade Agreement
        (NAFTA) in 1994.
                                You are not limited to these suggestions.
        Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to:
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and
                  a conclusion that are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


52.
                                                Part III
                                 DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION
    This question is based on the accompanying documents. The question is designed to test your
ability to work with historical documents. Some of these documents have been edited for the
purposes of this question. As you analyze the documents, take into account the source of each
document and any point of view that may be presented in the document. Keep in mind that the
language used in a document may reflect the historical context of the time in which it was written.
       Historical Context:
              In United States history, there have been conflicts between the three branches of
              government. Three issues that have led to conflict include President Andrew
              Jackson’s refusal to enforce a Supreme Court decision, the Senate’s debate
              over the Treaty of Versailles negotiated by President Woodrow Wilson, and
              the investigation by Congress of President Richard Nixon’s role in the
              Watergate affair.
       Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
             history, answer the questions that follow each document in Part A. Your answers to
             the questions will help you write the Part B essay in which you will be asked to
                Choose two of the issues mentioned in the historical context and for each
                • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the conflict between two
                  branches of government
                • Discuss how the outcome of the conflict affected the United States and/or
                  American society
       In developing your answers to Part III, be sure to keep these general definitions in mind:
             (a) describe means “to illustrate something in words or tell about it”
             (b) discuss means “to make observations about something using facts, reasoning,
                 and argument; to present in some detail”
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


53.
Part A
Short-Answer Questions
Directions: Analyze the documents and answer the short-answer questions that follow each document in the
            space provided.
Document 1
       …The Cherokees of Georgia, one of the most progressive tribes, attempted to consolidate their
       position there by setting up a state within a state. They were encouraged to do this by
       a series of treaties with the United States that recognized them as a nation capable of making
       peace and war, owning the land within its boundaries and “punishing its own citizens by its own
       laws.” Georgia was bound, like any other state, to observe the treaties concluded by the federal
       government, but was obdurate [uncompromising] where the Cherokee treaties were concerned.
       It [Georgia] refused to recognize the Cherokees as an independent nation, and pressed them to
       sell their lands. They [the Cherokees] turned a deaf ear to this demand and asked for federal
       protection. In two major cases [Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia (1831) and Worcester v.
       Georgia (1832)], the United States Supreme Court upheld the “rights” of the Cherokees against
       Georgia, only to have the state flout [ignore] each decision.
          [President Andrew] Jackson supported Georgia. Whether or not he made the famous comment,
       “John Marshall has made his opinion, now let him enforce it,” the Jacksonian policy was in full
       accord with the spirit of the remark. His first annual message [December 1829] asked Congress
       to set aside a region in the Far West to which the Indians might remove. Congress did so by
       a strict party vote, and the forced migration began, to continue through the decade of
       the eighteen-thirties.…
                              Source: Glyndon G. Van Deusen, The Jacksonian Era: 1828–1848, Harper & Row, 1959
1a According to Glyndon G. Van Deusen, what was one reason the Cherokees asked for federal protection
   from the state of Georgia? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


54.
b According to Glyndon G. Van Deusen, what was one action taken by President Andrew Jackson that
  supported Georgia? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


55.
Document 2a
              Effect of Policies Toward Native American Indians, 1830–1850
Document 2b
2 Based on these documents, what was one effect of President Andrew Jackson’s policies toward Native
  American Indians? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


56.
Document 3
      …In the Indian Territory problems quickly developed among the new arrivals and Cherokees
      who had already settled, especially as reprisals were taken against the contingent [group] who
      had signed the Treaty of New Echota [1835 treaty with the Cherokees]. As these problems were
      resolved, the Cherokees proceeded to adapt to their new homeland, and they reestablished their
      own system of government, which was modeled on that of the United States.…
         This autonomy remained reasonably strong until the Civil War, when a faction of the
      Cherokees sided with the Confederacy. During Reconstruction they suffered a loss of
      self-government and, more importantly, their land base. Government annuities [payments] were
      reduced, and lands were sold to newly arrived tribes. Cessions of land continued during the later
      19th century, and the federal government emerged as the major force for land cession under
      the Dawes Act of 1887, which divided up tribal lands. The establishment of the state of
      Oklahoma in 1907 increased pressure for land cessions. Many people of questionable Cherokee
      ancestry managed to get on the tribal rolls and participate in the allotment of these lands
      to individuals. By the early 1970s the western Cherokees had lost title to over 19 million acres
      of land.…
                                                                           Source: Trail of Tears Association
3 Based on this document, what is one impact of the federal government’s policies toward the Cherokees? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
View MODEL Answer in the Rating Guide from Regents Web Site


57.
Document 4
      …When, in 1919, President [Woodrow] Wilson sailed back home after his triumphant progress
      throughout Europe, he was the virtual author of the peace treaty. When the three government
      leaders — Lloyd George, Signor Orlando, Georges Clemenceau — saw him off they mimicked
      the joy and grief of disciples parting from an holy man.
         By the way — and it’s important to the developing plot — none of them liked him. But they
      all knew that the success of the infant League of Nations would depend a great deal on its care
      and feeding by the United States. They were confident, as Wilson was, that the Treaty would
      pass the United States Senate.
         A little detail to which Europeans didn’t pay much attention at the time, namely a firm clause
      in the constitution of the United States, ratified in 1787.∗ It laid down in article two, which is
      about the powers of the president — “He shall have power by and with the advice and consent
      of the Senate to make treaties, provided two thirds of the Senate present concur.”…
         Much worse for him and for the fate of the League of Nations, President Wilson was openly
      detested by the man who, in this cause, carried most weight in the Congress — the chairman of
      the Senate foreign relations committee — who would have and has today really the last word
      about whether to provide the necessary Senate consent to any foreign treaty.…
                                                    Source: “A Plea to the Senate,” BBC News, October 15, 1999 (adapted)
  ∗ The United States Constitution was actually ratified in 1788.
4 According to this BBC News article, what was one problem faced by President Woodrow Wilson in his
  efforts to gain Senate approval of the Treaty of Versailles? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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58.
Document 5b
 By United Press
    WASHINGTON, March 20. — The
 Peace Treaty is now up to President
 Wilson.
    The Senate washed its hands of the
 pact last night when by a vote of 49
 to 35 it refused to ratify it, and by a
 vote of 47 to 37 voted to send it back
 to President Wilson with word that
 it could not be ratified. The question
 today was: “What will President Wilson
 do about it.”
    He can send it back to the Senate. In
 that case Senator Lodge and other
 Republicans, as well as some Democrats,
 declared that no action would be
 taken on it until after the issue
 of the treaty or no treaty is fought
 out in the coming campaign.
    He can go to the American people in
 a “solemn referendum,” as he said he
 would do in a letter to the Jackson Day
 dinner on the question of ratification of
 the pact as it is as nn [an] issue in the
 national campaign of 1920.
    He can drop the treaty and begin
 negotiations with Germany for
 resuming the state of peace.
    The general expectation among
 senators is that he will take the second
 course and ask the Democratic party
 to make the treaty the paramount
 issue in the campaign.…
        Source: Columbia Evening Missourian,
                    March 20, 1920 (adapted)
5 Based on these documents, what was one outcome of the Senate debate over the Treaty of Versailles? [1]
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59.
Document 6
      …The last chance of reversing that decision [the Senate’s final vote on the Treaty of Versailles] lay
      in the election of the Democratic candidate, James Cox, to succeed [President Woodrow] Wilson
      in the White House. But in the November election, Cox was defeated, and Warren Harding, the
      Republican, became President. Before he was elected, some believed that Harding, too, wanted
      to see America in the League of Nations, but as soon as he took office he made clear he intended
      to keep the United States free of any such involvement with the rest of the world’s troubles. Thus
      started the twenty years during which America isolated itself, twenty years for which the whole
      world, including, eventually, the Americans themselves, were to pay such a terrible price.…
                    Source: George Scott, The Rise and Fall of the League of Nations, Macmillan Publishing Co., 1973
6 According to George Scott, what was one impact of the Senate’s final vote on the Treaty of Versailles on
  United States foreign policy? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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60.
Document 7a
       …By now, of course, Watergate has become part of our folklore: Five men wearing business suits
       and surgical gloves arrested in the middle of the night with illegal bugging devices at the
       Democratic Party headquarters in the Watergate building in Washington, D.C. The burglars
       turned out to be part of a wide-ranging political espionage and sabotage operation run by
       President [Richard] Nixon’s top aides, one that triggered a massive White House cover-up
       directed by the president himself. After that cover-up unraveled, more than 70 people, including
       cabinet members and White House assistants, were convicted of criminal abuses of power; only
       a pardon by his presidential successor spared Nixon himself from becoming the first chief
       executive in history to be indicted for felonies committed in the Oval Office. In the words of
       Stanley Kutler, the scandal’s leading historian, Watergate “consumed and convulsed the nation
       and tested the constitutional and political system as it had not been tested since the Civil War.”…
                  Source: Mark Feldstein, “Watergate Revisited,” American Journalism Review, August/September 2004
7a Based on this document, identify one event that led to the Watergate investigation. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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61.
Document 7b
       Trials and Tribulations > Overview
           When Congress reconvened in January 1974, following its Christmas break, the House of
       Representatives compounded Nixon’s legal troubles. On February 6, it authorized the Judiciary
       Committee to investigate grounds for the impeachment of President Nixon. This added to
       investigations already underway by Judge [John] Sirica and the grand jury, Special Prosecutor
       [Leon] Jaworski and the Justice Department, and the work done by the Senate select committee
       on Watergate.…
       The Aftermath > Overview
          By May 9, 1974, the House Judiciary Committee began hearings on articles of impeachment.
       Judge Sirica turned over to the committee evidence gleaned against Nixon by the grand jury.
       Meanwhile, Jaworski appealed to the Supreme Court to force Nixon to surrender more tapes.
       On July 24, the Court handed down an 8-0 decision, laying bare the president’s last line of defense.
           In late July, the House committee drafted three articles of impeachment against Nixon:
              • Obstructing the Watergate investigation
              • Misuse of power and violating his oath of office
              • Failure to comply with House subpoenas…
                                        Source: “The Watergate Files,” Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library & Museum
7b Based on this document, identify one action the legislative branch took during the Watergate investigation. [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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62.
Document 8
      …The central issue raised by Watergate, finally, was not resolved. This was how to make American
      government, especially the President, more accountable to the people. A raft of legislation in
      1973–74, including the War Powers Act of 1973, a law to regulate campaign financing and
      spending (1974), a Freedom of Information Act (1974), and a Congressional Budget and
      Impoundment Act (1974), tried to promote such accountability, but these laws for the most part
      failed to accomplish what they set out to do, largely because Presidents and other politicians
      figured out ways of evading them. As acts by subsequent Presidents made clear, White House
      high-handedness could and did happen again in the future.…
                                  Source: James T. Patterson, Grand Expectations: The United States, 1945–1974,
                                                                        Oxford University Press, 1996 (adapted)
8 According to James T. Patterson, what is one impact of the Watergate investigation? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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63.
Document 9
      …The founders of this nation would have been stunned by the revelations of Watergate. But
      they would have been especially proud of the judiciary they had created. There was a trial judge
      who did not accept distortions of the truth. There was an appellate court that acted with
      decisiveness and dispatch to meet the first challenge by President Nixon opposing the release of
      the tapes. The same trial court and the same appellate court, without delay, decided that a crucial
      grand jury report should be transmitted to the House Judiciary Committee. And that trial court
      overruled the President’s claim of executive privilege in response to a subpoena duces tecum
      [to produce evidence] in a situation involving criminal wrongdoing. The Supreme Court, in
      the interest of expediting [hastening] justice, bypassed the Court of Appeals and then boldly and
      with a minimum of delay laid to rest the troublesome problems that beset the nation.…
         From Watergate we learned what generations before us have known: our Constitution works.
      And during the Watergate years it was interpreted again so as to reaffirm that no one—absolutely
      no one—is above the law.…
                   Source: Leon Jaworski, The Right and the Power: The Prosecution of Watergate, Pocket Books, 1977
9 According to Leon Jaworski, what is one impact of the Watergate investigation on the United States? [1]
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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64.
Part B
Essay
Directions: Write a well-organized essay that includes an introduction, several paragraphs, and a conclusion.
            Use evidence from at least four documents in your essay. Support your response with relevant facts,
            examples, and details. Include additional outside information.
         Historical Context:
                In United States history, there have been conflicts between the three branches of
                government. Three issues that have led to conflict include President Andrew
                Jackson’s refusal to enforce a Supreme Court decision, the Senate’s debate
                over the Treaty of Versailles negotiated by President Woodrow Wilson, and
                the investigation by Congress of President Richard Nixon’s role in the
                Watergate affair.
         Task: Using the information from the documents and your knowledge of United States
               history, write an essay in which you
                  Choose two of the issues mentioned in the historical context and for each
                  • Describe the historical circumstances that led to the conflict between two
                    branches of government
                  • Discuss how the outcome of the conflict affected the United States and/or
                    American society
         Guidelines:
                In your essay, be sure to
                • Develop all aspects of the task
                • Incorporate information from at least four documents
                • Incorporate relevant outside information
                • Support the theme with relevant facts, examples, and details
                • Use a logical and clear plan of organization, including an introduction and a conclusion
                  that are beyond a restatement of the theme
Answer: CLICK LINK BELOW
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  Try the Quiz :     US History and Government - New York Regents January 2016 Exam


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